09-Security Configuration Guide

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09-Password control configuration
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Configuring password control

About password control

Password control allows you to implement the following features:

·     Manage login and super password setup, expirations, and updates for local users.

·     Control user login status based on predefined policies.

For more information about local users, see "Configuring AAA." For information about super passwords, see RBAC in Fundamentals Configuration Guide.

Password setting

Minimum password length

You can define the minimum length of user passwords. The system rejects the setting of a password that is shorter than the configured minimum length.

Password composition policy

A password can be a combination of characters from the following types:

·     Uppercase letters A to Z.

·     Lowercase letters a to z.

·     Digits 0 to 9.

·     Special characters in Table 1. For more information about special characters, see CLI in Fundamentals Configuration Guide.

Table 1 Special Characters

Character name

Symbol

Character name

Symbol

Ampersand sign

&

Apostrophe

'

Asterisk

*

At sign

@

Back quote

`

Back slash

\

Blank space

N/A

Caret

^

Colon

:

Comma

,

Dollar sign

$

Dot

.

Equal sign

=

Exclamation point

!

Left angle bracket

Left brace

{

Left bracket

[

Left parenthesis

(

Minus sign

-

Percent sign

%

Plus sign

+

Pound sign

#

Quotation marks

"

Right angle bracket

Right brace

}

Right bracket

]

Right parenthesis

)

Semi-colon

;

Slash

/

Tilde

~

Underscore

_

Vertical bar

|

 

Depending on the system's security requirements, you can set the minimum number of character types a password must contain and the minimum number of characters for each type, as shown in Table 2.

Table 2 Password composition policy

Password combination level

Minimum number of character types

Minimum number of characters for each type

Level 1

One

One

Level 2

Two

One

Level 3

Three

One

Level 4

Four

One

 

When a user sets or changes a password, the system checks if the password meets the combination requirement. If it does not, the operation fails.

Password complexity checking policy

A less complicated password is more likely to be cracked, such as a password containing the username or repeated characters. For higher security, you can configure a password complexity checking policy to ensure that all user passwords are relatively complicated. When a user configures a password, the system checks the complexity of the password. If the password is complexity-incompliant, the configuration will fail.

You can apply the following password complexity requirements:

·     A password cannot contain the username or the reverse of the username. For example, if the username is abc, a password such as abc982 or 2cba is not complex enough.

·     A minimum of three identical consecutive characters is not allowed. For example, password a111 is not complex enough.

Password updating and expiration

Password updating

This feature allows you to set the minimum interval at which users can change their passwords. A user can only change the password once within the specified interval.

The minimum interval does not apply to the following situations:

·     A user is prompted to change the password at first login.

·     The password aging time expires.

Password expiration

Password expiration imposes a lifecycle on a user password. After the password expires, the user needs to change the password.

The system displays an error message for a login attempt with an expired password. The user is asked to provide a new password. The new password must be valid, and the user must enter exactly the same password when confirming it.

Telnet users, SSH users, and console users can change their own passwords. FTP users must have their passwords changed by the administrator.

Early notice on pending password expiration

When a user logs in, the system checks whether the password will expire in a time equal to or less than the specified notification period. If so, the system notifies the user when the password will expire and provides a choice for the user to change the password.

·     If the user sets a new valid password, the system records the new password and the setup time.

·     If the user does not or fails to change the password, the system allows the user to log in by using the current password until the password expires.

Telnet users, SSH users, and console users can change their own passwords. FTP users must have their passwords changed by the administrator.

Login with an expired password

You can allow a user to log in a certain number of times within a period of time after the password expires. For example, if you set the maximum number of logins with an expired password to 3 and the time period to 15 days, a user can log in three times within 15 days after the password expires.

Password history

This feature allows the system to store passwords that a user has used.

When a network access user changes the password, the system compares the new password with the current password and those stored in the password history records. The new password must be different from the current one and those stored in the history records by a minimum of four different characters. Otherwise, the system will display an error message, and the new password is not successfully set.

The local passwords and super passwords for device management users are stored in hash form and cannot be converted to plain texts. When a device management user changes a local password or super password, follow these rules:

·     If the new password is set by using the hash method, the system will not compare the new password with the current one and those stored in the history password records.

·     If the new password in set in plain text, the system compares the new password with the current password and those stored in the password history records. A new password must be different from those stored in the history password records. If the current password is required, the new password must also be different from the current one by a minimum of four different characters. Otherwise, the system will display an error message, and the new password is not successfully set.

You can set the maximum number of history password records for the system to maintain for each user. When the number of history password records exceeds the setting, the most recent record overwrites the earliest one.

Current login passwords are not stored in the password history for device management users. Device management users have their passwords saved in cipher text, which cannot be recovered to plaintext passwords.

User login control

First login

By default, if the global password control feature is enabled, users must change the password at first login before they can access the system. In this situation, password changes are not subject to the minimum password update interval. If it is not necessary for users to change the password at first login, disable the password change at first login feature.

Password control blacklist

The password control blacklist prevents abnormal users from logging in by recording the login failures and maintaining the status of blacklisted user accounts.

If an FTP or VTY user fails to log in, the system adds the user account and the user's IP address to the password control blacklist. If an AUX user fails to log in, the system adds the user account to the password control blacklist.

Login attempt limit

Limiting the number of consecutive login failures can effectively prevent password guessing.

When a user fails the maximum number of consecutive attempts, login attempt limit limits the user and user account in any of the following ways:

·     For an FTP, or VTY user, the system prohibits the user from using the user account to log in through the user's IP address. For an AUX user, the system prohitibs the user from logging in through AUX user line. The locked user can use their own account to log in to the device only after the account is manually removed from the password control blacklist.

·     Allows the user to continue using the user account. The user account is removed from the password control blacklist when the user uses this account to successfully log in to the device.

·     Locks the user account and the user's IP address for a period of time.

The user can use the account to log in when either of the following conditions exists:

¡     The locking timer expires.

¡     The account is manually removed from the password control blacklist before the locking timer expires.

 

NOTE:

This account is locked only for the user at the locked IP address. A user from an unlocked IP address can still use this account, and the user at the locked IP address can use other unlocked user accounts.

Maximum account idle time

You can set the maximum account idle time for user accounts. When an account is idle for this period of time since the last successful login, the account becomes invalid.

Login control with a weak password

The system checks for weak passwords for Telnet, SSH, HTTP, or HTTPS device management users. A password is weak if it does not meet the following requirements:

·     Password composition restriction.

·     Minimum password length restriction.

·     Password complexity checking policy.

By default, the system displays a message about a weak password but does not force the user to change it. To improve the device security, you can enable the mandatory weak password change feature, which forces the users to change the identified weak passwords. The users can log in to the device only after their passwords meet the password requirements.

Password not displayed in any form

For security purposes, nothing is displayed when a user enters a password.

Logging

The system generates a log each time a user changes its password successfully or is added to the password control blacklist because of login failures.

FIPS compliance

The device supports the FIPS mode that complies with NIST FIPS 140-2 requirements. Support for features, commands, and parameters might differ in FIPS mode (see "Configuring FIPS") and non-FIPS mode.

Restrictions and guidelines: Password control configuration

IMPORTANT

IMPORTANT:

To successfully enable the global password control feature and allow device management users to log in to the device, make sure the device have sufficient storage space.

 

The password control features can be configured in several different views, and different views support different features. The settings configured in different views or for different objects have the following application ranges:

·     Settings for super passwords apply only to super passwords.

·     Settings in local user view apply only to the password of the local user.

·     Settings in user group view apply to the passwords of the local users in the user group if you do not configure password policies for these users in local user view.

·     Global settings in system view apply to the passwords of the local users in all user groups if you do not configure password policies for these users in both local user view and user group view.

For local user passwords, the settings with a smaller application scope have higher priority.

Password control tasks at a glance

To configure password control, perform the following tasks:

1.     Enabling password control

2.     (Optional.) Setting global password control parameters

3.     (Optional.) Setting user group password control parameters

4.     (Optional.) Setting local user password control parameters

5.     (Optional.) Setting super password control parameters

Enabling password control

About this task

Enabling global password control is a prerequisite for password expiration and password history management to take effect. For the password expiration or password history management to take effect, make sure you enable both the global password control feature and the specific password restriction.

Restrictions and guidelines

After global password control is enabled, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·     You cannot display the password and super password configurations for device management users by using the corresponding display commands.

·     You cannot display the password configuration for network access users by using the corresponding display command.

·     A password configured for local users must contain a minimum of four different characters.

·     In FIPS mode, the global password control feature is enabled for device management users and cannot be disabled for them.

·     To ensure correct function of password control, configure the device to use NTP to obtain the UTC time. After global password control is enabled, password control will record the UTC time when the password is set. The recorded UTC time might not be consistent with the actual UTC time due to power failure or device reboot. The inconsistency will cause the password expiration feature to malfunction. For information about NTP, see Network Management and Monitoring Configuration Guide.

·     The device automatically generates a .dat file and saves the file to the storage media. The file is used to record authentication and login information of the local users. Do not manually delete or modify the file.

·     The global password control feature enables the system to record history passwords. When the number of history password records of a user reaches the maximum number, the newest history record overwrites the earliest one. To delete the existing history password records, use one of the following methods:

¡     Use the undo password-control enable command to disable the password control feature globally.

¡     Use the reset password-control history-record command to clear the passwords manually.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enable the global password control feature.

In non-FIPS mode:

password-control enable [ network-class ]

By default, the global password control feature is disabled for device management and network access users.

In FIPS mode:

password-control enable [ network-class ]

By default, the global password control feature is enabled for device management users and cannot be disabled. The global password control feature is disabled for network access users.

3.     (Optional.) Enable a password restriction feature.

password-control { aging | composition | history | length } enable

By default, all four password restriction features are enabled.

Setting global password control parameters

Restrictions and guidelines

The global password control parameters in system view apply to all device management and network access local users.

You can configure all password control features for device management users. The password aging time, minimum password length, password complexity policy, password composition policy, and user login attempt limit can be configured in system view, user group view, and local user view.

You can configure only the following password control features for network access users:

·     Minimum password length.

·     Password complexity policy.

·     Password composition policy.

·     Minimum password update interval.

·     Maximum number of history password records for each user.

Where, the minimum password length, password complexity policy, and password composition policy can be configured in system view, user group view, and local user view.

The password settings with a smaller application scope have higher priority. For local users, password settings configured in local user view have the highest priority, and global settings in system view have the lowest priority.

The password-control login-attempt command takes effect immediately and can affect the users already in the password control blacklist. Other password control configurations do not take effect on users that have been logged in or passwords that have been configured.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Configure password settings.

¡     Set the minimum password length.

In non-FIPS mode:

password-control length length

The default setting is 10 characters.

In FIPS mode:

password-control length length

The default length is 15 characters.

¡     Configure the password composition policy.

In non-FIPS mode:

password-control composition type-number type-number [ type-length type-length ]

By default, a password must contain a minimum of two character types and a minimum of one character for each type.

In FIPS mode:

password-control composition type-number type-number [ type-length type-length ]

By default, a password must contain a minimum of four character types and a minimum of one character for each type.

¡     Configure the password complexity checking policy.

password-control complexity { same-character | user-name } check

In non-FIPS mode:

By default, the username checking is enabled but repeated character checking is disabled.

In FIPS mode:

By default, the system does not perform password complexity checking.

¡     Set the maximum number of history password records for each user.

password-control history max-record-number

The default setting is 4.

3.     Configure password updating and expiration.

¡     Set the minimum password update interval.

password-control update interval interval

The default setting is 24 hours.

¡     Set the password aging time.

password-control aging aging-time

The default setting is 90 days.

¡     Set the number of days during which a user is notified of the pending password expiration.

password-control alert-before-expire alert-time

The default setting is 7 days.

¡     Set the maximum number of days and maximum number of times that a user can log in after the password expires.

password-control expired-user-login delay delay times times

By default, a user can log in three times within 30 days after the password expires.

4.     Configure user login control.

¡     Enable the password control blacklist feature for all user line types.

password-control blacklist all-line

By default, the password control blacklist feature is disabled for all user line types. The password control blacklist feature is enabled only for FTP and VTY users when you enable the global password control feature.

¡     Configure the login attempt limit.

password-control login-attempt login-times [ exceed { lock | lock-time time | unlock } ]

By default, the maximum number of login attempts is 3 and a user failing to log in after the specified number of attempts must wait for 1 minute before trying again.

¡     Set the maximum account idle time.

password-control login idle-time idle-time

The default setting is 90 days.

If a user account is idle for this period of time, the account becomes invalid and can no longer be used to log in to the device. To disable the account idle time restriction, set the idle time value to 0.

¡     Set the user authentication timeout time.

password-control authentication-timeout timeout

The default setting is 600 seconds.

This command takes effect only on Telnet and terminal users.

¡     Disable password change at first login.

undo password-control change-password first-login enable

By default, the password change at first login feature is enabled.

In FIPS mode, the password change at first login feature cannot be disabled.

¡     Enable mandatory weak password change.

password-control change-password weak-password enable

By default, the mandatory weak password change feature is disabled.

Setting user group password control parameters

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create a user group and enter its view.

user-group group-name

For information about how to configure a user group, see "Configuring AAA."

3.     Configure the password aging time for the user group.

password-control aging aging-time

By default, the password aging time of the user group equals the global password aging time.

4.     Configure the minimum password length for the user group.

password-control length length

By default, the minimum password length of the user group equals the global minimum password length.

5.     Configure the password composition policy for the user group.

password-control composition type-number type-number [ type-length type-length ]

By default, the password composition policy of the user group equals the global password composition policy.

6.     Configure the password complexity checking policy for the user group.

password-control complexity { same-character | user-name } check

By default, the password complexity checking policy of the user group equals the global password complexity checking policy.

7.     Configure the login attempt limit.

password-control login-attempt login-times [ exceed { lock | lock-time time | unlock } ]

By default, the login-attempt policy of the user group equals the global login-attempt policy.

Setting local user password control parameters

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create a device management or network access user and enter its view.

¡     Create a device management user and enter its view.

local-user user-name class manage

¡     Create a network access user and enter its view.

local-user user-name class network

For information about local user configuration, see "Configuring AAA."

3.     Configure the password aging time for the local user.

password-control aging aging-time

By default, the setting equals that for the user group to which the local user belongs. If no aging time is configured for the user group, the global setting applies to the local user.

This command is available only for device management users.

4.     Configure the minimum password length for the local user.

password-control length length

By default, the setting equals that for the user group to which the local user belongs. If no minimum password length is configured for the user group, the global setting applies to the local user.

5.     Configure the password composition policy for the local user.

password-control composition type-number type-number [ type-length type-length ]

By default, the settings equal those for the user group to which the local user belongs. If no password composition policy is configured for the user group, the global settings apply to the local user.

6.     Configure the password complexity checking policy for the local user.

password-control complexity { same-character | user-name } check

By default, the settings equal those for the user group to which the local user belongs. If no password complexity checking policy is configured for the user group, the global settings apply to the local user.

7.     Configure the login attempt limit.

password-control login-attempt login-times [ exceed { lock | lock-time time | unlock } ]

By default, the settings equal those for the user group to which the local user belongs. If no login-attempt policy is configured for the user group, the global settings apply to the local user.

This command is available only for device management users.

Setting super password control parameters

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Set the password aging time for super passwords.

password-control super aging aging-time

The default setting is 90 days.

3.     Configure the minimum length for super passwords.

In non-FIPS mode:

password-control super length length

The default setting is 10 characters.

In FIPS mode:

password-control super length length

The default setting is 15 characters.

4.     Configure the password composition policy for super passwords.

In non-FIPS mode:

password-control super composition type-number type-number [ type-length type-length ]

By default, a super password must contain a minimum of two character types and a minimum of one character for each type.

In FIPS mode:

password-control super composition type-number type-number [ type-length type-length ]

By default, a super password must contain a minimum of four character types and a minimum of one character for each type.

Display and maintenance commands for password control

Execute display commands in any view and reset commands in user view.

Task

Command

Display password control configuration.

display password-control [ super ]

Display information about users in the password control blacklist.

display password-control blacklist [ user-name user-name | ip ipv4-address  | ipv6 ipv6-address]

Delete users from the password control blacklist.

reset password-control blacklist [ user-name user-name ]

Clear history password records.

reset password-control history-record [ user-name user-name | super [ role role-name ] | network-class [ user-name user-name ] ]

Password control configuration examples

Example: Configuring password control

Network configuration

Configure a global password control policy to meet the following requirements:

·     A password must contain a minimum of 16 characters.

·     A password must contain a minimum of four character types and a minimum of four characters for each type.

·     An FTP or VTY user failing to provide the correct password in two successive login attempts is permanently prohibited from logging in with the current IP address.

·     A user can log in five times within 60 days after the password expires.

·     A password expires after 30 days.

·     The minimum password update interval is 36 hours.

·     The maximum account idle time is 30 days.

·     A password cannot contain the username or the reverse of the username.

·     A minimum of three identical consecutive characters is not allowed in a password.

Configure a super password control policy for user role network-operator to meet the following requirements:

·     A super password must contain a minimum of 24 characters.

·     A super password must contain a minimum of four character types and a minimum of five characters for each type.

Configure a password control policy for local Telnet user test to meet the following requirements:

·     The password must contain a minimum of 24 characters.

·     The password must contain a minimum of four character types and a minimum of five characters for each type.

·     The password for the local user expires after 20 days.

Procedure

# Enable the password control feature globally.

<Sysname> system-view

[Sysname] password-control enable

# Allow a maximum of two consecutive login failures on a user account, and lock the user account and the user's IP address permanently if the limit is reached.

[Sysname] password-control login-attempt 2 exceed lock

# Set all passwords to expire after 30 days.

[Sysname] password-control aging 30

# Globally set the minimum password length to 16 characters.

[Sysname] password-control length 16

# Set the minimum password update interval to 36 hours.

[Sysname] password-control update-interval 36

# Specify that a user can log in five times within 60 days after the password expires.

[Sysname] password-control expired-user-login delay 60 times 5

# Set the maximum account idle time to 30 days.

[Sysname] password-control login idle-time 30

# Refuse any password that contains the username or the reverse of the username.

[Sysname] password-control complexity user-name check

# Refuse a password that contains a minimum of three identical consecutive characters.

[Sysname] password-control complexity same-character check

# Globally specify that all passwords must each contain a minimum of four character types and a minimum of four characters for each type.

[Sysname] password-control composition type-number 4 type-length 4

# Set the minimum super password length to 24 characters.

[Sysname] password-control super length 24

# Specify that a super password must contain a minimum of four character types and a minimum of five characters for each type.

[Sysname] password-control super composition type-number 4 type-length 5

# Configure a super password used for switching to user role network-operator as 123456789ABGFTweuix@#$%! in plain text.

[Sysname] super password role network-operator simple 123456789ABGFTweuix@#$%!

# Create a device management user named test.

[Sysname] local-user test class manage

# Set the service type of the user to Telnet.

[Sysname-luser-manage-test] service-type telnet

# Set the minimum password length to 24 for the local user.

[Sysname-luser-manage-test] password-control length 24

# Specify that the password of the local user must contain a minimum of four character types and a minimum of five characters for each type.

[Sysname-luser-manage-test] password-control composition type-number 4 type-length 5

# Set the password for the local user to expire after 20 days.

[Sysname-luser-manage-test] password-control aging 20

# Configure the password of the local user in interactive mode.

[Sysname-luser-manage-test] password

Password:

Confirm :

Updating user information. Please wait ... ...

[Sysname-luser-manage-test] quit

Verifying the configuration

# Display the global password control configuration.

<Sysname> display password-control

 Global password control configurations:

 Password control:                     Enabled(device management users)

                                       Disabled (network access users)

 Password aging:                       Enabled (30 days)

 Password length:                      Enabled (16 characters)

 Password composition:                 Enabled (4 types, 4 characters per type)

 Password history:                     Enabled (max history record:4)

 Early notice on password expiration:  7 days

 User authentication timeout:          600 seconds

 Maximum login attempts:               2

 Action for exceeding login attempts:  Lock

 Minimum interval between two updates: 36 hours

 User account idle time:               30 days

 Logins with aged password:            5 times in 60 days

 Password complexity:                  Enabled (username checking)

                                       Enabled (repeated characters checking)

 Password change:                      Enabled (first login)

                                       Disabled (mandatory weak password change)

 All line:                             Disabled (all line blacklist)

# Display the password control configuration for super passwords.

<Sysname> display password-control super

 Super password control configurations:

 Password aging:                       Enabled (90 days)

 Password length:                      Enabled (24 characters)

 Password composition:                 Enabled (4 types, 5 characters per type)

# Display the password control configuration for local user test.

<Sysname> display local-user user-name test class manage

Total 1 local users matched.

 

Device management user test:

  State:                     Active

  Service type:              Telnet

  User group:                system

  Bind attributes:

  Authorization attributes:

    Work directory:          flash:

    User role list:          network-operator

  Password control configurations:

    Password aging:          20 days

    Password length:         24 characters

    Password composition:    4 types, 5 characters per type