09-Security Configuration Guide

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01-AAA configuration
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Contents

Configuring AAA·· 1

About AAA· 1

AAA implementation· 1

AAA network diagram·· 1

RADIUS· 2

HWTACACS· 5

LDAP· 8

User management based on ISP domains and user access types· 11

Authentication, authorization, and accounting methods· 11

AAA extended functions· 12

AAA for VPNs· 13

RADIUS server feature of the device· 13

Protocols and standards· 14

FIPS compliance· 15

AAA tasks at a glance· 15

Configuring local users· 16

About local users· 16

Local user configuration tasks at a glance· 16

Configuring attributes for device management users· 17

Configuring attributes for network access users· 18

Configuring user group attributes· 20

Configuring the local user auto-delete feature· 21

Display and maintenance commands for local users and local user groups· 21

Configuring RADIUS· 21

RADIUS tasks at a glance· 21

Restrictions and guidelines for RADIUS configuration· 22

Configuring an EAP profile· 22

Configuring a test profile for RADIUS server status detection· 23

Creating a RADIUS scheme· 24

Specifying RADIUS authentication servers· 24

Specifying the RADIUS accounting servers· 25

Specifying the shared keys for secure RADIUS communication· 26

Specifying the MPLS L3VPN instance for a RADIUS scheme· 26

Setting the status of RADIUS servers· 27

Setting RADIUS timers· 28

Specifying the source IP address for outgoing RADIUS packets· 29

Setting the username format and traffic statistics units· 30

Setting the maximum number of RADIUS request transmission attempts· 31

Setting the maximum number of real-time accounting attempts· 31

Setting the DSCP priority for RADIUS packets· 32

Configuring the Login-Service attribute check method for SSH, FTP, and terminal users· 32

Interpreting the RADIUS class attribute as CAR parameters· 33

Configuring the format of the RADIUS Called-Station-Id attribute· 33

Configuring the MAC address format for the RADIUS Called-Station-Id attribute· 34

Configuring the MAC address format for the RADIUS Calling-Station-Id attribute· 34

Setting the data measurement unit for the Remanent_Volume attribute· 35

Including subattribute 218 of vendor 25506 in outgoing RADIUS packets· 35

Configuring the RADIUS attribute translation feature· 36

Configuring RADIUS stop-accounting packet buffering· 37

Enabling forcibly sending stop-accounting packets· 38

Enabling the RADIUS server load sharing feature· 38

Specifying a RADIUS server selection mode for reauthentication· 39

Configuring the RADIUS accounting-on feature· 39

Configuring the RADIUS session-control feature· 40

Configuring the RADIUS DAS feature· 41

Enabling SNMP notifications for RADIUS· 41

Disabling the RADIUS service· 42

Display and maintenance commands for RADIUS· 43

Configuring HWTACACS· 43

HWTACACS tasks at a glance· 43

Creating an HWTACACS scheme· 44

Specifying the HWTACACS authentication servers· 44

Specifying the HWTACACS authorization servers· 45

Specifying the HWTACACS accounting servers· 45

Specifying the shared keys for secure HWTACACS communication· 46

Specifying an MPLS L3VPN instance for the scheme· 47

Setting HWTACACS timers· 47

Specifying the source IP address for outgoing HWTACACS packets· 48

Setting the username format and traffic statistics units· 49

Configuring HWTACACS stop-accounting packet buffering· 50

Display and maintenance commands for HWTACACS· 50

Configuring LDAP· 51

LDAP tasks at a glance· 51

Creating an LDAP server 51

Configuring the IP address of the LDAP server 51

Specifying the LDAP version· 52

Setting the LDAP server timeout period· 52

Configuring administrator attributes· 52

Configuring LDAP user attributes· 53

Configuring an LDAP attribute map· 54

Creating an LDAP scheme· 54

Specifying the LDAP authentication server 55

Specifying the LDAP authorization server 55

Specifying an LDAP attribute map for LDAP authorization· 55

Display and maintenance commands for LDAP· 55

Creating an ISP domain· 56

About ISP domains· 56

Restrictions and guidelines for ISP domain configuration· 56

Creating an ISP domain· 56

Specifying the default ISP domain· 57

Specifying an ISP domain for users that are assigned to nonexistent domains· 57

Configuring ISP domain attributes· 57

Setting ISP domain status· 57

Configuring authorization attributes for an ISP domain· 57

Including the idle timeout period in the user online duration to be sent to the server 58

Configuring AAA methods for an ISP domain· 59

Configuring authentication methods for an ISP domain· 59

Configuring authorization methods for an ISP domain· 60

Configuring accounting methods for an ISP domain· 61

Display and maintenance commands for ISP domains· 62

Setting the maximum number of concurrent login users· 62

Configuring a NAS-ID·· 63

Configuring the device ID·· 63

Enabling password change prompt logging· 64

Configuring the RADIUS server feature· 64

RADIUS server feature tasks at a glance· 64

Restrictions and guidelines for the RADIUS server feature· 65

Configuring RADIUS users· 65

Specifying RADIUS clients· 65

Activating the RADIUS server configuration· 65

Display and maintenance commands for RADIUS users and clients· 66

Configuring the connection recording policy· 66

About the connection recording policy· 66

Restrictions and guidelines· 66

Procedure· 66

Display and maintenance commands for the connection recording policy· 66

Configuring the AAA test feature· 67

AAA configuration examples· 69

Example: Configuring AAA for SSH users by an HWTACACS server 69

Example: Configuring local authentication, HWTACACS authorization, and RADIUS accounting for SSH users  71

Example: Configuring authentication and authorization for SSH users by a RADIUS server 72

Example: Configuring authentication for SSH users by an LDAP server 75

Example: Configuring AAA for 802.1X users by a RADIUS server 79

Example: Configuring authentication and authorization for 802.1X users by the device as a RADIUS server 86

Troubleshooting AAA· 88

RADIUS authentication failure· 88

RADIUS packet delivery failure· 88

RADIUS accounting error 89

Troubleshooting HWTACACS· 89

LDAP authentication failure· 89

Appendixes· 90

Appendix A Commonly used RADIUS attributes· 90

Appendix B Descriptions for commonly used standard RADIUS attributes· 92

Appendix C RADIUS subattributes (vendor ID 25506) 93

Appendix D Format of dynamic authorization ACLs· 97

 


Configuring AAA

About AAA

AAA implementation

Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) provides a uniform framework for implementing network access management. This feature specifies the following security functions:

·     Authentication—Identifies users and verifies their validity.

·     Authorization—Grants different users different rights, and controls the users' access to resources and services. For example, you can permit office users to read and print files and prevent guests from accessing files on the device.

·     Accounting—Records network usage details of users, including the service type, start time, and traffic. This function enables time-based and traffic-based charging and user behavior auditing.

AAA network diagram

AAA uses a client/server model. The client runs on the access device, or the network access server (NAS), which authenticates user identities and controls user access. The server maintains user information centrally. See Figure 1.

Figure 1 AAA network diagram

 

To access networks or resources beyond the NAS, a user sends its identity information to the NAS. The NAS transparently passes the user information to AAA servers and waits for the authentication, authorization, and accounting result. Based on the result, the NAS determines whether to permit or deny the access request.

AAA has various implementations, including HWTACACS, LDAP, and RADIUS. RADIUS is most often used.

You can use different servers to implement different security functions. For example, you can use an HWTACACS server for authentication and authorization, and use a RADIUS server for accounting.

You can choose the security functions provided by AAA as needed. For example, if your company wants employees to be authenticated before they access specific resources, you would deploy an authentication server. If network usage information is needed, you would also configure an accounting server.

The device performs dynamic password authentication.

RADIUS

Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) is a distributed information interaction protocol that uses a client/server model. The protocol can protect networks against unauthorized access and is often used in network environments that require both high security and remote user access.

The RADIUS authorization process is combined with the RADIUS authentication process, and user authorization information is piggybacked in authentication responses. RADIUS uses UDP port 1812 for authentication and UDP port 1813 for accounting.

RADIUS was originally designed for dial-in user access, and has been extended to support additional access methods, such as Ethernet and ADSL.

Client/server model

The RADIUS client runs on the NASs located throughout the network. It passes user information to RADIUS servers and acts on the responses to, for example, reject or accept user access requests.

The RADIUS server runs on the computer or workstation at the network center and maintains information related to user authentication and network service access.

The RADIUS server operates using the following process:

1.     Receives authentication, authorization, and accounting requests from RADIUS clients.

2.     Performs user authentication, authorization, or accounting.

3.     Returns user access control information (for example, rejecting or accepting the user access request) to the clients.

The RADIUS server can also act as the client of another RADIUS server to provide authentication proxy services.

The RADIUS server maintains the following databases:

·     Users—Stores user information, such as the usernames, passwords, applied protocols, and IP addresses.

·     Clients—Stores information about RADIUS clients, such as shared keys and IP addresses.

·     Dictionary—Stores RADIUS protocol attributes and their values.

Figure 2 RADIUS server databases

 

Information exchange security mechanism

The RADIUS client and server exchange information between them with the help of shared keys, which are preconfigured on the client and server. A RADIUS packet has a 16-byte field called Authenticator. This field includes a signature generated by using the MD5 algorithm, the shared key, and some other information. The receiver of the packet verifies the signature and accepts the packet only when the signature is correct. This mechanism ensures the security of information exchanged between the RADIUS client and server.

The shared keys are also used to encrypt user passwords that are included in RADIUS packets.

User authentication methods

The RADIUS server supports multiple user authentication methods, such as PAP, CHAP, and EAP.

Basic RADIUS packet exchange process

Figure 3 illustrates the interactions between a user host, the RADIUS client, and the RADIUS server.

Figure 3 Basic RADIUS packet exchange process

 

RADIUS uses in the following workflow:

1.     The host sends a connection request that includes the user's username and password to the RADIUS client.

2.     The RADIUS client sends an authentication request (Access-Request) to the RADIUS server. The request includes the user's password, which has been processed by the MD5 algorithm and shared key.

3.     The RADIUS server authenticates the username and password. If the authentication succeeds, the server sends back an Access-Accept packet that contains the user's authorization information. If the authentication fails, the server returns an Access-Reject packet.

4.     The RADIUS client permits or denies the user according to the authentication result. If the result permits the user, the RADIUS client sends a start-accounting request (Accounting-Request) packet to the RADIUS server.

5.     The RADIUS server returns an acknowledgment (Accounting-Response) packet and starts accounting.

6.     The user accesses the network resources.

7.     The host requests the RADIUS client to tear down the connection.

8.     The RADIUS client sends a stop-accounting request (Accounting-Request) packet to the RADIUS server.

9.     The RADIUS server returns an acknowledgment (Accounting-Response) and stops accounting for the user.

10.     The RADIUS client notifies the user of the termination.

RADIUS packet format

RADIUS uses UDP to transmit packets. The protocol also uses a series of mechanisms to ensure smooth packet exchange between the RADIUS server and the client. These mechanisms include the timer mechanism, the retransmission mechanism, and the backup server mechanism.

Figure 4 RADIUS packet format

 

Descriptions of the fields are as follows:

·     The Code field (1 byte long) indicates the type of the RADIUS packet. Table 1 gives the main values and their meanings.

Table 1 Main values of the Code field

Code

Packet type

Description

1

Access-Request

From the client to the server. A packet of this type includes user information for the server to authenticate the user. It must contain the User-Name attribute and can optionally contain the attributes of NAS-IP-Address, User-Password, and NAS-Port.

2

Access-Accept

From the server to the client. If all attribute values included in the Access-Request are acceptable, the authentication succeeds, and the server sends an Access-Accept response.

3

Access-Reject

From the server to the client. If any attribute value included in the Access-Request is unacceptable, the authentication fails, and the server sends an Access-Reject response.

4

Accounting-Request

From the client to the server. A packet of this type includes user information for the server to start or stop accounting for the user. The Acct-Status-Type attribute in the packet indicates whether to start or stop accounting.

5

Accounting-Response

From the server to the client. The server sends a packet of this type to notify the client that it has received the Accounting-Request and has successfully recorded the accounting information.

 

·     The Identifier field (1 byte long) is used to match response packets with request packets and to detect duplicate request packets. The request and response packets of the same exchange process for the same purpose (such as authentication or accounting) have the same identifier.

·     The Length field (2 bytes long) indicates the length of the entire packet (in bytes), including the Code, Identifier, Length, Authenticator, and Attributes fields. Bytes beyond this length are considered padding and are ignored by the receiver. If the length of a received packet is less than this length, the packet is dropped.

·     The Authenticator field (16 bytes long) is used to authenticate responses from the RADIUS server and to encrypt user passwords. There are two types of authenticators: request authenticator and response authenticator.

·     The Attributes field (variable in length) includes authentication, authorization, and accounting information. This field can contain multiple attributes, each with the following subfields:

¡     Type—Type of the attribute.

¡     Length—Length of the attribute in bytes, including the Type, Length, and Value subfields.

¡     Value—Value of the attribute. Its format and content depend on the Type subfield.

Extended RADIUS attributes

The RADIUS protocol features excellent extensibility. The Vendor-Specific attribute (attribute 26) allows a vendor to define extended attributes. The extended attributes can implement functions that the standard RADIUS protocol does not provide.

A vendor can encapsulate multiple subattributes in the TLV format in attribute 26 to provide extended functions. As shown in Figure 5, a subattribute encapsulated in attribute 26 consists of the following parts:

·     Vendor-ID—ID of the vendor. The most significant byte is 0. The other three bytes contains a code compliant to RFC 1700.

·     Vendor-Type—Type of the subattribute.

·     Vendor-Length—Length of the subattribute.

·     Vendor-Data—Contents of the subattribute.

The device supports RADIUS subattributes with a vendor ID of 25506. For more information, see "Appendix C RADIUS subattributes (vendor ID 25506)."

Figure 5 Format of attribute 26

 

HWTACACS

HW Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (HWTACACS) is an enhanced security protocol based on TACACS (RFC 1492). HWTACACS is similar to RADIUS, and uses a client/server model for information exchange between the NAS and the HWTACACS server.

HWTACACS typically provides AAA services for PPP, VPDN, and terminal users. In a typical HWTACACS scenario, terminal users need to log in to the NAS. Working as the HWTACACS client, the NAS sends users' usernames and passwords to the HWTACACS server for authentication. After passing authentication and obtaining authorized rights, a user logs in to the device and performs operations. The HWTACACS server records the operations that each user performs.

Differences between HWTACACS and RADIUS

HWTACACS and RADIUS have many features in common, such as using a client/server model, using shared keys for data encryption, and providing flexibility and scalability. Table 2 lists the primary differences between HWTACACS and RADIUS.

Table 2 Primary differences between HWTACACS and RADIUS

HWTACACS

RADIUS

Uses TCP, which provides reliable network transmission.

Uses UDP, which provides high transport efficiency.

Encrypts the entire packet except for the HWTACACS header.

Encrypts only the user password field in an authentication packet.

Protocol packets are complicated and authorization is independent of authentication. Authentication and authorization can be deployed on different HWTACACS servers.

Protocol packets are simple and the authorization process is combined with the authentication process.

Supports authorization of configuration commands. Access to commands depends on both the user's roles and authorization. A user can use only commands that are permitted by the user roles and authorized by the HWTACACS server.

Does not support authorization of configuration commands. Access to commands solely depends on the user's roles. For more information about user roles, see Fundamentals Configuration Guide.

 

Basic HWTACACS packet exchange process

Figure 6 describes how HWTACACS performs user authentication, authorization, and accounting for a Telnet user.

Figure 6 Basic HWTACACS packet exchange process for a Telnet user

 

HWTACACS operates using in the following workflow:

1.     A Telnet user sends an access request to the HWTACACS client.

2.     The HWTACACS client sends a start-authentication packet to the HWTACACS server when it receives the request.

3.     The HWTACACS server sends back an authentication response to request the username.

4.     Upon receiving the response, the HWTACACS client asks the user for the username.

5.     The user enters the username.

6.     After receiving the username from the user, the HWTACACS client sends the server a continue-authentication packet that includes the username.

7.     The HWTACACS server sends back an authentication response to request the login password.

8.     Upon receipt of the response, the HWTACACS client prompts the user for the login password.

9.     The user enters the password.

10.     After receiving the login password, the HWTACACS client sends the HWTACACS server a continue-authentication packet that includes the login password.

11.     If the authentication succeeds, the HWTACACS server sends back an authentication response to indicate that the user has passed authentication.

12.     The HWTACACS client sends a user authorization request packet to the HWTACACS server.

13.     If the authorization succeeds, the HWTACACS server sends back an authorization response, indicating that the user is now authorized.

14.     Knowing that the user is now authorized, the HWTACACS client pushes its CLI to the user and permits the user to log in.

15.     The HWTACACS client sends a start-accounting request to the HWTACACS server.

16.     The HWTACACS server sends back an accounting response, indicating that it has received the start-accounting request.

17.     The user logs off.

18.     The HWTACACS client sends a stop-accounting request to the HWTACACS server.

19.     The HWTACACS server sends back a stop-accounting response, indicating that the stop-accounting request has been received.

LDAP

The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) provides standard multiplatform directory service. LDAP was developed on the basis of the X.500 protocol. It improves the following functions of X.500:

·     Read/write interactive access.

·     Browse.

·     Search.

LDAP is suitable for storing data that does not often change. The protocol is used to store user information. For example, LDAP server software Active Directory Server is used in Microsoft Windows operating systems. The software stores the user information and user group information for user login authentication and authorization.

LDAP directory service

LDAP uses directories to maintain the organization information, personnel information, and resource information. The directories are organized in a tree structure and include entries. An entry is a set of attributes with distinguished names (DNs). The attributes are used to store information such as usernames, passwords, emails, computer names, and phone numbers.

LDAP uses a client/server model, and all directory information is stored in the LDAP server. Commonly used LDAP server products include Microsoft Active Directory Server, IBM Tivoli Directory Server, and Sun ONE Directory Server.

LDAP authentication and authorization

AAA can use LDAP to provide authentication and authorization services for users. LDAP defines a set of operations to implement its functions. The main operations for authentication and authorization are the bind operation and search operation.

·     The bind operation allows an LDAP client to perform the following operations:

¡     Establish a connection with the LDAP server.

¡     Obtain the access rights to the LDAP server.

¡     Check the validity of user information.

·     The search operation constructs search conditions and obtains the directory resource information of the LDAP server.

In LDAP authentication, the client completes the following tasks:

1.     Uses the LDAP server administrator DN to bind with the LDAP server. After the binding is created, the client establishes a connection to the server and obtains the right to search.

2.     Constructs search conditions by using the username in the authentication information of a user. The specified root directory of the server is searched and a user DN list is generated.

3.     Binds with the LDAP server by using each user DN and password. If a binding is created, the user is considered legal.

In LDAP authorization, the client performs the same tasks as in LDAP authentication. When the client constructs search conditions, it obtains both authorization information and the user DN list.

Basic LDAP authentication process

The following example illustrates the basic LDAP authentication process for a Telnet user.

Figure 7 Basic LDAP authentication process for a Telnet user

 

The following shows the basic LDAP authentication process:

1.     A Telnet user initiates a connection request and sends the username and password to the LDAP client.

2.     After receiving the request, the LDAP client establishes a TCP connection with the LDAP server.

3.     To obtain the right to search, the LDAP client uses the administrator DN and password to send an administrator bind request to the LDAP server.

4.     The LDAP server processes the request. If the bind operation is successful, the LDAP server sends an acknowledgment to the LDAP client.

5.     The LDAP client sends a user DN search request with the username of the Telnet user to the LDAP server.

6.     After receiving the request, the LDAP server searches for the user DN by the base DN, search scope, and filtering conditions. If a match is found, the LDAP server sends a response to notify the LDAP client of the successful search. There might be one or more user DNs found.

7.     The LDAP client uses the obtained user DN and the entered user password as parameters to send a user DN bind request to the LDAP server. The server will check whether the user password is correct.

8.     The LDAP server processes the request, and sends a response to notify the LDAP client of the bind operation result. If the bind operation fails, the LDAP client uses another obtained user DN as the parameter to send a user DN bind request to the LDAP server. This process continues until a DN is bound successfully or all DNs fail to be bound. If all user DNs fail to be bound, the LDAP client notifies the user of the login failure and denies the user's access request.

9.     The LDAP client saves the user DN that has been bound and exchanges authorization packets with the authorization server.

¡     If LDAP authorization is used, see the authorization process shown in Figure 8.

¡     If another method is expected for authorization, the authorization process of that method applies.

10.     After successful authorization, the LDAP client notifies the user of the successful login.

Basic LDAP authorization process

The following example illustrates the basic LDAP authorization process for a Telnet user.

Figure 8 Basic LDAP authorization process for a Telnet user

 

The following shows the basic LDAP authorization process:

1.     A Telnet user initiates a connection request and sends the username and password to the device. The device will act as the LDAP client during authorization.

2.     After receiving the request, the device exchanges authentication packets with the authentication server for the user:

¡     If LDAP authentication is used, see the authentication process shown in Figure 7.

-     If the device (the LDAP client) uses the same LDAP server for authentication and authorization, skip to step 6.

-     If the device (the LDAP client) uses different LDAP servers for authentication and authorization, skip to step 4.

¡     If another authentication method is used, the authentication process of that method applies. The device acts as the LDAP client. Skip to step 3.

3.     The LDAP client establishes a TCP connection with the LDAP authorization server.

4.     To obtain the right to search, the LDAP client uses the administrator DN and password to send an administrator bind request to the LDAP server.

5.     The LDAP server processes the request. If the bind operation is successful, the LDAP server sends an acknowledgment to the LDAP client.

6.     The LDAP client sends an authorization search request with the username of the Telnet user to the LDAP server. If the user uses the same LDAP server for authentication and authorization, the client sends the request with the saved user DN of the Telnet user to the LDAP server.

7.     After receiving the request, the LDAP server searches for the user information by the base DN, search scope, filtering conditions, and LDAP attributes. If a match is found, the LDAP server sends a response to notify the LDAP client of the successful search.

8.     After successful authorization, the LDAP client notifies the user of the successful login.

User management based on ISP domains and user access types

AAA manages users based on the users' ISP domains and access types.

On a NAS, each user belongs to one ISP domain. The NAS determines the ISP domain to which a user belongs based on the username entered by the user at login.

Figure 9 Determining the ISP domain for a user by username

 

AAA manages users in the same ISP domain based on the users' access types. The device supports the following user access types:

·     LAN—LAN users must pass 802.1X or MAC authentication to come online.

·     Login—Login users include SSH, Telnet, FTP, and terminal users that log in to the device. Terminal users can access through a console port.

·     Portal—Portal users must pass portal authentication to access the network.

·     HTTP/HTTPS—Users log in to the device through HTTP or HTTPS.

The device also provides authentication modules (such as 802.1X) for implementation of user authentication management policies. If you configure these authentication modules, the ISP domains for users of the access types depend on the configuration of the authentication modules.

Authentication, authorization, and accounting methods

AAA supports configuring different authentication, authorization, and accounting methods for different types of users in an ISP domain. The NAS determines the ISP domain and access type of a user. The NAS also uses the methods configured for the access type in the domain to control the user's access.

AAA also supports configuring a set of default methods for an ISP domain. These default methods are applied to users for whom no AAA methods are configured.

Authentication methods

The device supports the following authentication methods:

·     No authentication—This method trusts all users and does not perform authentication. For security purposes, do not use this method.

·     Local authentication—The NAS authenticates users by itself, based on the locally configured user information including the usernames, passwords, and attributes. Local authentication allows high speed and low cost, but the amount of information that can be stored is limited by the size of the storage space.

·     Remote authentication—The NAS works with a remote server to authenticate users. The NAS communicates with the remote server through the RADIUS, LDAP, or HWTACACS protocol. The server manages user information in a centralized manner. Remote authentication provides high capacity, reliable, and centralized authentication services for multiple NASs. You can configure backup methods to be used when the remote server is not available.

Authorization methods

The device supports the following authorization methods:

·     No authorization—The NAS performs no authorization exchange. The following default authorization information applies after users pass authentication:

¡     Login users obtain the level-0 user role. For more information about the level-0 user role, see RBAC configuration in Fundamentals Configuration Guide.

¡     The working directory for FTP, SFTP, and SCP login users is the root directory of the NAS. However, the users do not have permission to access the root directory.

¡     Non-login users can access the network.

·     Local authorization—The NAS performs authorization according to the user attributes locally configured for users.

·     Remote authorization—The NAS works with a remote server to authorize users. RADIUS authorization is bound with RADIUS authentication. RADIUS authorization can work only after RADIUS authentication is successful, and the authorization information is included in the Access-Accept packet. HWTACACS or LDAP authorization is separate from authentication, and the authorization information is included in the authorization response after successful authentication. You can configure backup methods to be used when the remote server is not available.

Accounting methods

The device supports the following accounting methods:

·     No accounting—The NAS does not perform accounting for the users.

·     Local accounting—Local accounting is implemented on the NAS. It counts and controls the number of concurrent users that use the same local user account, but does not provide statistics for charging.

·     Remote accounting—The NAS works with a RADIUS server or HWTACACS server for accounting. You can configure backup methods to be used when the remote server is not available.

AAA extended functions

The device provides the following login services to enhance device security:

·     Command authorization—Enables the NAS to let the authorization server determine whether a command entered by a login user is permitted. Login users can execute only commands permitted by the authorization server. For more information about command authorization, see Fundamentals Configuration Guide.

·     Command accounting—When command authorization is disabled, command accounting enables the accounting server to record all valid commands executed on the device. When command authorization is enabled, command accounting enables the accounting server to record all authorized commands. For more information about command accounting, see Fundamentals Configuration Guide.

·     User role authentication—Authenticates each user that wants to obtain another user role without logging out or getting disconnected. For more information about user role authentication, see Fundamentals Configuration Guide.

AAA for VPNs

You can deploy AAA across VPNs to enable forwarding of authentication, authorization, and accounting packets across VPNs. For example, as shown in Figure 10, The MCE at the left side of the MPLS backbone acts as a NAS. The NAS transparently delivers the AAA packets of private users in VPN 1 and VPN 2 to the AAA servers in VPN 3 for centralized authentication. Authentication packets of private users in different VPNs do not affect each other.

Figure 10 Network diagram

This feature can also help an MCE to implement portal authentication for VPNs. For more information about MCE, see MCE Configuration Guide. For more information about portal authentication, see "Configuring portal authentication."

RADIUS server feature of the device

Enable the RADIUS server feature of the device to work with RADIUS clients for user authentication and authorization. The device can act as a dedicated RADIUS server or as both a RADIUS server and a RADIUS client at the same time.

The RADIUS server feature provides for flexible networks with less cost. As shown in Figure 11, Device A provides RADIUS server functions at the distribution layer; Device B and Device C are configured with RADIUS schemes to implement user authentication and authorization at the access layer.

Figure 11 Network diagram

 

The RADIUS server feature supports the following operations:

·     Manages RADIUS user data, which is generated from local user information and includes user name, password, description, authorization ACL, authorization VLAN, and expiration time.

·     Manages RADIUS clients. You can add, modify, and delete RADIUS clients. A RADIUS client is identified by the IP address, and it includes attribute information such as the shared key. The RADIUS server feature processes authentication requests only from the managed RADIUS clients and ignores requests from unknown clients.

·     Authenticates and authorizes users of the network access type. The server does not provide accounting.

When the RADIUS server receives a RADIUS packet, it performs the following actions:

1.     Verifies that the packet is sent from a managed RADIUS client.

2.     Verifies the packet with the shared key.

3.     Verifies that the user account exists, the password is correct, and other attributes meet the requirements (for example, the account is in the validity period).

4.     Determines the authentication result and authorizes specific privileges to the authenticated user.

The RADIUS server feature of the device has the following restrictions:

·     The authentication port is fixed at UDP 1812 and cannot be modified.

·     The feature is supported on IPv4 networks, but not on IPv6 networks.

·     The server provides only PAP and CHAP authentication methods.

·     User names sent to the RADIUS server cannot include a domain name.

Protocols and standards

·     RFC 2865, Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)

·     RFC 2866, RADIUS Accounting

·     RFC 2867, RADIUS Accounting Modifications for Tunnel Protocol Support

·     RFC 2868, RADIUS Attributes for Tunnel Protocol Support

·     RFC 2869, RADIUS Extensions

·     RFC 3576, Dynamic Authorization Extensions to Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)

·     RFC 4818, RADIUS Delegated-IPv6-Prefix Attribute

·     RFC 5176, Dynamic Authorization Extensions to Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)

·     RFC 1492, An Access Control Protocol, Sometimes Called TACACS

·     RFC 1777, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

·     RFC 2251, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (v3)

FIPS compliance

The device supports the FIPS mode that complies with NIST FIPS 140-2 requirements. Support for features, commands, and parameters might differ in FIPS mode (see "Configuring FIPS") and non-FIPS mode.

AAA tasks at a glance

To configure AAA, perform the following tasks:

1.     Configuring AAA schemes

If local authentication is used, configure local users and the related attributes. If remote authentication is used, configure the required RADIUS, LDAP, or HWTACACS schemes.

¡     Configuring local users

¡     Configuring RADIUS

¡     Configuring HWTACACS

¡     Configuring LDAP

2.     Configuring an ISP domain

a.     Creating an ISP domain

b.     Configuring ISP domain attributes

3.     Configuring AAA methods for an ISP domain

Configure authentication, authorization, and accounting methods for an ISP domain as needed. These methods use existing AAA schemes.

¡     Configuring authentication methods for an ISP domain

¡     Configuring authorization methods for an ISP domain

¡     Configuring accounting methods for an ISP domain

4.     (Optional.) Configuring advanced AAA features

¡     Setting the maximum number of concurrent login users

¡     Configuring a NAS-ID

¡     Configuring the device ID

¡     Enabling password change prompt logging

¡     Configuring the RADIUS server feature

¡     Configuring the connection recording policy

¡     Configuring the AAA test feature

Configuring local users

About local users

To implement local authentication, authorization, and accounting, create local users and configure user attributes on the device. The local users and attributes are stored in the local user database on the device. A local user is uniquely identified by the combination of a username and a user type.

Local users are classified into the following types:

·     Device management user—User that logs in to the device for device management.

·     Network access user—User that accesses network resources through the device.

The following shows the configurable local user attributes:

·     Description—Descriptive information of the user.

·     Service type—Services that the user can use. Local authentication checks the service types of a local user. If none of the service types is available, the user cannot pass authentication.

·     User state—Whether or not a local user can request network services. There are two user states: active and blocked. A user in active state can request network services, but a user in blocked state cannot.

·     Upper limit of concurrent logins using the same user name—Maximum number of users that can concurrently access the device by using the same user name. When the number reaches the upper limit, no more local users can access the device by using the user name.

·     User group—Each local user belongs to a local user group and has all attributes of the group. The attributes include the password control attributes and authorization attributes. For more information about local user group, see "Configuring user group attributes."

·     Binding attributes—Binding attributes control the scope of users, and are checked during local authentication of a user. If the attributes of a user do not match the binding attributes configured for the local user account, the user cannot pass authentication.

·     Authorization attributes—Authorization attributes indicate the user's rights after it passes local authentication.

Configure the authorization attributes based on the service type of local users.

You can configure an authorization attribute in user group view or local user view. The setting of an authorization attribute in local user view takes precedence over the attribute setting in user group view.

The attribute configured in user group view takes effect on all local users in the user group.

The attribute configured in local user view takes effect only on the local user.

·     Password control attributes—Password control attributes help control password security for local users. Password control attributes include password aging time, minimum password length, password composition checking, password complexity checking, and login attempt limit.

You can configure a password control attribute in system view, user group view, or local user view. A password control attribute with a smaller effective range has a higher priority. For more information about password management and global password configuration, see "Configuring password control."

·     Validity period—Time period in which a network access user is considered valid for authentication.

Local user configuration tasks at a glance

To configure local users, perform the following tasks:

1.     Configuring local user attributes

¡     Configuring attributes for device management users

¡     Configuring attributes for network access users

2.     (Optional.) Configuring user group attributes

3.     (Optional.) Configuring the local user auto-delete feature

Configuring attributes for device management users

Restrictions and guidelines

When you configure the interface binding attribute for a device management user, follow these restrictions and guidelines to avoid authentication failure:

·     Specify the actual access interface of the user as the binding interface for the user.

·     Make sure the user's authentication packets include the user's access interface.

If password control is globally enabled for device management users by using the password-control enable command, the device neither displays local user passwords nor retains them in the running configuration. When you globally disable password control for device management users, local user passwords are automatically restored to the running configuration. To display the running configuration, use the display current-configuration command.

You can configure authorization attributes and password control attributes in local user view or user group view. The setting in local user view takes precedence over the setting in user group view.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Add a device management user and enter device management user view.

local-user user-name class manage

3.     Configure a password for the device management user.

In non-FIPS mode:

password [ { hash | simple } string ]

A non-password-protected user passes authentication if the user provides the correct username and passes attribute checks. To enhance security, configure a password for each device management user.

In FIPS mode:

password

Only password-protected users can pass authentication. You must set the password in interactive mode for a device management user.

4.     Assign services to the device management user.

In non-FIPS mode:

service-type { ftp | { http | https | ssh | telnet | terminal } * }

In FIPS mode:

service-type { https | ssh | terminal } *

By default, no services are authorized to a device management user.

5.     (Optional.) Set the status of the device management user.

state { active | block }

By default, a device management user is in active state and can request network services.

6.     (Optional.) Set the upper limit of concurrent logins using the device management username.

access-limit max-user-number

By default, the number of concurrent logins is not limited for a device management user.

This command takes effect only when local accounting is configured for device management users. This command does not apply to FTP, SFTP, or SCP users that do not support accounting.

7.     (Optional.) Configure the interface binding attribute for the device management user.

bind-attribute location interface interface-type interface-number

By default, no interface binding attribute is configured for a device management user.

8.     (Optional.) Configure authorization attributes for the device management user.

authorization-attribute { idle-cut minutes | user-role role-name | work-directory directory-name } *

The following default settings apply:

¡     The working directory for FTP, SFTP, and SCP users is the root directory of the NAS. However, the users do not have permission to access the root directory.

¡     The network-operator user role is assigned to local users that are created by a network-admin or level-15 user.

9.     (Optional.) Configure password control attributes for the device management user. Choose the following tasks as needed:

¡     Set the password aging time.

password-control aging aging-time

¡     Set the minimum password length.

password-control length length

¡     Configure the password composition policy.

password-control composition type-number type-number [ type-length type-length ]

¡     Configure the password complexity checking policy.

password-control complexity { same-character | user-name } check

¡     Configure the maximum login attempts and the action to take if there is a login failure.

password-control login-attempt login-times [ exceed { lock | lock-time time | unlock } ]

By default, a device management user uses password control attributes of the user group to which the user belongs.

10.     (Optional.) Assign the device management user to a user group.

group group-name

By default, a device management user belongs to user group system.

Configuring attributes for network access users

Restrictions and guidelines

If password control is globally enabled for network access users by using the password-control enable network-class command, the device neither displays local user passwords nor retains them in the running configuration. When you globally disable password control for network access users, local user passwords are automatically restored to the running configuration. To display the running configuration, use the display current-configuration command.

You can configure authorization attributes and password control attributes in local user view or user group view. The setting in local user view takes precedence over the setting in user group view.

Configure the location binding attribute based on the service types of users.

·     For 802.1X users, specify the 802.1X-enabled Layer 2 Ethernet interfaces through which the users access the device.

·     For MAC authentication users, specify the MAC authentication-enabled Layer 2 Ethernet interfaces through which the users access the device.

·     For Web authentication users, specify the Web authentication-enabled Layer 2 Ethernet interfaces through which the users access the device.

·     For portal users, specify the portal-enabled interfaces through which the users access the device. Specify the Layer 2 Ethernet interfaces if portal is enabled on VLAN interfaces and the portal roaming enable command is not used.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Add a network access user and enter network access user view.

local-user user-name class network

3.     (Optional.) Configure a password for the network access user.

password { cipher | simple } string

4.     (Optional.) Configure a description for the network access user.

description text

By default, no description is configured for a local user.

5.     Assign services to the network access user.

service-type { lan-access | portal }

By default, no services are authorized to a network access user.

6.     (Optional.) Set the status of the network access user.

state { active | block }

By default, a network access user is in active state and can request network services.

7.     (Optional.) Set the upper limit of concurrent logins using the network access username.

access-limit max-user-number

By default, the number of concurrent logins is not limited for a network access user.

8.     (Optional.) Configure binding attributes for the network access user.

bind-attribute { ip ip-address | location interface interface-type interface-number | mac mac-address | vlan vlan-id } *

By default, no binding attributes are configured for a network access user.

9.     (Optional.) Configure authorization attributes for the network access user.

authorization-attribute { acl acl-number | idle-cut minutes | ip-pool ipv4-pool-name | ipv6-pool ipv6-pool-name | session-timeout minutes | user-profile profile-name | vlan vlan-id } *

By default, a network access user does not have authorization attributes.

10.     (Optional.) Configure password control attributes for the network access user. Choose the following tasks as needed:

¡     Set the minimum password length.

password-control length length

¡     Configure the password composition policy.

password-control composition type-number type-number [ type-length type-length ]

¡     Configure the password complexity checking policy.

password-control complexity { same-character | user-name } check

By default, a network access user uses password control attributes of the user group to which the user belongs.

11.     (Optional.) Assign the network access user to a user group.

group group-name

By default, a network access user belongs to user group system.

12.     (Optional.) specify the validity period for the local user.

validity-datetime { from start-date start-time to expiration-date expiration-time | from start-date start-time | to expiration-date expiration-time }

By default, the validity period for a network access user does not expire.

Configuring user group attributes

About this task

User groups simplify local user configuration and management. A user group contains a group of local users and has a set of local user attributes. You can configure local user attributes for a user group to implement centralized user attributes management for the local users in the group. Local user attributes that are manageable include authorization attributes.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create a user group and enter user group view.

user-group group-name

By default, a system-defined user group exists. The group name is system.

3.     Configure authorization attributes for the user group.

authorization-attribute { acl acl-number | idle-cut minutes | ip-pool ipv4-pool-name | ipv6-pool ipv6-pool-name | session-timeout minutes | user-profile profile-name | vlan vlan-id | work-directory directory-name } *

By default, no authorization attributes are configured for a user group.

4.     (Optional.) Configure password control attributes for the user group. Choose the following tasks as needed:

¡     Set the password aging time.

password-control aging aging-time

¡     Set the minimum password length.

password-control length length

¡     Configure the password composition policy.

password-control composition type-number type-number [ type-length type-length ]

¡     Configure the password complexity checking policy.

password-control complexity { same-character | user-name } check

¡     Configure the maximum login attempts and the action to take for login failures.

password-control login-attempt login-times [ exceed { lock | lock-time time | unlock } ]

By default, a user group uses the global password control settings. For more information, see "Configuring password control."

Configuring the local user auto-delete feature

About this task

This feature enables the device to examine the validity of local users at fixed time periods of 10 minutes and automatically delete expired local users.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view

system-view

2.     Enable the local user auto-delete feature.

local-user auto-delete enable

By default, the local user auto-delete feature is disabled.

Display and maintenance commands for local users and local user groups

Execute display commands in any view.

 

Task

Command

Display the local user configuration and online user statistics.

display local-user [ class { manage | network } | idle-cut { disable | enable } | service-type { ftp | http | https | lan-access | portal | ssh | telnet | terminal } | state { active | block } | user-name user-name class { manage | network } | vlan vlan-id ]

Display user group configuration.

display user-group { all | name group-name }

 

Configuring RADIUS

RADIUS tasks at a glance

To configure RADIUS, perform the following tasks:

1.     Configuring an EAP profile

To perform EAP-based RADIUS server status detection, you must configure an EAP profile and specify the EAP profile in a test profile.

2.     Configuring a test profile for RADIUS server status detection

To detect the status of a RADIUS server, you must configure a test profile and configure the RADIUS server to use the test profile in a RADIUS scheme.

3.     Creating a RADIUS scheme

4.     Specifying RADIUS authentication servers

5.     Specifying the RADIUS accounting servers

6.     Specifying the shared keys for secure RADIUS communication

Perform this task if no shared keys are specified when configuring RADIUS authentication or accounting servers.

7.     Specifying the MPLS L3VPN instance for a RADIUS scheme

Perform this task if no MPLS L3VPN instances are specified when configuring RADIUS authentication or accounting servers.

8.     (Optional.) Setting the status of RADIUS servers

9.     (Optional.) Setting RADIUS timers

10.     (Optional.) Configuring parameters for RADIUS packets

¡     Specifying the source IP address for outgoing RADIUS packets

¡     Setting the username format and traffic statistics units

¡     Setting the maximum number of RADIUS request transmission attempts

¡     Setting the maximum number of real-time accounting attempts

¡     Setting the DSCP priority for RADIUS packets

11.     (Optional.) Configuring parameters for RADIUS attributes

¡     Configuring the Login-Service attribute check method for SSH, FTP, and terminal users

¡     Interpreting the RADIUS class attribute as CAR parameters

¡     Configuring the format of the RADIUS Called-Station-Id attribute

¡     Configuring the MAC address format for the RADIUS Called-Station-Id attribute

¡     Configuring the MAC address format for the RADIUS Calling-Station-Id attribute

¡     Setting the data measurement unit for the Remanent_Volume attribute

¡     Including subattribute 218 of vendor 25506 in outgoing RADIUS packets

¡     Configuring the RADIUS attribute translation feature

12.     (Optional.) Configuring extended RADIUS features

¡     Configuring RADIUS stop-accounting packet buffering

¡     Enabling forcibly sending stop-accounting packets

¡     Enabling the RADIUS server load sharing feature

¡     Specifying a RADIUS server selection mode for reauthentication

¡     Configuring the RADIUS accounting-on feature

¡     Configuring the RADIUS session-control feature

¡     Configuring the RADIUS DAS feature

¡     Enabling SNMP notifications for RADIUS

¡     Disabling the RADIUS service

Restrictions and guidelines for RADIUS configuration

If the authentication server in a RADIUS scheme is provided by the RADIUS server feature on the device, you need to configure only the following items for the RADIUS scheme:

·     RADIUS authentication server.

·     Shared key for RADIUS communication.

·     Username format for interaction with the RADIUS server.

Configuring an EAP profile

About this task

An EAP profile is a collection of EAP authentication settings, including the EAP authentication method and the CA certificate file to be used for some EAP authentication methods.

Restrictions and guidelines

You can specify an EAP profile in multiple test profiles.

You can configure a maximum of 16 EAP profiles.

Prerequisites

Before you specify a CA certificate file, use FTP or TFTP to transfer the CA certificate file to the root directory of the default storage medium on the device.

In an IRF fabric, make sure the CA certificate file exists in the root directory of the default storage medium on the master device before you specify the file.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create an EAP profile and enter EAP profile view.

eap-profile eap-profile-name

3.     Specify the EAP authentication method.

method { md5 | peap-gtc | peap-mschapv2 | ttls-gtc | ttls-mschapv2 }

By default, the EAP authentication method is MD5-challenge.

4.     Specify a CA certificate file for EAP authentication.

ca-file file-name

By default, no CA certificate file is specified for EAP authentication.

You must specify a CA certificate file to verify the RADIUS server certificate if the EAP authentication method is PEAP-GTC, PEAP-MSCHAPv2, TTLS-GTC, or TTLS-MSCHAPv2.

Configuring a test profile for RADIUS server status detection

About this task

To detect the reachability or availability of a RADIUS authentication server, specify a test profile for the RADIUS server when you specify the server in a RADIUS scheme. With the test profile, the device refreshes the RADIUS server status at each detection interval according to the detection result. If the server is unreachable or unavailable, the device sets the status of the server to blocked. If the server is reachable or available, the device sets the status of the server to active.

The device supports the following RADIUS server status detection methods:

·     Simple detection—For a RADIUS server, the device simulates an authentication request with the username and password specified in the test profile used by the server. The authentication request is sent to the RADIUS server within each detection interval. The device determines that the RADIUS server is reachable if the device receives a response from the server within the interval.

·     EAP-based detection—For a RADIUS server, the device simulates an EAP authentication with the username and password specified in the test profile used by the server. The simulated EAP authentication starts at the beginning of each detection interval. If the EAP authentication completes within a detection interval, the device determines that the RADIUS server is available.

Simulating a complete EAP authentication process, EAP-based detection provides more reliable detection results than simple detection. As a best practice, configure EAP-based detection on a network environment where EAP authentication is configured.

Restrictions and guidelines

You can configure multiple test profiles in the system.

The device starts detecting the status of a RADIUS authentication server only if an existing test profile is specified for the server.

If you specify a nonexistent EAP profile in a test profile, the device performs simple detection for the RADIUS servers that use the test profile. After the EAP profile is configured, the device will start EAP-based detection at the next detection interval.

The device stops detecting the status of a RADIUS server when one of the following operations is performed:

·     The RADIUS server is removed from the RADIUS scheme.

·     The test profile configuration for the RADIUS server is removed in RADIUS scheme view.

·     The test profile specified for the RADIUS server is deleted.

·     The RADIUS server is manually set to the blocked state.

·     The RADIUS scheme that contains the RADIUS server is deleted.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Configure a test profile for detecting the status of RADIUS authentication servers.

radius-server test-profile profile-name username name [ password { cipher | simple } string ] [ interval interval ] [ eap-profile eap-profile-name ]

Creating a RADIUS scheme

Restrictions and guidelines

You can configure a maximum of 16 RADIUS schemes. A RADIUS scheme can be used by multiple ISP domains.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create a RADIUS scheme and enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

Specifying RADIUS authentication servers

About this task

A RADIUS authentication server completes authentication and authorization together, because authorization information is piggybacked in authentication responses sent to RADIUS clients.

You can specify one primary authentication server and a maximum of 16 secondary authentication servers for a RADIUS scheme. Secondary servers provide AAA services when the primary server becomes unreachable. The device searches for an active server in the order the secondary servers are configured.

When RADIUS server load sharing is enabled, the device distributes the workload over all servers without considering the primary and secondary server roles. The device checks the weight value and number of currently served users for each active server, and then determines the most appropriate server in performance to receive an authentication request.

Restrictions and guidelines

If redundancy is not required, specify only the primary server.

A RADIUS authentication server can function as the primary authentication server for one scheme and a secondary authentication server for another scheme at the same time.

Two authentication servers in a scheme, primary or secondary, cannot have the same combination of VPN instance, host name, IP address, and port number.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Specify the primary RADIUS authentication server.

primary authentication { host-name | ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | key { cipher | simple } string | test-profile profile-name | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name | weight weight-value ] *

By default, no primary RADIUS authentication server is specified.

The weight keyword takes effect only when the RADIUS server load sharing feature is enabled for the RADIUS scheme.

4.     (Optional.) Specify a secondary RADIUS authentication server.

secondary authentication { host-name | ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | key { cipher | simple } string | test-profile profile-name | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name | weight weight-value ] *

By default, no secondary RADIUS authentication servers are specified.

The weight keyword takes effect only when the RADIUS server load sharing feature is enabled for the RADIUS scheme.

Specifying the RADIUS accounting servers

About this task

You can specify one primary accounting server and a maximum of 16 secondary accounting servers for a RADIUS scheme. Secondary servers provide AAA services when the primary server becomes unavailable. The device searches for an active server in the order the secondary servers are configured.

When RADIUS server load sharing is enabled, the device distributes the workload over all servers without considering the primary and secondary server roles. The device checks the weight value and number of currently served users for each active server, and then determines the most appropriate server in performance to receive an accounting request.

Restrictions and guidelines

If redundancy is not required, specify only the primary server.

A RADIUS accounting server can function as the primary accounting server for one scheme and a secondary accounting server for another scheme at the same time.

Two accounting servers in a scheme, primary or secondary, cannot have the same combination of VPN instance, host name, IP address, and port number.

RADIUS does not support accounting for FTP, SFTP, and SCP users.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Specify the primary RADIUS accounting server.

primary accounting { host-name | ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | key { cipher | simple } string | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name | weight weight-value ] *

By default, no primary RADIUS accounting server is specified.

The weight keyword takes effect only when the RADIUS server load sharing feature is enabled for the RADIUS scheme.

4.     (Optional.) Specify a secondary RADIUS accounting server.

secondary accounting { host-name | ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | key { cipher | simple } string | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name | weight weight-value ] *

By default, no secondary RADIUS accounting servers are specified.

The weight keyword takes effect only when the RADIUS server load sharing feature is enabled for the RADIUS scheme.

Specifying the shared keys for secure RADIUS communication

About this task

The RADIUS client and server use the MD5 algorithm and shared keys to generate the Authenticator value for packet authentication and user password encryption. The client and server must use the same key for each type of communication.

A key configured in this task is for all servers of the same type (accounting or authentication) in the scheme. The key has a lower priority than a key configured individually for a RADIUS server.

Restrictions and guidelines

The shared key configured on the device must be the same as the shared key configured on the RADIUS server.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Specify a shared key for secure RADIUS communication.

key { accounting | authentication } { cipher | simple } string

By default, no shared key is specified for secure RADIUS communication.

Specifying the MPLS L3VPN instance for a RADIUS scheme

About this task

The VPN instance specified for a RADIUS scheme applies to all authentication and accounting servers in that scheme. If a VPN instance is also configured for an individual RADIUS server, the VPN instance specified for the RADIUS scheme does not take effect on that server.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Specify a VPN instance for the RADIUS scheme.

vpn-instance vpn-instance-name

By default, a RADIUS scheme belongs to the public network.

Setting the status of RADIUS servers

About this task

To control the RADIUS servers with which the device communicates when the current servers are no longer available, set the status of RADIUS servers to blocked or active. You can specify one primary RADIUS server and multiple secondary RADIUS servers. The secondary servers function as the backup of the primary server. When the RADIUS server load sharing feature is disabled, the device chooses servers based on the following rules:

·     When the primary server is in active state, the device first tries to communicate with the primary server. If the primary server is unreachable, the device searches for an active secondary server in the order the servers are configured.

·     When one or more servers are in active state, the device tries to communicate with these active servers only, even if the servers are unavailable.

·     When all servers are in blocked state, the device only tries to communicate with the primary server.

·     If a server is unreachable, the device performs the following operations:

¡     Changes the server status to blocked.

¡     Starts a quiet timer for the server.

¡     Tries to communicate with the next secondary server in active state that has the highest priority.

·     When the quiet timer of a server expires or you manually set the server to the active state, the status of the server changes back to active. The device does not check the server again during the authentication or accounting process.

·     The search process continues until the device finds an available secondary server or has checked all secondary servers in active state. If no server is reachable, the device considers the authentication or accounting attempt a failure.

·     When you remove a server in use, communication with the server times out. The device looks for a server in active state by first checking the primary server, and then checking secondary servers in the order they are configured.

·     When a RADIUS server's status changes automatically, the device changes this server's status accordingly in all RADIUS schemes in which this server is specified.

·     When a RADIUS server is manually set to blocked, server detection is disabled for the server, regardless of whether a test profile has been specified for the server. When the RADIUS server is set to active state, server detection is enabled for the server on which an existing test profile is specified.

By default, the device sets the status of all RADIUS servers to active. However, in some situations, you must change the status of a server. For example, if a server fails, you can change the status of the server to blocked to avoid communication attempts to the server.

Restrictions and guidelines

The configured server status cannot be saved to any configuration file, and can only be viewed by using the display radius scheme command.

After the device restarts, all servers are restored to the active state.

The device selects a reachable server for the authentication or accounting of a new user according to the server selection rules in this section if the RADIUS server load sharing feature is disabled. However, these rules are inapplicable to the reauthentication of online users if the RADIUS server selection mode for reauthentication is set to inherit by using the reauthentication server-select inherit command.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Set the RADIUS server status. Choose the following tasks as needed:

¡     Set the status of the primary RADIUS authentication server.

state primary authentication { active | block }

¡     Set the status of the primary RADIUS accounting server.

state primary accounting { active | block }

¡     Set the status of a secondary RADIUS authentication server.

state secondary authentication [ { host-name | ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] * ] { active | block }

¡     Set the status of a secondary RADIUS accounting server.

state secondary accounting [ { host-name | ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] * ] { active | block }

By default, a RADIUS server is in active state.

Setting RADIUS timers

About this task

The device uses the following types of timers to control communication with a RADIUS server:

·     Server response timeout timer (response-timeout)—Defines the RADIUS request retransmission interval. The timer starts immediately after a RADIUS request is sent. If the device does not receive a response from the RADIUS server before the timer expires, it resends the request.

·     Server quiet timer (quiet)—Defines the duration to keep an unreachable server in blocked state. If one server is not reachable, the device changes the server status to blocked, starts this timer for the server, and tries to communicate with another server in active state. After the server quiet timer expires, the device changes the status of the server back to active.

·     Real-time accounting timer (realtime-accounting)—Defines the interval at which the device sends real-time accounting packets to the RADIUS accounting server for online users.

Restrictions and guidelines

Consider the number of secondary servers when you configure the maximum number of RADIUS packet transmission attempts and the RADIUS server response timeout timer. If the RADIUS scheme includes many secondary servers, the retransmission process might be too long and the client connection in the access module, such as Telnet, can time out.

When the client connections have a short timeout period, a large number of secondary servers can cause the initial authentication or accounting attempt to fail. In this case, reconnect the client rather than adjusting the RADIUS packet transmission attempts and server response timeout timer. Typically, the next attempt will succeed, because the device has blocked the unreachable servers to shorten the time to find a reachable server.

Make sure the server quiet timer is set correctly. A timer that is too short might result in frequent authentication or accounting failures. This is because the device will continue to attempt to communicate with an unreachable server that is in active state. A timer that is too long might temporarily block a reachable server that has recovered from a failure. This is because the server will remain in blocked state until the timer expires.

A short real-time accounting interval helps improve accounting precision but requires many system resources. When there are 1000 or more users, set the interval to 15 minutes or longer.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Set RADIUS timers. Choose the following tasks as needed:

¡     Set the RADIUS server response timeout timer.

timer response-timeout seconds

The default setting is 3 seconds.

¡     Set the quiet timer for the servers.

timer quiet minutes

The default setting is 5 minutes.

¡     Set the real-time accounting timer.

timer realtime-accounting interval [ second ]

The default setting is 12 minutes.

Specifying the source IP address for outgoing RADIUS packets

About this task

The source IP address of RADIUS packets that a NAS sends must match the IP address of the NAS configured on the RADIUS server. A RADIUS server identifies a NAS by its IP address. Upon receiving a RADIUS packet, the RADIUS server checks the source IP address of the packet.

·     If it is the IP address of a managed NAS, the server processes the packet.

·     If it is not the IP address of a managed NAS, the server drops the packet.

Before sending a RADIUS packet, the NAS selects a source IP address in the following order:

1.     The source IP address specified for the RADIUS scheme.

2.     The source IP address specified in system view for the VPN or public network, depending on where the RADIUS server resides.

3.     The IP address of the outbound interface specified by the route.

Restrictions and guidelines for source IP address configuration

You can specify a source IP address for outgoing RADIUS packets in RADIUS scheme view or in system view.

·     The IP address specified in RADIUS scheme view applies only to one RADIUS scheme.

·     The IP address specified in system view applies to all RADIUS schemes.

The source IP address of RADIUS packets that a NAS sends must match the IP address of the NAS that is configured on the RADIUS server.

As a best practice, specify a loopback interface address as the source IP address for outgoing RADIUS packets to avoid RADIUS packet loss caused by physical port errors.

The source address of outgoing RADIUS packets is typically the IP address of an egress interface on the NAS to communicate with the RADIUS server. However, in some situations, you must change the source IP address. For example, when VRRP is configured for stateful failover, configure the virtual IP of the uplink VRRP group as the source address.

You can directly specify a source IP address for outgoing RADIUS packets or specify a source interface to provide the source IP address for outgoing RADIUS packets. The source interface configuration and the source IP address configuration overwrite each other.

Specifying a source interface or source IP address for all RADIUS schemes

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Specify a source interface or source IP address for outgoing RADIUS packets.

radius nas-ip { interface interface-type interface-number | { ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] }

By default, the source IP address of an outgoing RADIUS packet is the primary IPv4 address or the IPv6 address of the outbound interface.

Specifying a source interface or source IP address for a RADIUS scheme

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Specify a source interface or source IP address for outgoing RADIUS packets.

nas-ip { ipv4-address | interface interface-type interface-number | ipv6 ipv6-address }

By default, the source IP address of an outgoing RADIUS packet is that specified by using the radius nas-ip command in system view. If the radius nas-ip command is not used, the source IP address is the primary IP address of the outbound interface.

Setting the username format and traffic statistics units

About this task

A username is in the userid@isp-name format, where the isp-name part represents the user's ISP domain name. By default, the ISP domain name is included in a username. However, older RADIUS servers might not recognize usernames that contain the ISP domain names. In this case, you can configure the device to remove the domain name of each username to be sent.

The device reports online user traffic statistics in accounting packets. The traffic measurement units are configurable.

Restrictions and guidelines

If two or more ISP domains use the same RADIUS scheme, configure the RADIUS scheme to keep the ISP domain name in usernames for domain identification.

For accounting accuracy, make sure the traffic statistics units configured on the device and on the RADIUS accounting servers are the same.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Set the format for usernames sent to the RADIUS servers.

user-name-format { keep-original | with-domain | without-domain }

By default, the ISP domain name is included in a username.

If the device is specified as the RADIUS server in the scheme, the username format must be set to without-domain.

4.     Set the data flow and packet measurement units for traffic statistics.

data-flow-format { data { byte | giga-byte | kilo-byte | mega-byte } | packet { giga-packet | kilo-packet | mega-packet | one-packet } }*

By default, traffic is counted in bytes and packets.

Setting the maximum number of RADIUS request transmission attempts

About this task

RADIUS uses UDP packets to transfer data. Because UDP communication is not reliable, RADIUS uses a retransmission mechanism to improve reliability. A RADIUS request is retransmitted if the NAS does not receive a server response for the request within the response timeout timer. For more information about the RADIUS server response timeout timer, see "Setting the status of RADIUS servers."

You can set the maximum number for the NAS to retransmit a RADIUS request to the same server. When the maximum number is reached, the NAS tries to communicate with other RADIUS servers in active state. If no other servers are in active state at the time, the NAS considers the authentication or accounting attempt a failure.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Set the maximum number of RADIUS request transmission attempts.

retry retries

By default, the maximum number is 3 for RADIUS request transmission attempts.

Setting the maximum number of real-time accounting attempts

About this task

If you set the maximum number of real-time accounting attempts, the device will disconnect users from whom no accounting responses are received within the permitted attempts.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Set the maximum number of real-time accounting attempts.

retry realtime-accounting retries

By default, the maximum number is 5 for real-time accounting attempts.

Setting the DSCP priority for RADIUS packets

About this task

The DSCP priority in the ToS field determines the transmission priority of RADIUS packets. A larger value represents a higher priority.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Set the DSCP priority for RADIUS packets.

radius [ ipv6 ] dscp dscp-value

By default, the DSCP priority is 0 for RADIUS packets.

Configuring the Login-Service attribute check method for SSH, FTP, and terminal users

About this task

The device supports the following check methods for the Login-Service attribute (RADIUS attribute 15) of SSH, FTP, and terminal users:

·     Strict—Matches Login-Service attribute values 50, 51, and 52 for SSH, FTP, and terminal services, respectively.

·     Loose—Matches the standard Login-Service attribute value 0 for SSH, FTP, and terminal services.

An Access-Accept packet received for a user must contain the matching attribute value. Otherwise, the user cannot log in to the device.

Restrictions and guidelines

Use the loose check method only when the server does not issue Login-Service attribute values 50, 51, and 52 for SSH, FTP, and terminal users.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Configure the Login-Service attribute check method for SSH, FTP, and terminal users.

attribute 15 check-mode { loose | strict }

The default check method is strict.

Interpreting the RADIUS class attribute as CAR parameters

About this task

A RADIUS server may deliver CAR parameters for user-based traffic monitoring and control by using the RADIUS class attribute (attribute 25) in RADIUS packets. You can configure the device to interpret the class attribute to CAR parameters.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Interpret the RADIUS class attribute as CAR parameters.

attribute 25 car

By default, the RADIUS class attribute is not interpreted as CAR parameters.

Configuring the format of the RADIUS Called-Station-Id attribute

About this task

In a wireless network, RADIUS servers of different types might have different requirements for the format of the RADIUS Called-Station-Id attribute (attribute 30). The device supports the following formats:

·     AP name. For example, ap1.

·     AP MAC. For example, 0AC1-F9B2-B1C2.

·     AP MAC plus delimiter plus SSID. For example, 0AC1-F9B2-B1C2:test1, in which 0AC1-F9B2-B1C2 is the AP's MAC address, test1 is the SSID, and a colon (:) is used as the delimiter.

·     AP name plus delimiter plus SSID. For example, ap1-test1, in which ap1 is the AP's name, test1 is the SSID, and a hyphen (-) is used as the delimiter.

The format of the MAC address in this attribute can be customized by using the attribute 30 mac-format command.

Software version and feature compatibility

This feature is supported only in Release 6522 and later.

Restrictions and guidelines

This configuration takes effect only on RADIUS packets for portal, 802.1X, and MAC authentication users in a wireless network.

Make sure the format of the Called-Station-Id attribute meets the requirements of the RADIUS servers.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Configure the format of the RADIUS Called-Station-Id attribute.

attribute 30 format { apmac-only | apname-only | { apmac-ssid | apname-ssid } delimiter { colon | hyphen } }

By default, the RADIUS Called-Station-Id attribute is in the format of HH-HH-HH-HH-HH-HH:SSID. The HH-HH-HH-HH-HH-HH argument is the AP's MAC address, the SSID argument is the SSID, and a colon (:) is used as the delimiter.

Configuring the MAC address format for the RADIUS Called-Station-Id attribute

Software version and feature compatibility

This feature is supported only in Release 6522 and later.

Restrictions and guidelines

RADIUS servers of different types might have different requirements for the MAC address format in the RADIUS Called-Station-Id attribute. Configure the MAC address format for this attribute to meet the requirements of the RADIUS servers.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Configure the MAC address format for the RADIUS Called-Station-Id attribute.

attribute 30 mac-format section { one | { six | three } separator separator-character } { lowercase | uppercase }

By default, the MAC address in the RADIUS Called-Station-Id attribute is in the format of HH-HH-HH-HH-HH-HH. The MAC address is separated by hyphen (-) into six sections with letters in upper case.

Configuring the MAC address format for the RADIUS Calling-Station-Id attribute

Restrictions and guidelines

RADIUS servers of different types might have different requirements for the MAC address format in the RADIUS Calling-Station-Id attribute (attribute 31). Configure the MAC address format for this attribute to meet the requirements of the RADIUS servers.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Configure the MAC address format for the RADIUS Calling-Station-Id attribute.

attribute 31 mac-format section { one | { six | three } separator separator-character } { lowercase | uppercase }

By default, the MAC address in the RADIUS Calling-Station-Id attribute is in the format of HH-HH-HH-HH-HH-HH. The MAC address is separated by hyphen (-) into six sections with letters in upper case.

Setting the data measurement unit for the Remanent_Volume attribute

About this task

The RADIUS server uses the Remanent_Volume attribute in authentication or real-time accounting responses to notify the device of the current amount of data available for online users.

Restrictions and guidelines

Make sure the configured measurement unit is the same as the user data measurement unit on the RADIUS server.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Set the data measurement unit for the Remanent_Volume attribute.

attribute remanent-volume unit { byte | giga-byte | kilo-byte | mega-byte }

By default, the data measurement unit is kilobyte.

Including subattribute 218 of vendor 25506 in outgoing RADIUS packets

About this task

The RADIUS Vendor-Specific attribute (attribute 26) allows vendors to define extended attributes to implement functions that the standard RADIUS protocol does not provide. Vendor 25506 defines subattribute 218 to carry user DHCP option information.

To send user DHCP option information to RADIUS servers, perform this task to include subattribute 218 of vendor 25506 in outgoing RADIUS start-accounting and update-accounting requests.

In the current software version, only DHCP Option 55 and DHCP Option 66 can be carried in the subattribute.

Restrictions and guidelines

You can repeat the include-attribute 218 vendor-id 25506 command to configure the device to encapsulate both DHCP Option 55 and DHCP Option 61 in the subattribute. The length of each option is limited to 246 bytes.

If you repeat this command multiple times with the same DHCP option specified, the most recent configuration takes effect.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Include subattribute 218 of vendor 25506 in outgoing RADIUS packets.

include-attribute 218 vendor-id 25506 dhcp-option { 55 | 61 } * { format1 | format2 }

By default, the device uses format 1 to encapsulate DHCP Option 61 in subattribute 218 of vendor 25506 in RADIUS packets.

Configuring the RADIUS attribute translation feature

About this task

The RADIUS attribute translation feature enables the device to work correctly with the RADIUS servers of different vendors that support RADIUS attributes incompatible with the device.

RADIUS attribute translation has the following implementations:

·     Attribute conversion—Converts source RADIUS attributes into destination RADIUS attributes based on RADIUS attribute conversion rules.

·     Attribute rejection—Rejects RADIUS attributes based on RADIUS attribute rejection rules.

When the RADIUS attribute translation feature is enabled, the device processes RADIUS packets as follows:

·     For the sent RADIUS packets:

¡     Deletes the rejected attributes from the packets.

¡     Uses the destination RADIUS attributes to replace the attributes that match RADIUS attribute conversion rules in the packets.

·     For the received RADIUS packets:

¡     Ignores the rejected attributes in the packets.

¡     Interprets the attributes that match RADIUS attribute conversion rules as the destination RADIUS attributes.

To identify proprietary RADIUS attributes, you can define the attributes as extended RADIUS attributes, and then convert the extended RADIUS attributes to device-supported attributes.

Restrictions and guidelines for RADIUS attribute translation configuration

Configure either conversion rules or rejection rules for a RADIUS attribute.

Configure either direction-based rules or packet type-based rules for a RADIUS attribute.

For direction-based translation of a RADIUS attribute, you can configure a rule for each direction (inbound or outbound). For packet type-based translation of a RADIUS attribute, you can configure a rule for each RADIUS packet type (RADIUS Access-Accept, RADIUS Access-Request, or RADIUS accounting).

Configuring the RADIUS attribute translation feature for a RADIUS scheme

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     (Optional.) Define an extended RADIUS attribute.

radius attribute extended attribute-name [ vendor vendor-id ] code attribute-code type { binary | date | integer | interface-id | ip | ipv6 | ipv6-prefix | octets | string }

3.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

4.     Enable the RADIUS attribute translation feature.

attribute translate

By default, this feature is disabled.

5.     Configure a RADIUS attribute conversion rule or a RADIUS attribute reject rule. Choose the following tasks as needed:

¡     Configure a RADIUS attribute conversion rule.

attribute convert src-attr-name to dest-attr-name { { access-accept | access-request | accounting } * | { received | sent } * }

By default, no RADIUS attribute conversion rules are configured.

¡     Configure a RADIUS attribute rejection rule.

attribute reject attr-name { { access-accept | access-request | accounting } * | { received | sent } * }

By default, no RADIUS attribute rejection rules are configured.

Configuring the RADIUS attribute translation feature for a RADIUS DAS

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     (Optional.) Define an extended RADIUS attribute.

radius attribute extended attribute-name [ vendor vendor-id ] code attribute-code type { binary | date | integer | interface-id | ip | ipv6 | ipv6-prefix | octets | string }

3.     Enter RADIUS DAS view.

radius dynamic-author server

4.     Enable the RADIUS attribute translation feature.

attribute translate

By default, this feature is disabled.

5.     Configure a RADIUS attribute conversion rule or a RADIUS attribute rejection rule. Choose the following tasks as needed:

¡     Configure a RADIUS attribute conversion rule.

attribute convert src-attr-name to dest-attr-name { { coa-ack | coa-request } * | { received | sent } * }

By default, no RADIUS attribute conversion rules are configured.

¡     Configure a RADIUS attribute rejection rule.

attribute reject attr-name { { coa-ack | coa-request } * | { received | sent } * }

By default, no RADIUS attribute rejection rules are configured.

Configuring RADIUS stop-accounting packet buffering

About this task

The device sends RADIUS stop-accounting requests when it receives connection teardown requests from hosts or connection teardown commands from an administrator. However, the device might fail to receive a response for a stop-accounting request in a single transmission. Enable the device to buffer RADIUS stop-accounting requests that have not received responses from the accounting server. The device will resend the requests until responses are received.

To limit the transmission times, set a maximum number of transmission attempts that can be made for individual RADIUS stop-accounting requests. When the maximum attempts are made for a request, the device discards the buffered request.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Enable buffering of RADIUS stop-accounting requests to which no responses have been received.

stop-accounting-buffer enable

By default, the buffering feature is enabled.

4.     (Optional.) Set the maximum number of transmission attempts for individual RADIUS stop-accounting requests.

retry stop-accounting retries

The default setting is 500.

Enabling forcibly sending stop-accounting packets

About this task

Typically, if the device does not send a start-accounting packet to the RADIUS server for an authenticated user, it does not send a stop-accounting packet when the user goes offline. If the server has generated a user entry for the user without start-accounting packets, it does not release the user entry when the user goes offline. This feature forces the device to send stop-accounting packets to the RADIUS server when the user goes offline for timely releasing the user entry on the server.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Enable the device to send stop-accounting packets when users for which no start-accounting packets are sent go offline.

stop-accounting-packet send-force

By default, forcibly sending stop-accounting packets is disabled. The device does not send stop-accounting packets when users for which no start-accounting packets are sent go offline.

Enabling the RADIUS server load sharing feature

About this task

By default, the device communicates with RADIUS servers based on the server roles. It first attempts to communicate with the primary server, and, if the primary server is unreachable, it then searches for the secondary servers in the order they are configured. The first secondary server in active state is used for communication. In this process, the workload is always placed on the active server.

Use the RADIUS server load sharing feature to dynamically distribute the workload over multiple servers regardless of their server roles. The device forwards an AAA request to the most appropriate server of all active servers in the scheme after it compares the weight values and numbers of currently served users. Specify a weight value for each RADIUS server based on the AAA capacity of the server. A larger weight value indicates a higher AAA capacity.

In RADIUS server load sharing, once the device sends a start-accounting request to a server for a user, it forwards all subsequent accounting requests of the user to the same server. If the accounting server is unreachable, the device returns an accounting failure message rather than searching for another active accounting server.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Enable the RADIUS server load sharing feature.

server-load-sharing enable

By default, this feature is disabled.

Specifying a RADIUS server selection mode for reauthentication

About this task

Use this feature to configure the RADIUS server selection mechanism in reauthentication. The following RADIUS server selection modes are available:

·     Inherit—The device uses the RADIUS server that performed authentication for a user to reauthenticate that user. This mode reduces the amount of time used in reauthentication. However, if the RADIUS server is unreachable, the reauthentication will fail.

·     Reselect—The device searches for a reachable RADIUS server to reauthenticate a user. This mode requires more time than the inherit mode. However, this mode ensures that the device uses the optimal reachable RADIUS server for reauthentication. The following factors affect the RADIUS server selection:

¡     Server configuration in the RADIUS scheme, including the configuration order.

¡     Enabling status of the RADIUS server load sharing feature.

¡     Status of the RADIUS servers in the RADIUS scheme.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Specify a RADIUS server selection mode for reauthentication.

reauthentication server-select { inherit | reselect }

By default, the inherit mode is used.

Configuring the RADIUS accounting-on feature

About this task

When the accounting-on feature is enabled, the device automatically sends an accounting-on packet to the RADIUS server after the entire device reboots. Upon receiving the accounting-on packet, the RADIUS server logs out all online users so they can log in again through the device. Without this feature, users cannot log in again after the reboot, because the RADIUS server considers them to come online.

You can configure the interval for which the device waits to resend the accounting-on packet and the maximum number of retries.

The extended accounting-on feature enhances the accounting-on feature in a distributed architecture.

The extended accounting-on feature is applicable to LAN users. The user data is saved to the IRF member devices through which the users access the system. When the extended accounting-on feature is enabled, the system automatically sends an accounting-on packet to the RADIUS server after a member device reboots. The packet contains the member device identifier. Upon receiving the accounting-on packet, the RADIUS server logs out all online users that access the system through the member device. If no users have come online through the member device, the IRF fabric does not send an accounting-on packet after the member device reboots.

Restrictions and guidelines

For the extended accounting-on feature to take effect, the RADIUS server must run on IMC and the accounting-on feature must be enabled.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Enable accounting-on.

accounting-on enable [ interval interval | send send-times ] *

By default, the accounting-on feature is disabled.

4.     (Optional.) Enable extended accounting-on.

accounting-on extended

By default, extended accounting-on is disabled.

Configuring the RADIUS session-control feature

About this task

Enable this feature for the RADIUS server to dynamically change the user authorization information (for example, authorization ACL, VLAN, user group, VSI, or blackhole MAC) or forcibly disconnect users by using session-control packets. This task enables the device to receive RADIUS session-control packets on UDP port 1812.

To verify the session-control packets sent from a RADIUS server, specify the RADIUS server as a session-control client to the device.

Restrictions and guidelines

The RADIUS session-control feature can only work with RADIUS servers running on IMC. The session-control client configuration takes effect only when the session-control feature is enabled.

If the device acts as the NAS and the IMC server deployed with EAD assigns authorization ACLs to the device, you must enable the session-control feature on the device. This ensures that the authorization ACLs can take effect.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enable the session-control feature.

radius session-control enable

By default, the session-control feature is disabled.

3.     Specify a session-control client.

radius session-control client { ip ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ key { cipher | simple } string | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] *

By default, no session-control clients are specified.

Configuring the RADIUS DAS feature

About this task

Dynamic Authorization Extensions (DAE) to RADIUS, defined in RFC 5176, can log off online users and change online user authorization information.

In a RADIUS network, the RADIUS server typically acts as the DAE client (DAC) and the NAS acts as the DAE server (DAS).

When the RADIUS DAS feature is enabled, the NAS performs the following operations:

1.     Listens to the default or specified UDP port to receive DAE requests.

2.     Logs off online users that match the criteria in the requests, changes their authorization information, shuts down or reboots their access ports, or reauthenticates the users.

3.     Sends DAE responses to the DAC.

DAE defines the following types of packets:

·     Disconnect Messages (DMs)—The DAC sends DM requests to the DAS to log off specific online users.

·     Change of Authorization Messages (CoA Messages)—The DAC sends CoA requests to the DAS to change the authorization information of specific online users.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enable the RADIUS DAS feature and enter RADIUS DAS view.

radius dynamic-author server

By default, the RADIUS DAS feature is disabled.

3.     Specify a RADIUS DAC.

client { ip ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ key { cipher | simple } string | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] *

By default, no RADIUS DACs are specified.

4.     (Optional.) Specify the RADIUS DAS port.

port port-number

By default, the RADIUS DAS port is 3799.

Enabling SNMP notifications for RADIUS

About this task

When SNMP notifications are enabled for RADIUS, the SNMP agent supports the following notifications generated by RADIUS:

·     RADIUS server unreachable notification—The RADIUS server cannot be reached. RADIUS generates this notification if it does not receive a response to an accounting or authentication request within the specified number of RADIUS request transmission attempts.

·     RADIUS server reachable notification—The RADIUS server can be reached. RADIUS generates this notification for a previously blocked RADIUS server after the quiet timer expires.

·     Excessive authentication failures notification—The number of authentication failures compared to the total number of authentication attempts exceeds the specified threshold.

For RADIUS SNMP notifications to be sent correctly, you must also configure SNMP on the device. For more information about SNMP configuration, see Network Management and Monitoring Configuration Guide.

Restrictions and guidelines

Make sure the RADIUS server status change notifications sent by the device can be recognized by the NMS. Choose a MIB node version depending on the NMS requirements. For more information about the MIB node versions, see AAA in Security Command Reference.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enable SNMP notifications for RADIUS.

snmp-agent trap enable radius [ accounting-server-down | accounting-server-up | authentication-error-threshold | authentication-server-down | authentication-server-up ] *

By default, all SNMP notifications are disabled for RADIUS.

3.     Set the version of RADIUS server status change MIB nodes.

radius trap-version { v1 | v2 } [ accounting-server-down | accounting-server-up | authentication-server-down | authentication-server-up ] *

By default, the device sends notifications about RADIUS server status change MIB nodes over SNMPv1.

Disabling the RADIUS service

About this task

By default, the RADIUS service is enabled. The device can send and receive RADIUS packets. Attackers might use RADIUS session-control and DAE ports to attack the device. To protect the device when such an attack occurs, disable the RADIUS service temporarily on the device. After the network is secure, re-enable the RADIUS service.

If settings on the RADIUS servers require modification or the RADIUS servers cannot provide services temporarily, you can temporarily disable the RADIUS service on the device.

When the RADIUS service is disabled, the device stops sending and receiving RADIUS packets. If a new user comes online, the device uses the backup authentication, authorization, or accounting method to process that user. If the device has not finished requesting authentication or accounting for a user before the RADIUS service is disabled, it uses the following rules to process that user:

·     If the device has sent RADIUS authentication requests for that user to a RADIUS server, the device processes that user depending on whether it receives a response from the RADIUS server.

¡     If the device receives a response from the RADIUS server, it uses the response to determine whether that user has passed authentication. If that user has passed authentication, the device assigns authorization information to that user according to the response.

¡     If the device does not receive any response from the RADIUS server, it attempts to use the backup authentication method to authenticate that user.

·     If the device has sent RADIUS start-accounting requests for that user to a RADIUS server, the device processes that user depending on whether it receives a response from the RADIUS server.

¡     If the device receives a response from the RADIUS server, it allows that user to come online. However, the device cannot send out accounting-update or stop-accounting requests to the RADIUS server. It cannot buffer the accounting requests, either. When that user goes offline, the RADIUS server cannot log off that user in time. The accounting result might be inaccurate.

¡     If the device does not receive any response from the RADIUS server, it attempts to use the backup accounting method.

Restrictions and guidelines

Disabling the RADIUS service does not affect the RADIUS server feature of the device.

The authentication, authorization, and accounting processes undertaken by other methods are not switched to RADIUS when you re-enable the RADIUS service.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Disable the RADIUS service.

undo radius enable

By default, the RADIUS service is enabled.

To re-enable the RADIUS service, use the radius enable command.

Display and maintenance commands for RADIUS

Execute display commands in any view and reset commands in user view.

 

Task

Command

Display the RADIUS scheme configuration.

display radius scheme [ radius-scheme-name ]

Display authentication and accounting load statistics for all RADIUS servers.

display radius server-load statistics

Display RADIUS packet statistics.

display radius statistics

Display information about buffered RADIUS stop-accounting requests to which no responses have been received.

display stop-accounting-buffer { radius-scheme radius-scheme-name | session-id session-id | time-range start-time end-time | user-name user-name }

Clear history authentication and accounting load statistics for all RADIUS servers.

reset radius server-load statistics

Clear RADIUS statistics.

reset radius statistics

Clear the buffered RADIUS stop-accounting requests to which no responses have been received.

reset stop-accounting-buffer { radius-scheme radius-scheme-name | session-id session-id | time-range start-time end-time | user-name user-name }

 

Configuring HWTACACS

HWTACACS tasks at a glance

To configure HWTACACS, perform the following tasks:

1.     Creating an HWTACACS scheme

2.     Specifying the HWTACACS authentication servers

3.     Specifying the HWTACACS authorization servers

4.     Specifying the HWTACACS accounting servers

5.     Specifying the shared keys for secure HWTACACS communication

Perform this task if no shared keys are specified when configuring HWTACACS servers.

6.     Specifying an MPLS L3VPN instance for the scheme

Perform this task if no MPLS L3VPN instances are specified when configuring HWTACACS servers.

7.     (Optional.) Setting HWTACACS timers

8.     (Optional.) Configuring parameters for HWTACACS packets

Specifying the source IP address for outgoing HWTACACS packets

Setting the username format and traffic statistics units

9.     (Optional.) Configuring HWTACACS stop-accounting packet buffering

Creating an HWTACACS scheme

Restrictions and guidelines

You can configure a maximum of 16 HWTACACS schemes. An HWTACACS scheme can be used by multiple ISP domains.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create an HWTACACS scheme and enter HWTACACS scheme view.

hwtacacs scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

Specifying the HWTACACS authentication servers

About this task

You can specify one primary authentication server and a maximum of 16 secondary authentication servers for an HWTACACS scheme. When the primary server is unreachable, the device searches for the secondary servers in the order they are configured. The first secondary server in active state is used for communication.

Restrictions and guidelines

If redundancy is not required, specify only the primary server.

An HWTACACS server can function as the primary authentication server in one scheme and as the secondary authentication server in another scheme at the same time.

Two HWTACACS authentication servers in a scheme, primary or secondary, cannot have the same combination of VPN instance, host name, IP address, and port number.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter HWTACACS scheme view.

hwtacacs scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

3.     Specify the primary HWTACACS authentication server.

primary authentication { host-name | ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | key { cipher | simple } string | single-connection | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] *

By default, no primary HWTACACS authentication server is specified.

4.     (Optional.) Specify a secondary HWTACACS authentication server.

secondary authentication { host-name | ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | key { cipher | simple } string | single-connection | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] *

By default, no secondary HWTACACS authentication servers are specified.

Specifying the HWTACACS authorization servers

About this task

You can specify one primary authorization server and a maximum of 16 secondary authorization servers for an HWTACACS scheme. When the primary server is not available, the device searches for the secondary servers in the order they are configured. The first secondary server in active state is used for communication.

Restrictions and guidelines

If redundancy is not required, specify only the primary server.

An HWTACACS server can function as the primary authorization server of one scheme and as the secondary authorization server of another scheme at the same time.

Two HWTACACS authorization servers in a scheme, primary or secondary, cannot have the same combination of VPN instance, host name, IP address, and port number.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter HWTACACS scheme view.

hwtacacs scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

3.     Specify the primary HWTACACS authorization server.

primary authorization { host-name | ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | key { cipher | simple } string | single-connection | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] *

By default, no primary HWTACACS authorization server is specified.

4.     (Optional.) Specify a secondary HWTACACS authorization server.

secondary authorization { host-name | ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | key { cipher | simple } string | single-connection | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] *

By default, no secondary HWTACACS authorization servers are specified.

Specifying the HWTACACS accounting servers

About this task

You can specify one primary accounting server and a maximum of 16 secondary accounting servers for an HWTACACS scheme. When the primary server is not available, the device searches for the secondary servers in the order they are configured. The first secondary server in active state is used for communication.

Restrictions and guidelines

If redundancy is not required, specify only the primary server.

An HWTACACS server can function as the primary accounting server of one scheme and as the secondary accounting server of another scheme at the same time.

Two HWTACACS accounting servers in a scheme, primary or secondary, cannot have the same combination of VPN instance, host name, IP address, and port number.

HWTACACS does not support accounting for FTP, SFTP, and SCP users.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter HWTACACS scheme view.

hwtacacs scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

3.     Specify the primary HWTACACS accounting server.

primary accounting { host-name | ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | key { cipher | simple } string | single-connection | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] *

By default, no primary HWTACACS accounting server is specified.

4.     (Optional.) Specify a secondary HWTACACS accounting server.

secondary accounting { host-name | ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | key { cipher | simple } string | single-connection | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] *

By default, no secondary HWTACACS accounting servers are specified.

Specifying the shared keys for secure HWTACACS communication

About this task

The HWTACACS client and server use the MD5 algorithm and shared keys to generate the Authenticator value for packet authentication and user password encryption. The client and server must use the same key for each type of communication.

Perform this task to configure shared keys for servers in an HWTACACS scheme. The keys take effect on all servers for which a shared key is not individually configured.

Restrictions and guidelines

Make sure the shared key configured on the device is the same as the shared key configured on the HWTACACS server.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter HWTACACS scheme view.

hwtacacs scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

3.     Specify a shared key for secure HWTACACS authentication, authorization, or accounting communication.

key { accounting | authentication | authorization } { cipher | simple } string

By default, no shared key is specified for secure HWTACACS communication.

Specifying an MPLS L3VPN instance for the scheme

About this task

The VPN instance specified for an HWTACACS scheme applies to all servers in that scheme. If a VPN instance is also configured for an individual HWTACACS server, the VPN instance specified for the HWTACACS scheme does not take effect on that server.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter HWTACACS scheme view.

hwtacacs scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

3.     Specify a VPN instance for the HWTACACS scheme.

vpn-instance vpn-instance-name

By default, an HWTACACS scheme belongs to the public network.

Setting HWTACACS timers

About this task

The device uses the following timers to control communication with an HWTACACS server:

·     Server response timeout timer (response-timeout)—Defines the HWTACACS server response timeout timer. The device starts this timer immediately after an HWTACACS authentication, authorization, or accounting request is sent. If the device does not receive a response from the server within the timer, it sets the server to blocked. Then, the device sends the request to another HWTACACS server.

·     Real-time accounting timer (realtime-accounting)—Defines the interval at which the device sends real-time accounting packets to the HWTACACS accounting server for online users.

·     Server quiet timer (quiet)—Defines the duration to keep an unreachable server in blocked state. If a server is not reachable, the device changes the server status to blocked, starts this timer for the server, and tries to communicate with another server in active state. After the server quiet timer expires, the device changes the status of the server back to active.

The server quiet timer setting affects the status of HWTACACS servers. If the scheme includes one primary HWTACACS server and multiple secondary HWTACACS servers, the device communicates with the HWTACACS servers based on the following rules:

·     When the primary server is in active state, the device communicates with the primary server. When the primary server is unreachable, the device researches a secondary server in active status in the order they are configured.

·     When one or more servers are in active state, the device tries to communicate with these servers only, even if they are unreachable.

·     When all servers are in blocked state, the device only tries to communicate with the primary server.

·     If the primary server is unreachable, the device changes the server status to blocked and starts a quiet timer for the server. When the quiet timer of the server expires, the status of the server changes back to active. The device does not check the server again during the authentication, authorization, or accounting process.

·     The search process continues until the device finds an available secondary server or has checked all secondary servers in active state. If no server is available, the device considers the authentication, authorization, or accounting attempt a failure.

·     When you remove a server in use, communication with the server times out. The device looks for a server in active state by first checking the primary server, and then checking secondary servers in the order they are configured.

·     When an HWTACACS server's status changes automatically, the device changes this server's status accordingly in all HWTACACS schemes in which this server is specified.

Restrictions and guidelines

A short real-time accounting interval helps improve accounting precision but requires many system resources. When there are 1000 or more users, set a real-time accounting interval longer than 15 minutes.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter HWTACACS scheme view.

hwtacacs scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

3.     Set the HWTACACS timers. Choose the following tasks as needed:

¡     Set the HWTACACS server response timeout timer.

timer response-timeout seconds

By default, the HWTACACS server response timeout timer is 5 seconds.

¡     Set the real-time accounting interval.

timer realtime-accounting minutes

By default, the real-time accounting interval is 12 minutes.

¡     Set the server quiet timer.

timer quiet minutes

By default, the server quiet timer is 5 minutes.

Specifying the source IP address for outgoing HWTACACS packets

About this task

The source IP address of HWTACACS packets that a NAS sends must match the IP address of the NAS configured on the HWTACACS server. An HWTACACS server identifies a NAS by IP address. When the HWTACACS server receives a packet, it checks the source IP address of the packet.

·     If it is the IP address of a managed NAS, the server processes the packet.

·     If it is not the IP address of a managed NAS, the server drops the packet.

Before sending an HWTACACS packet, the NAS selects a source IP address in the following order:

1.     The source IP address specified for the HWTACACS scheme.

2.     The source IP address specified in system view for the VPN or public network, depending on where the HWTACACS server resides.

3.     The IP address of the outbound interface specified by the route.

Restrictions and guidelines for source IP address configuration

You can specify the source IP address for outgoing HWTACACS packets in HWTACACS scheme view or in system view.

·     The IP address specified in HWTACACS scheme view applies to one HWTACACS scheme.

·     The IP address specified in system view applies to all HWTACACS schemes.

The source IP address of HWTACACS packets that a NAS sends must match the IP address of the NAS that is configured on the HWTACACS server.

As a best practice, specify a loopback interface address as the source IP address for outgoing HWTACACS packets to avoid HWTACACS packet loss caused by physical port errors.

To communicate with the HWTACACS server, the source address of outgoing HWTACACS packets is typically the IP address of an egress interface on the NAS. However, in some situations, you must change the source IP address. For example, when VRRP is configured for stateful failover, configure the virtual IP of the uplink VRRP group as the source address.

You can directly specify a source IP address for outgoing HWTACACS packets or specify a source interface to provide the source IP address for outgoing HWTACACS packets. The source interface configuration and the source IP address configuration overwrite each other.

Specifying a source interface or source IP address for all HWTACACS schemes

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Specify a source interface or source IP address for outgoing HWTACACS packets.

hwtacacs nas-ip { interface interface-type interface-number | { ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] }

By default, the source IP address of an HWTACACS packet sent to the server is the primary IPv4 address or the IPv6 address of the outbound interface.

Specifying a source interface or source IP address for an HWTACACS scheme

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter HWTACACS scheme view.

hwtacacs scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

3.     Specify a source interface or source IP address for outgoing HWTACACS packets.

nas-ip { ipv4-address | interface interface-type interface-number | ipv6 ipv6-address }

By default, the source IP address of an outgoing HWTACACS packet is that configured by using the hwtacacs nas-ip command in system view. If the hwtacacs nas-ip command is not used, the source IP address is the primary IP address of the outbound interface.

Setting the username format and traffic statistics units

About this task

A username is typically in the userid@isp-name format, where the isp-name part represents the user's ISP domain name. By default, the ISP domain name is included in a username. If HWTACACS servers do not recognize usernames that contain ISP domain names, you can configure the device to send usernames without domain names to the servers.

The device reports online user traffic statistics in accounting packets.

Restrictions and guidelines

If two or more ISP domains use the same HWTACACS scheme, configure the HWTACACS scheme to keep the ISP domain name in usernames for domain identification.

For accounting accuracy, make sure the traffic measurement units configured on the device are the same as the traffic measurement units configured on the HWTACACS accounting servers.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter HWTACACS scheme view.

hwtacacs scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

3.     Set the format of usernames sent to the HWTACACS servers.

user-name-format { keep-original | with-domain | without-domain }

By default, the ISP domain name is included in a username.

4.     Set the data flow and packet measurement units for traffic statistics.

data-flow-format { data { byte | giga-byte | kilo-byte | mega-byte } | packet { giga-packet | kilo-packet | mega-packet | one-packet } }*

By default, traffic is counted in bytes and packets.

Configuring HWTACACS stop-accounting packet buffering

About this task

The device sends HWTACACS stop-accounting requests when it receives connection teardown requests from hosts or connection teardown commands from an administrator. However, the device might fail to receive a response for a stop-accounting request in a single transmission. Enable the device to buffer HWTACACS stop-accounting requests that have not received responses from the accounting server. The device will resend the requests until responses are received.

To limit the transmission times, set a maximum number of attempts that can be made for transmitting individual HWTACACS stop-accounting requests. When the maximum attempts are made for a request, the device discards the buffered request.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter HWTACACS scheme view.

hwtacacs scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

3.     Enable buffering of HWTACACS stop-accounting requests to which no responses have been received.

stop-accounting-buffer enable

By default, the buffering feature is enabled.

4.     (Optional.) Set the maximum number of transmission attempts for individual HWTACACS stop-accounting requests.

retry stop-accounting retries

The default setting is 100.

Display and maintenance commands for HWTACACS

Execute display commands in any view and reset commands in user view.

 

Task

Command

Display the configuration or server statistics of HWTACACS schemes.

display hwtacacs scheme [ hwtacacs-scheme-name [ statistics ] ]

Display information about buffered HWTACACS stop-accounting requests to which no responses have been received.

display stop-accounting-buffer hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

Clear HWTACACS statistics.

reset hwtacacs statistics { accounting | all | authentication | authorization }

Clear the buffered HWTACACS stop-accounting requests to which no responses have been received.

reset stop-accounting-buffer hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

 

Configuring LDAP

LDAP tasks at a glance

To configure LDAP, perform the following tasks:

1.     Configuring an LDAP server

a.     Creating an LDAP server

b.     Configuring the IP address of the LDAP server

c.     (Optional.) Specifying the LDAP version

d.     (Optional.) Setting the LDAP server timeout period

e.     Configuring administrator attributes

f.     Configuring LDAP user attributes

2.     (Optional.) Configuring an LDAP attribute map

3.     Creating an LDAP scheme

4.     Specifying the LDAP authentication server

5.     (Optional.) Specifying the LDAP authorization server

6.     (Optional.) Specifying an LDAP attribute map for LDAP authorization

Creating an LDAP server

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create an LDAP server and enter LDAP server view.

ldap server server-name

Configuring the IP address of the LDAP server

Restrictions and guidelines

You can configure either an IPv4 address or an IPv6 address for an LDAP server. If you configure the IP address for an LDAP server multiple times, the most recent configuration takes effect.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter LDAP server view.

ldap server server-name

3.     Configure the IP address of the LDAP server.

{ ip ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port port-number ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

By default, an LDAP server does not have an IP address.

Specifying the LDAP version

Restrictions and guidelines

The device supports LDAPv2 and LDAPv3.

A Microsoft LDAP server supports only LDAPv3.

The LDAP version specified on the device must be consistent with the version specified on the LDAP server.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter LDAP server view.

ldap server server-name

3.     Specify the LDAP version.

protocol-version { v2 | v3 }

By default, LDAPv3 is used.

Setting the LDAP server timeout period

About this task

If the device sends a bind or search request to an LDAP server without receiving the server's response within the server timeout period, the authentication or authorization request times out. Then, the device tries the backup authentication or authorization method. If no backup method is configured in the ISP domain, the device considers the authentication or authorization attempt a failure.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter LDAP server view.

ldap server server-name

3.     Set the LDAP server timeout period.

server-timeout time-interval

By default, the LDAP server timeout period is 10 seconds.

Configuring administrator attributes

About this task

To configure the administrator DN and password for binding with the LDAP server during LDAP authentication:

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter LDAP server view.

ldap server server-name

3.     Specify the administrator DN.

login-dn dn-string

By default, no administrator DN is specified.

The administrator DN specified on the device must be the same as the administrator DN configured on the LDAP server.

4.     Configure the administrator password.

login-password { cipher | simple } string

By default, no administrator password is specified.

Configuring LDAP user attributes

About this task

To authenticate a user, an LDAP client must complete the following operations:

1.     Establish a connection to the LDAP server.

2.     Obtain the user DN from the LDAP server.

3.     Use the user DN and the user's password to bind with the LDAP server.

LDAP provides a DN search mechanism for obtaining the user DN. According to the mechanism, an LDAP client sends search requests to the server based on the search policy determined by the LDAP user attributes of the LDAP client.

The LDAP user attributes include:

·     Search base DN.

·     Search scope.

·     Username attribute.

·     Username format.

·     User object class.

Restrictions and guidelines

If the LDAP server contains many directory levels, a user DN search starting from the root directory can take a long time. To improve efficiency, you can change the start point by specifying the search base DN.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter LDAP server view.

ldap server server-name

3.     Specify the user search base DN.

search-base-dn base-dn

By default, no user search base DN is specified.

4.     (Optional.) Specify the user search scope.

search-scope { all-level | single-level }

By default, the user search scope is all-level.

5.     (Optional.) Specify the username attribute.

user-parameters user-name-attribute { name-attribute | cn | uid }

By default, the username attribute is cn.

6.     (Optional.) Specify the username format.

user-parameters user-name-format { with-domain | without-domain }

By default, the username format is without-domain.

7.     (Optional.) Specify the user object class.

user-parameters user-object-class object-class-name

By default, no user object class is specified, and the default user object class on the LDAP server is used. The default user object class for this command varies by server model.

Configuring an LDAP attribute map

About this task

Configure an LDAP attribute map to define a list of LDAP-AAA attribute mapping entries. To apply the LDAP attribute map, specify the name of the LDAP attribute map in the LDAP scheme used for authorization.

The LDAP attribute map feature enables the device to convert LDAP attributes obtained from an LDAP authorization server to device-recognizable AAA attributes based on the mapping entries. Because the device ignores unrecognized LDAP attributes, configure the mapping entries to include important LDAP attributes that should not be ignored.

An LDAP attribute can be mapped only to one AAA attribute. Different LDAP attributes can be mapped to the same AAA attribute.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create an LDAP attribute map and enter LDAP attribute map view.

ldap attribute-map map-name

3.     Configure a mapping entry.

map ldap-attribute ldap-attribute-name [ prefix prefix-value delimiter delimiter-value ] aaa-attribute { user-group | user-profile }

Creating an LDAP scheme

Restrictions and guidelines

You can configure a maximum of 16 LDAP schemes. An LDAP scheme can be used by multiple ISP domains.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create an LDAP scheme and enter LDAP scheme view.

ldap scheme ldap-scheme-name

Specifying the LDAP authentication server

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter LDAP scheme view.

ldap scheme ldap-scheme-name

3.     Specify the LDAP authentication server.

authentication-server server-name

By default, no LDAP authentication server is specified.

Specifying the LDAP authorization server

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter LDAP scheme view.

ldap scheme ldap-scheme-name

3.     Specify the LDAP authorization server.

authorization-server server-name

By default, no LDAP authorization server is specified.

Specifying an LDAP attribute map for LDAP authorization

About this task

Specify an LDAP attribute map for LDAP authorization to convert LDAP attributes obtained from the LDAP authorization server to device-recognizable AAA attributes.

Restrictions and guidelines

You can specify only one LDAP attribute map in an LDAP scheme.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter LDAP scheme view.

ldap scheme ldap-scheme-name

3.     Specify an LDAP attribute map.

attribute-map map-name

By default, no LDAP attribute map is specified.

Display and maintenance commands for LDAP

Execute display commands in any view.

 

Task

Command

Display the configuration of LDAP schemes.

display ldap scheme [ ldap-scheme-name ]

 

Creating an ISP domain

About ISP domains

In a networking scenario with multiple ISPs, the device can connect to users of different ISPs. These users can have different user attributes, such as different username and password structures, different service types, and different rights. To manage users of different ISPs, configure authentication, authorization, and accounting methods and domain attributes for each ISP domain as needed.

The device supports a maximum of 16 ISP domains, including the system-defined ISP domain system. You can specify one of the ISP domains as the default domain.

On the device, each user belongs to an ISP domain. If a user does not provide an ISP domain name at login, the device considers the user belongs to the default ISP domain.

Each ISP domain has a set of system-defined AAA methods, which are local authentication, local authorization, and local accounting. If you do not configure any AAA methods for an ISP domain, the device uses the system-defined AAA methods for users in the domain.

The device chooses an authentication domain for each user in the following order:

1.     The authentication domain specified for the access module.

2.     The ISP domain in the username.

3.     The default ISP domain of the device.

If the chosen domain does not exist on the device, the device searches for the ISP domain that accommodates users assigned to nonexistent domains. (Support for the authentication domain configuration depends on the access module.) If no such ISP domain is configured, user authentication fails.

Restrictions and guidelines for ISP domain configuration

An ISP domain cannot be deleted when it is the default ISP domain. Before you use the undo domain command, change the domain to a non-default ISP domain by using the undo domain default enable command.

You can modify the settings of the system-defined ISP domain system, but you cannot delete the domain.

To avoid RADIUS authentication, authorization, or accounting failures, use short domain names to ensure that usernames containing a domain name do not exceed 253 characters.

To avoid RADIUS accounting failures, make sure the domain name contained in usernames sent to the RADIUS server does not exceed 247 characters.

Creating an ISP domain

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create an ISP domain and enter ISP domain view.

domain isp-name

By default, a system-defined ISP domain exists. The domain name is system.

Specifying the default ISP domain

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Specify the default ISP domain.

domain default enable isp-name

By default, the default ISP domain is the system-defined ISP domain system.

Specifying an ISP domain for users that are assigned to nonexistent domains

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Specify the ISP domain to accommodate users that are assigned to nonexistent domains.

domain if-unknown isp-name

By default, no ISP domain is specified to accommodate users that are assigned to nonexistent domains.

Configuring ISP domain attributes

Setting ISP domain status

About this task

By placing the ISP domain in active or blocked state, you allow or deny network service requests from users in the domain.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter ISP domain view.

domain isp-name

3.     Set the status of the ISP domain.

state { active | block }

By default, an ISP domain is in active state, and users in the domain can request network services.

Configuring authorization attributes for an ISP domain

About this task

The device supports the following authorization attributes:

·     ACL—The device restricts authenticated users to access only the network resources permitted by the ACL.

·     CAR action—The attribute controls the traffic flow of authenticated users.

·     Maximum number of multicast groups—The attribute restricts the maximum number of multicast groups that an authenticated user can join concurrently.

·     IPv4 address pool—The device assigns IPv4 addresses from the pool to authenticated users in the domain.

·     IPv6 address pool—The device assigns IPv6 addresses from the pool to authenticated users in the domain.

·     Redirect URL—The device redirects users in the domain to the URL after they pass authentication.

·     User group—Authenticated users in the domain obtain all attributes of the user group.

·     User profile—The device restricts the user's behavior based on the user profile.

The device assigns the authorization attributes in the ISP domain to the authenticated users that do not receive these attributes from the server.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter ISP domain view.

domain isp-name

3.     Configure authorization attributes for authenticated users in the ISP domain.

authorization-attribute { acl acl-number | car inbound cir committed-information-rate [ pir peak-information-rate ] outbound cir committed-information-rate [ pir peak-information-rate ] | igmp max-access-number max-access-number | ip-pool ipv4-pool-name | ipv6-pool ipv6-pool-name | mld max-access-number max-access-number | url url-string | user-group user-group-name | user-profile profile-name }

The default settings are as follows:

¡     An IPv4 user can concurrently join a maximum of four IGMP multicast groups.

¡     An IPv6 user can concurrently join a maximum of four MLD multicast groups.

¡     No other authorization attributes exist.

Including the idle timeout period in the user online duration to be sent to the server

About this task

If a user goes offline due to connection failure or malfunction, the user's online duration sent to the server includes the idle timeout period assigned by the authorization server. The online duration generated on the server is longer than the actual online duration of the user.

For portal users, the device includes the idle timeout period set for the online portal user detection feature in the user online duration. For more information about online detection for portal users, see "Configuring portal authentication."

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter ISP domain view.

domain isp-name

3.     Configure the device to include the idle timeout period in the user online duration to be sent to the server.

session-time include-idle-time

By default, the user online duration sent to the server does not include the idle timeout period.

Configuring AAA methods for an ISP domain

Configuring authentication methods for an ISP domain

Restrictions and guidelines

When you configure remote authentication, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·     If the authentication method uses a RADIUS scheme and the authorization method does not use a RADIUS scheme, AAA accepts only the authentication result from the RADIUS server. The Access-Accept message from the RADIUS server also includes the authorization information, but the device ignores the information.

·     If an HWTACACS scheme is specified, the device uses the entered username for role authentication. If a RADIUS scheme is specified, the device uses username $enabn$ on the RADIUS server for role authentication. The variable n represents a user role level. For more information about user role authentication, see Fundamentals Configuration Guide.

The none keyword is not supported in FIPS mode.

Prerequisites

Before configuring authentication methods, complete the following tasks:

1.     Determine the access type or service type to be configured. With AAA, you can configure an authentication method for each access type and service type.

2.     Determine whether to configure the default authentication method for all access types or service types. The default authentication method applies to all access users. However, the method has a lower priority than the authentication method that is specified for an access type or service type.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter ISP domain view.

domain isp-name

3.     (Optional.) Specify default authentication methods for all types of users.

authentication default { hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name [ radius-scheme radius-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] | ldap-scheme ldap-scheme-name [ local ] [ none ] | local [ none ] | none | radius-scheme radius-scheme-name [ hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] }

By default, the default authentication method is local.

4.     Specify authentication methods for a user type or a service.

¡     Specify authentication methods for LAN users.

authentication lan-access { ldap-scheme ldap-scheme-name [ local ] [ none ] | local [ none ] | none | radius-scheme radius-scheme-name [ local ] [ none ] }

By default, the default authentication methods are used for LAN users.

¡     Specify authentication methods for login users.

authentication login { hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name [ radius-scheme radius-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] | ldap-scheme ldap-scheme-name [ local ] [ none ] | local [ none ] | none | radius-scheme radius-scheme-name [ hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] }

By default, the default authentication methods are used for login users.

¡     Specify authentication methods for portal users.

authentication portal { ldap-scheme ldap-scheme-name [ local ] [ none ] | local [ none ] | none | radius-scheme radius-scheme-name [ local ] [ none ] }

By default, the default authentication methods are used for portal users.

¡     Specify authentication methods for obtaining a temporary user role.

authentication super { hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name | radius-scheme radius-scheme-name } *

By default, the default authentication methods are used for obtaining a temporary user role.

Configuring authorization methods for an ISP domain

Restrictions and guidelines

The device does not support LDAP authorization in the current software version.

To use a RADIUS scheme as the authorization method, specify the name of the RADIUS scheme that is configured as the authentication method for the ISP domain. If an invalid RADIUS scheme is specified as the authorization method, RADIUS authentication and authorization fail.

The none keyword is not supported in FIPS mode.

Prerequisites

Before configuring authorization methods, complete the following tasks:

1.     Determine the access type or service type to be configured. With AAA, you can configure an authorization scheme for each access type and service type.

2.     Determine whether to configure the default authorization method for all access types or service types. The default authorization method applies to all access users. However, the method has a lower priority than the authorization method that is specified for an access type or service type.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter ISP domain view.

domain isp-name

3.     (Optional.) Specify default authorization methods for all types of users.

authorization default { hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name [ radius-scheme radius-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] | local [ none ] | none | radius-scheme radius-scheme-name [ hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] }

By default, the authorization method is local.

4.     Specify authorization methods for a user type or a service.

¡     Specify command authorization methods.

authorization command { hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name [ local ] [ none ] | local [ none ] | none }

By default, the default authorization methods are used for command authorization.

¡     Specify authorization methods for LAN users.

authorization lan-access { local [ none ] | none | radius-scheme radius-scheme-name [ local ] [ none ] }

By default, the default authorization methods are used for LAN users.

¡     Specify authorization methods for login users.

authorization login { hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name [ radius-scheme radius-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] | local [ none ] | none | radius-scheme radius-scheme-name [ hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] }

By default, the default authorization methods are used for login users.

¡     Specify authorization methods for portal users.

authorization portal { local [ none ] | none | radius-scheme radius-scheme-name [ local ] [ none ] }

By default, the default authorization methods are used for portal users.

Configuring accounting methods for an ISP domain

Restrictions and guidelines

FTP, SFTP, and SCP users do not support accounting.

Local accounting does not provide statistics for charging. It only counts and controls the number of concurrent users that use the same local user account. The threshold is configured by using the access-limit command.

The none keyword is not supported in FIPS mode.

Prerequisites

Before configuring accounting methods, complete the following tasks:

1.     Determine the access type or service type to be configured. With AAA, you can configure an accounting method for each access type and service type.

2.     Determine whether to configure the default accounting method for all access types or service types. The default accounting method applies to all access users. However, the method has a lower priority than the accounting method that is specified for an access type or service type.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter ISP domain view.

domain isp-name

3.     (Optional.) Specify default accounting methods for all types of users.

accounting default { hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name [ radius-scheme radius-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] | local [ none ] | none | radius-scheme radius-scheme-name [ hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] }

By default, the accounting method is local.

4.     Specify accounting methods for a user type.

¡     Specify the command accounting method.

accounting command hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

By default, the default accounting methods are used for command accounting.

¡     Specify accounting methods for LAN users.

accounting lan-access { broadcast radius-scheme radius-scheme-name1 radius-scheme radius-scheme-name2 [ local ] [ none ] | local [ none ] | none | radius-scheme radius-scheme-name [ local ] [ none ] }

By default, the default accounting methods are used for LAN users.

¡     Specify accounting methods for login users.

accounting login { hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name [ radius-scheme radius-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] | local [ none ] | none | radius-scheme radius-scheme-name [ hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] }

By default, the default accounting methods are used for login users.

¡     Specify accounting methods for portal users.

accounting portal { broadcast radius-scheme radius-scheme-name1 radius-scheme radius-scheme-name2 [ local ] [ none ] | local [ none ] | none | radius-scheme radius-scheme-name [ local ] [ none ] }

By default, the default accounting methods are used for portal users.

5.     (Optional.) Configure extended accounting policies.

¡     Configure access control for users that encounter accounting-start failures.

accounting start-fail { offline | online }

By default, the device allows users that encounter accounting-start failures to stay online.

¡     Configure access control for users that have failed all their accounting-update attempts.

accounting update-fail { [ max-times max-times ] offline | online }

By default, the device allows users that have failed all their accounting-update attempts to stay online.

¡     Configure access control for users that have used up their data or time accounting quotas.

accounting quota-out { offline | online }

By default, the device logs off users that have used up their accounting quotas.

Display and maintenance commands for ISP domains

Execute display commands in any view.

 

Task

Command

Display configuration information about an ISP domain or all ISP domains.

display domain [ isp-name ]

 

Setting the maximum number of concurrent login users

About this task

Perform this task to set the maximum number of concurrent users that can log on to the device through a specific protocol, regardless of their authentication methods. The authentication methods include no authentication, local authentication, and remote authentication.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Set the maximum number of concurrent login users.

In non-FIPS mode:

aaa session-limit { ftp | http | https | ssh | telnet } max-sessions

In FIPS mode:

aaa session-limit { https | ssh } max-sessions

By default, the maximum number of concurrent login users is 32 for each user type.

Configuring a NAS-ID

About this task

During RADIUS authentication, the device uses a NAS-ID to set the NAS-Identifier attribute of RADIUS packets so that the RADIUS server can identify the access location of users.

Configure a NAS-ID profile to maintain NAS-ID and VLAN bindings on the device so that the device can send different NAS-Identifier attribute strings in RADIUS requests from different VLANs.

Restrictions and guidelines

You can apply a NAS-ID profile to portal- or port security-enabled interfaces. For more information, see "Configuring portal authentication" and "Configuring port security."

You can configure multiple NAS-ID and VLAN bindings in a NAS-ID profile.

A NAS-ID can be bound with more than one VLAN, but a VLAN can be bound with only one NAS-ID. If you configure multiple bindings for the same VLAN, the most recent configuration takes effect.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create a NAS-ID profile and enter NAS-ID profile view.

aaa nas-id profile profile-name

3.     Configure a NAS-ID and VLAN binding in the profile.

nas-id nas-identifier bind vlan vlan-id

Configuring the device ID

About this task

RADIUS uses the value of the Acct-Session-ID attribute as the accounting ID for a user. The device generates an Acct-Session-ID value for each online user based on the system time, random digits, and device ID.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Configure the device ID.

aaa device-id device-id

By default, the device ID is 0.

Enabling password change prompt logging

About this task

Use this feature to enhance the protection of passwords for Telnet, SSH, HTTP, HTTPS, NETCONF over SSH, and NETCONF over SOAP users and improve the system security.

This feature enables the device to generate logs to prompt users to change their weak passwords at an interval of 24 hours and at the users' login.

A password is a weak password if it does not meet the following requirements:

·     Password composition restriction configured by using the password-control composition command.

·     Minimum password length restriction set by using the password-control length command.

·     Password complexity checking policy set by using the password-control complexity command.

For a NETCONF over SSH or NETCONF over SOAP user, the device also generates a password change prompt log if any of the following conditions exists:

·     The current password of the user is the default password or has expired.

·     The user logs in to the device for the first time or uses a new password to log in after global password control is enabled.

The device will no longer generate password change prompt logs for a user when one of the following conditions exists:

·     The password change prompt logging feature is disabled.

·     The user has changed the password and the new password meets the password control requirements.

·     The enabling status of a related password control feature has changed so the current password of the user meets the password control requirements.

·     The password composition policy or the minimum password length has changed.

Restrictions and guidelines

You can use the display password-control command to display password control configuration. For more information about password control commands, see password control commands in Security Command Reference.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enable password change prompt logging.

local-server log change-password-prompt

By default, password change prompt logging is enabled.

Configuring the RADIUS server feature

RADIUS server feature tasks at a glance

To configure the RADIUS server feature, perform the following tasks:

1.     Configuring RADIUS users

2.     Specifying RADIUS clients

3.     Activating the RADIUS server configuration

Restrictions and guidelines for the RADIUS server feature

To ensure correct operation of the RADIUS server feature, disable RADIUS session-control on the device.

Configuring RADIUS users

To configure RADIUS users, you must configure network access users, which are the basis of RADIUS user data.

A RADIUS user has the following attributes: user name, password, description, authorization ACL, authorization VLAN, and expiration time. For more information, see "Configuring attributes for network access users."

Specifying RADIUS clients

About this task

Perform this task to specify RADIUS clients and shared keys for centralized management. The RADIUS server feature does not accept requests from RADIUS clients that are not managed by the system.

Restrictions and guidelines

The IP address of a RADIUS client must be the same as the source IP address for outgoing RADIUS packets specified on the RADIUS client.

The shared key of a RADIUS client specified on the RADIUS server must be the same as the setting on the RADIUS client.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Specify a RADIUS client.

radius-server client ip ipv4-address key { cipher | simple } string

Activating the RADIUS server configuration

About this task

At the device startup, the RADIUS server configuration is automatically activated, including RADIUS users and RADIUS clients. You can immediately activate the most recent RADIUS server configuration if you have added, modified, or deleted RADIUS clients and network access users from which RADIUS user data is generated.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Activate the RADIUS server configuration.

radius-server activate

Executing this command restarts the RADIUS server process and an authentication service interruption will occur during the restart.

Display and maintenance commands for RADIUS users and clients

Execute display commands in any view.

 

Task

Command

Display information about activated RADIUS users.

display radius-server active-user [ user-name ]

Display information about activated RADIUS clients.

display radius-server active-client

 

Configuring the connection recording policy

About the connection recording policy

Use this feature on scenarios where the device acts as an FTP, SSH, SFTP, or Telnet login client to establish a connection with a login server. This feature enables the device to provide an accounting server with the connection start and termination information. When the login client establishes a connection with the login server, the system sends a start-accounting request to the accounting server. When the connection is terminated, the system sends a stop-accounting request to the accounting server.

Restrictions and guidelines

The device includes the username entered by a user in the accounting packets to be sent to the AAA server for connection recording. The username format configured by using the user-name-format command in the accounting scheme does not take effect.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create a connection recording policy and enter its view.

aaa connection-recording policy

3.     Specify the accounting method for the connection recording policy.

accounting hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

Display and maintenance commands for the connection recording policy

Execute display commands in any view.

 

Task

Command

Display the connection recording policy configuration.

display aaa connection-recording policy

 

Configuring the AAA test feature

About this task

This feature enables the device to send authentication or accounting requests to the specified AAA servers to simulate an authentication or accounting process of a user. Use this feature to identify the reasons for the failure of the interaction between the device and the AAA servers. This feature is applicable only to RADIUS.

When performing an AAA test, the device ignores the status of the specified AAA servers and the RADIUS server load sharing feature. The process of an AAA test is as follows:

1.     The device sends authentication requests that carry the specified username and password to the specified authentication server or to the authentication servers in the specified RADIUS scheme. The device tries to communicate with the authentication servers in the specified scheme in sequence.

The process goes to the next step in the following situations:

¡     The device receives an authentication response (no matter the authentication succeeds or fails).

¡     The device does not receive any authentication response after making all authentication request attempts.

This step is skipped if no correct authentication server is specified for the AAA test or no authentication servers are configured in the specified RADIUS scheme.

2.     The device sends start-accounting requests to the specified accounting server or to the accounting servers in the specified RADIUS scheme. The device tries to communicate with the accounting servers in the specified scheme in sequence.

The process goes to the next step in the following situations:

¡     The device receives a start-accounting response (no matter the accounting succeeds or fails).

¡     The device does not receive any start-accounting response after making all start-accounting request attempts.

This step and the next step are skipped if no correct accounting server is specified for the AAA test or no accounting servers are configured in the specified RADIUS scheme.

3.     The device sends stop-accounting requests to the accounting servers to which it has sent a start-accounting request.

The process finishes in the following situations:

¡     The device receives a stop-accounting response.

¡     The device does not receive any stop-accounting response after making all stop-accounting request attempts.

To identify attributes that cause authentication or accounting failures, you can configure the device to carry specific attributes in RADIUS requests or define values for specific attributes in the requests. Table 3 shows the attributes that RADIUS requests carry by default.

Table 3 Attributes that RADIUS requests carry by default

Packet type

Attributes that the type of packets carry by default

RADIUS authentication request

User-Name

CHAP-Password (or User-Password)

CHAP-Challenge

NAS-IP-Address (or NAS-IPv6-Address)

Service-Type

Framed-Protocol

NAS-Identifier

NAS-Port-Type

Acct-Session-Id

RADIUS accounting request

User-Name

Acct-Status-Type

NAS-IP-Address (or NAS-IPv6-Address)

NAS-Identifier

Acct-Session-Id

Acct-Delay-Time

Acct-Terminate-Cause

 

Restrictions and guidelines

When you perform an AAA test, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·     The device might communicate with the AAA servers incorrectly during an AAA test. Make sure no users come online or go offline during an AAA text.

·     If the configuration of the specified RADIUS scheme changes, the new configuration does not affect the current AAA test. The modification will take effect in the next test.

·     The system can have only one AAA test at a time. Another AAA test can be performed only after the current test finishes.

When you configure attributes to be included in or excluded from RADIUS requests, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·     Before you include an attribute that is already configured to be excluded from RADIUS requests, you must cancel the exclusion configuration by using the undo exclude command.

·     Before you exclude an attribute that is already configured to be included in RADIUS requests, you must cancel the inclusion configuration by using the undo include command.

Prerequisites

Before you perform an AAA test, you must configure a RADIUS scheme that contains the RADIUS servers to be tested.

Plan the RADIUS attributes to be included in RADIUS requests. Besides the attributes carried by default, the device adds the specified attributes to RADIUS packets in the order that they are specified by using the include command. Additional attributes cannot be added to a RADIUS request if the length of the RADIUS request reaches 4096 bytes.

Procedure

1.     (Optional.) Configure a RADIUS attribute test group:

a.     Enter system view.

system-view

b.     Create a RADIUS attribute test group and enter its view.

radius attribute-test-group attr-test-group-name

You can create multiple RADIUS attribute test groups.

c.     Include an attribute in RADIUS requests.

include { accounting | authentication } { name attribute-name | [ vendor vendor-id ] code attribute-code } type { binary | date | integer | interface-id | ip | ipv6 | ipv6-prefix | octets | string } value attribute-value

Use this command to add attributes that RADIUS requests do not carry by default to the RADIUS requests.

For an attribute that RADIUS requests carry by default, you can use this command to change its attribute value.

d.     Exclude an attribute from RADIUS requests.

exclude { accounting | authentication } name attribute-name

Use this command to exclude an attribute that RADIUS requests carry by default from the RADIUS requests sent during an AAA test to help troubleshoot authentication or accounting failures.

e.     Return to system view.

quit

f.     Return to user view.

quit

2.     Perform an AAA test in user view.

test-aaa user user-name password password radius-scheme radius-scheme-name [ radius-server { ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } port-number [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] ] [ chap | pap ] [ attribute-test-group attr-test-group-name ] [ trace ]

AAA configuration examples

Example: Configuring AAA for SSH users by an HWTACACS server

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 12, configure the switch to meet the following requirements:

·     Use the HWTACACS server for SSH user authentication, authorization, and accounting.

·     Assign the default user role network-operator to SSH users after they pass authentication.

·     Exclude domain names from the usernames sent to the HWTACACS server.

·     Use expert as the shared keys for secure HWTACACS communication.

Figure 12 Network diagram

 

Configuring the HWTACACS server

# Set the shared keys to expert for secure communication with the switch, add an account for the SSH user, and specify the password. (Details not shown.)

Configuring the switch

# Configure IP addresses for the interfaces. (Details not shown.)

# Create an HWTACACS scheme.

<Switch> system-view

[Switch] hwtacacs scheme hwtac

# Specify the primary authentication server.

[Switch-hwtacacs-hwtac] primary authentication 10.1.1.1 49

# Specify the primary authorization server.

[Switch-hwtacacs-hwtac] primary authorization 10.1.1.1 49

# Specify the primary accounting server.

[Switch-hwtacacs-hwtac] primary accounting 10.1.1.1 49

# Set the shared keys to expert in plaintext form for secure HWTACACS communication.

[Switch-hwtacacs-hwtac] key authentication simple expert

[Switch-hwtacacs-hwtac] key authorization simple expert

[Switch-hwtacacs-hwtac] key accounting simple expert

# Exclude domain names from the usernames sent to the HWTACACS server.

[Switch-hwtacacs-hwtac] user-name-format without-domain

[Switch-hwtacacs-hwtac] quit

# Create an ISP domain named bbb and configure the domain to use the HWTACACS scheme for authentication, authorization, and accounting of login users.

[Switch-isp-bbb] authentication login hwtacacs-scheme hwtac

[Switch-isp-bbb] authorization login hwtacacs-scheme hwtac

[Switch-isp-bbb] accounting login hwtacacs-scheme hwtac

[Switch-isp-bbb] quit

# Create local RSA and DSA key pairs.

[Switch] public-key local create rsa

[Switch] public-key local create dsa

# Enable the Stelnet service.

[Switch] ssh server enable

# Enable scheme authentication for user lines VTY 0 through VTY 63.

[Switch] line vty 0 63

[Switch-line-vty0-63] authentication-mode scheme

[Switch-line-vty0-63] quit

# Enable the default user role feature to assign authenticated SSH users the default user role network-operator.

[Switch] role default-role enable

Verifying the configuration

# Initiate an SSH connection to the switch, and enter the correct username and password. The user logs in to the switch. (Details not shown.)

# Verify that the user can use the commands permitted by the network-operator user role. (Details not shown.)

Example: Configuring local authentication, HWTACACS authorization, and RADIUS accounting for SSH users

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 13, configure the switch to meet the following requirements:

·     Perform local authentication for SSH users.

·     Use the HWTACACS server and RADIUS server for SSH user authorization and accounting, respectively.

·     Exclude domain names from the usernames sent to the servers.

·     Assign the default user role network-operator to SSH users after they pass authentication.

Configure an account named hello for the SSH user. Configure the shared keys to expert for secure communication with the HWTACACS server and RADIUS server.

Figure 13 Network diagram

 

Configuring the HWTACACS server

# Set the shared keys to expert for secure communication with the switch, add an account for the SSH user, and specify the password. (Details not shown.)

Configuring the RADIUS server

# Set the shared keys to expert for secure communication with the switch, add an account for the SSH user, and specify the password. (Details not shown.)

Configuring the switch

# Configure IP addresses for interfaces. (Details not shown.)

# Create local RSA and DSA key pairs.

<Switch> system-view

[Switch] public-key local create rsa

[Switch] public-key local create dsa

# Enable the Stelnet service.

[Switch] ssh server enable

# Enable scheme authentication for user lines VTY 0 through VTY 63.

[Switch] line vty 0 63

[Switch-line-vty0-63] authentication-mode scheme

[Switch-line-vty0-63] quit

# Configure an HWTACACS scheme.

[Switch] hwtacacs scheme hwtac

[Switch-hwtacacs-hwtac] primary authorization 10.1.1.2 49

[Switch-hwtacacs-hwtac] key authorization simple expert

[Switch-hwtacacs-hwtac] user-name-format without-domain

[Switch-hwtacacs-hwtac] quit

# Configure a RADIUS scheme.

[Switch] radius scheme rd

[Switch-radius-rd] primary accounting 10.1.1.1 1813

[Switch-radius-rd] key accounting simple expert

[Switch-radius-rd] user-name-format without-domain

[Switch-radius-rd] quit

# Create a device management user.

[Switch] local-user hello class manage

# Assign the SSH service to the local user.

[Switch-luser-manage-hello] service-type ssh

# Set the password to 123456TESTplat&! in plaintext form for the local user. In FIPS mode, you must set the password in interactive mode.

[Switch-luser-manage-hello] password simple 123456TESTplat&!

[Switch-luser-manage-hello] quit

# Create an ISP domain named bbb and configure the login users to use local authentication, HWTACACS authorization, and RADIUS accounting.

[Switch] domain bbb

[Switch-isp-bbb] authentication login local

[Switch-isp-bbb] authorization login hwtacacs-scheme hwtac

[Switch-isp-bbb] accounting login radius-scheme rd

[Switch-isp-bbb] quit

# Enable the default user role feature to assign authenticated SSH users the default user role network-operator.

[Switch] role default-role enable

Verifying the configuration

# Initiate an SSH connection to the switch, and enter username hello@bbb and the correct password. The user logs in to the switch. (Details not shown.)

# Verify that the user can use the commands permitted by the network-operator user role. (Details not shown.)

Example: Configuring authentication and authorization for SSH users by a RADIUS server

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 14, configure the switch to meet the following requirements:

·     Use the RADIUS server for SSH user authentication and authorization.

·     Include domain names in the usernames sent to the RADIUS server.

·     Assign the network-admin user role to SSH users after they pass authentication.

The RADIUS server runs IMC PLAT 7.3 (E0605) and IMC UAM 7.3 (E0512). Add an account with username hello@bbb on the RADIUS server.

The RADIUS server and the switch use expert as the shared key for secure RADIUS communication. The ports for authentication and accounting are 1812 and 1813, respectively.

Figure 14 Network diagram

 

Configuring the RADIUS server

1.     Add the switch to the IMC Platform as an access device:

Log in to IMC, click the User tab, and select User Access Policy > Access Device Management > Access Device from the navigation tree. Then, click Add to configure an access device as follows:

a.     Set the ports for authentication and accounting to 1812 and 1813, respectively.

b.     Select Device Management Service from the Service Type list.

c.     Select H3C (General) from the Access Device Type list.

d.     Set the shared key to expert for secure RADIUS communication.

e.     Select an access device from the device list or manually add an access device. In this example, the device IP address is 10.1.1.2.

f.     Use the default values for other parameters and click OK.

The IP address of the access device specified here must be the same as the source IP address of the RADIUS packets sent from the switch. The source IP address is chosen in the following order on the switch:

¡     IP address specified by using the nas-ip command.

¡     IP address specified by using the radius nas-ip command.

¡     IP address of the outbound interface (the default).

Figure 15 Adding the switch as an access device

 

2.     Add an account for device management:

Click the User tab, and select Device User > Device User from the navigation tree. Then, click Add to configure a device management account as follows:

a.     Enter account name hello@bbb and specify the password.

b.     Select SSH from the Login Type list.

c.     Enter user role network-admin.

d.     Specify 10.1.1.0 to 10.1.1.255 as the IP address range of the hosts to be managed.

e.     Click OK.

 

 

NOTE:

The IP address range must contain the IP address of the switch.

 

Figure 16 Adding an account for device management

 

Configuring the switch

# Configure IP addresses for interfaces. (Details not shown.)

# Create local RSA and DSA key pairs.

<Switch> system-view

[Switch] public-key local create rsa

[Switch] public-key local create dsa

# Enable the Stelnet service.

[Switch] ssh server enable

# Enable scheme authentication for user lines VTY 0 through VTY 63.

[Switch] line vty 0 63

[Switch-line-vty0-63] authentication-mode scheme

[Switch-line-vty0-63] quit

# Create a RADIUS scheme.

[Switch] radius scheme rad

# Specify the primary authentication server.

[Switch-radius-rad] primary authentication 10.1.1.1 1812

# Set the shared key to expert in plaintext form for secure communication with the server.

[Switch-radius-rad] key authentication simple expert

# Include domain names in the usernames sent to the RADIUS server.

[Switch-radius-rad] user-name-format with-domain

[Switch-radius-rad] quit

# Create an ISP domain named bbb and configure authentication, authorization, and accounting methods for login users.

[Switch] domain bbb

[Switch-isp-bbb] authentication login radius-scheme rad

[Switch-isp-bbb] authorization login radius-scheme rad

[Switch-isp-bbb] accounting login none

[Switch-isp-bbb] quit

Verifying the configuration

# Initiate an SSH connection to the switch, and enter username hello@bbb and the correct password. The user logs in to the switch. (Details not shown.)

# Verify that the user can use the commands permitted by the network-admin user role. (Details not shown.)

Example: Configuring authentication for SSH users by an LDAP server

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 17, the LDAP server uses domain ldap.com and runs Microsoft Windows 2003 Server Active Directory.

Configure the switch to meet the following requirements:

·     Use the LDAP server to authenticate SSH users.

·     Assign the level-0 user role to SSH users after they pass authentication.

On the LDAP server, set the administrator password to admin!123456, add a user named aaa, and set the user's password to ldap!123456.

Figure 17 Network diagram

 

Configuring the LDAP server

1.     Add a user named aaa and set the password to ldap!123456:

a.     On the LDAP server, select Start > Control Panel > Administrative Tools.

b.     Double-click Active Directory Users and Computers.

The Active Directory Users and Computers window is displayed.

c.     From the navigation tree, click Users under the ldap.com node.

d.     Select Action > New > User from the menu to display the dialog box for adding a user.

e.     Enter logon name aaa and click Next.

Figure 18 Adding user aaa

 

f.     In the dialog box, enter password ldap!123456, select options as needed, and click Next.

Figure 19 Setting the user's password

 

g.     Click OK.

2.     Add user aaa to group Users:

a.     From the navigation tree, click Users under the ldap.com node.

b.     In the right pane, right-click user aaa and select Properties.

c.     In the dialog box, click the Member Of tab and click Add.

Figure 20 Modifying user properties

 

d.     In the Select Groups dialog box, enter Users in the Enter the object names to select field, and click OK.

User aaa is added to group Users.

Figure 21 Adding user aaa to group Users

 

3.     Set the administrator password to admin!123456:

a.     In the right pane, right-click user Administrator and select Set Password.

b.     In the dialog box, enter the administrator password. (Details not shown.)

Configuring the switch

# Configure IP addresses for interfaces. (Details not shown.)

# Create local RSA and DSA key pairs.

<Switch> system-view

[Switch] public-key local create rsa

[Switch] public-key local create dsa

# Enable the Stelnet service.

[Switch] ssh server enable

# Enable scheme authentication for user lines VTY 0 through VTY 63.

[Switch] line vty 0 63

[Switch-line-vty0-63] authentication-mode scheme

[Switch-line-vty0-63] quit

# Configure an LDAP server.

[Switch] ldap server ldap1

# Specify the IP address of the LDAP authentication server.

[Switch-ldap-server-ldap1] ip 10.1.1.1

# Specify the administrator DN.

[Switch-ldap-server-ldap1] login-dn cn=administrator,cn=users,dc=ldap,dc=com

# Specify the administrator password.

[Switch-ldap-server-ldap1] login-password simple admin!123456

# Configure the base DN for user search.

[Switch-ldap-server-ldap1] search-base-dn dc=ldap,dc=com

[Switch-ldap-server-ldap1] quit

# Create an LDAP scheme.

[Switch] ldap scheme ldap-shm1

# Specify the LDAP authentication server.

[Switch-ldap-ldap-shm1] authentication-server ldap1

[Switch-ldap-ldap-shm1] quit

# Create an ISP domain named bbb and configure authentication, authorization, and accounting methods for login users.

[Switch] domain bbb

[Switch-isp-bbb] authentication login ldap-scheme ldap-shm1

[Switch-isp-bbb] authorization login none

[Switch-isp-bbb] accounting login none

[Switch-isp-bbb] quit

Verifying the configuration

# Initiate an SSH connection to the switch, and enter username aaa@bbb and password ldap!123456. The user logs in to the switch. (Details not shown.)

# Verify that the user can use the commands permitted by the level-0 user role. (Details not shown.)

Example: Configuring AAA for 802.1X users by a RADIUS server

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 22, configure the switch to meet the following requirements:

·     Use the RADIUS server for authentication, authorization, and accounting of 802.1X users.

·     Use MAC-based access control on Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 to authenticate all 802.1X users on the port separately.

·     Include domain names in the usernames sent to the RADIUS server.

In this example, the RADIUS server runs IMC PLAT 7.1 (E0303), IMC UAM 7.1 (E0304), and IMC CAMS 7.1 (E0301). On the RADIUS server, perform the following tasks:

·     Add a service that charges 120 dollars for up to 120 hours per month and assigns authenticated users to VLAN 4.

·     Configure a user with name dot1x@bbb and assign the service to the user.

Set the shared keys to expert for secure RADIUS communication. Set the ports for authentication and accounting to 1812 and 1813, respectively.

Figure 22 Network diagram

Configuring the RADIUS server

1.     Add the switch to the IMC Platform as an access device:

Log in to IMC, click the User tab, and select User Access Policy > Access Device Management > Access Device from the navigation tree. Then, click Add to configure an access device as follows:

a.     Set the ports for authentication and accounting to 1812 and 1813, respectively.

b.     Select LAN Access Service from the Service Type list.

c.     Select H3C(General) from the Access Device Type list.

d.     Set the shared key to expert for secure authentication and accounting communication.

e.     Select an access device from the device list or manually add an access device. In this example, the device IP address is 10.1.1.2.

f.     Use the default values for other parameters and click OK.

The IP address of the access device specified here must be the same as the source IP address of the RADIUS packets sent from the switch. The source IP address is chosen in the following order on the switch:

¡     IP address specified by using the nas-ip command.

¡     IP address specified by using the radius nas-ip command.

¡     IP address of the outbound interface (the default).

Figure 23 Adding the switch as an access device

 

2.     Add a charging plan:

Click the User tab, and select Accounting Manager > Charging Plans from the navigation tree to enter the charging plan configuration page. Then, click Add to configure a charging plan as follows:

a.     Add a plan named UserAcct.

b.     Select Flat rate from the Charging Template list.

c.     Select time for Charge Based on, select Monthly for Billing Term, and enter 120 in the Fixed Fee field.

d.     Enter 120 in the Usage Threshold field and select hr (hours) for the in field. The configuration allows the user to access the Internet for up to 120 hours per month.

e.     Click OK.

Figure 24 Adding a charging plan

 

3.     Add an access policy:

Click the User tab, and select User Access Policy > Access Policy from the navigation tree. Then, click Add to configure an access policy as follows:

a.     Enter access policy name Dot1x auth.

b.     Set the ID of the VLAN to be deployed to 4.

c.     Configure other parameters as needed.

d.     Click OK.

Figure 25 Adding an access policy

 

4.     Add an access service:

Click the User tab, and select User Access Policy > Access Service from the navigation tree. Then, click Add to configure a service as follows:

a.     Add a service named Dot1x Service, and set the service suffix to bbb, the authentication domain for the 802.1X user. With the service suffix configured, you must configure the access device to send usernames that include domain names to the RADIUS server.

b.     Select UserAcct from the Charging Plan list.

c.     Select Dot1x auth from the Default Access Policy list.

d.     Configure other parameters as needed.

e.     Click OK.

Figure 26 Adding an access service

 

5.     Add a user:

Click the User tab, and select All Access Users from the navigation tree to enter the All Access Users page. Then, click Add to configure a user as follows:

a.     Select the user or add a user named test.

b.     Specify the account name as dot1x and configure the password.

c.     Select Dot1x Service in the Access Service area.

d.     Configure other parameters as needed and click OK.

Figure 27 Adding an access user account

 

Configuring the switch

1.     Configure a RADIUS scheme:

# Create a RADIUS scheme named rad and enter RADIUS scheme view.

<Switch> system-view

[Switch] radius scheme rad

# Specify the primary authentication server and primary accounting server, and configure the keys for communication with the servers.

[Switch-radius-rad] primary authentication 10.1.1.1

[Switch-radius-rad] primary accounting 10.1.1.1

[Switch-radius-rad] key authentication simple expert

[Switch-radius-rad] key accounting simple expert

# Include domain names in the usernames sent to the RADIUS server.

[Switch-radius-rad] user-name-format with-domain

[Switch-radius-rad] quit

2.     Configure an ISP domain:

# Create an ISP domain named bbb and enter ISP domain view.

[Switch] domain bbb

# Configure the ISP domain to use RADIUS scheme rad for authentication, authorization, and accounting of LAN users.

[Switch-isp-bbb] authentication lan-access radius-scheme rad

[Switch-isp-bbb] authorization lan-access radius-scheme rad

[Switch-isp-bbb] accounting lan-access radius-scheme rad

[Switch-isp-bbb] quit

3.     Configure 802.1X authentication:

# Enable 802.1X globally.

[Switch] dot1x

# Enable 802.1X for Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/1.

[Switch] interface ten-gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[Switch-Ten-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] dot1x

# Configure the access control method. By default, an 802.1X-enabled port uses the MAC-based access control.

[Switch-Ten-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] dot1x port-method macbased

Verifying the configuration

1.     On the host, use account dot1x@bbb to pass 802.1X authentication:

# If the host runs the Windows XP 802.1X client, configure the network connection properties as follows:

a.     Click the Authentication tab of the properties window.

b.     Select the Enable IEEE 802.1X authentication for this network option.

c.     Select MD5 challenge as the EAP type.

d.     Click OK.

The user passes authentication after entering the correct username and password on the authentication page.

# If the host runs the iNode client, no advanced authentication options are required. The user can pass authentication after entering username dot1x@bbb and the correct password on the client property page.

 

IMPORTANT

IMPORTANT:

Make sure the client can update its IP address to access the resources in the authorized VLAN after passing authentication.

 

2.     On the switch, verify that the server assigns the port connecting the client to VLAN 4 after the user passes authentication. (Details not shown.)

3.     Display 802.1X connection information on the switch.

[Switch] display dot1x connection

Example: Configuring authentication and authorization for 802.1X users by the device as a RADIUS server

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 28, Switch B acts as the RADIUS server for authentication and authorization of 802.1X users connected to the NAS (Switch A).

Configure the switches to meet the following requirements:

·     Perform 802.1X user authentication on Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 of the NAS.

·     The shared key is expert and the authentication port is 1812.

·     Exclude domain names from the usernames sent to the RADIUS server.

·     The user name for 802.1X authentication is dot1x.

·     After the user passes authentication, the RADIUS server authorizes VLAN 4 to the NAS port that the user is connecting to.

Figure 28 Network diagram

Procedure

1.     Configure the NAS:

a.     Configure a RADIUS scheme:

# Configure a RADIUS scheme named rad and enter RADIUS scheme view.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] radius scheme rad

# Specify the primary authentication server with IP address 10.1.1.1 and set the shared key to expert in plaintext form.

[SwitchA-radius-rad] primary authentication 10.1.1.1 key simple expert

# Exclude domain names from the usernames sent to the RADIUS server.

[SwitchA-radius-rad] user-name-format without-domain

[SwitchA-radius-rad] quit

b.     Configure an ISP domain:

# Create an ISP domain named bbb and enter ISP domain view.

[SwitchA] domain bbb

# Configure the ISP domain to use RADIUS scheme rad for authentication and authorization of LAN users and not to perform accounting for LAN users.

[SwitchA-isp-bbb] authentication lan-access radius-scheme rad

[SwitchA-isp-bbb] authorization lan-access radius-scheme rad

[SwitchA-isp-bbb] accounting lan-access none

[SwitchA-isp-bbb] quit

c.     Configure 802.1X authentication:

# Enable 802.1X for Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/1.

[SwitchA] interface ten-gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[SwitchA-Ten-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] dot1x

# Specify bbb as the mandatory authentication domain for 802.1X users on the interface.

[SwitchA-Ten-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] dot1x mandatory-domain bbb

[SwitchA-Ten-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit

# Enable 802.1X globally.

[SwitchA] dot1x

2.     Configure the RADIUS server:

# Create a network access user named dot1x.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] local-user dot1x class network

# Configure the password as 123456 in plaintext form.

[SwitchB-luser-network-dot1x] password simple 123456

# Configure VLAN 4 as the authorization VLAN.

[SwitchB-luser-network-dot1x] authorization-attribute vlan 4

[SwitchB-luser-network-dot1x] quit

# Configure the IP address of the RADIUS client as 10.1.1.2 and the shared key as expert in plaintext form.

[SwitchB] radius-server client ip 10.1.1.2 key simple expert

# Activate the RADIUS server configuration.

[SwitchB] radius-server activate

Verifying the configuration

1.     On the RADIUS server, display the activated RADIUS clients and users.

[SwitchB] display radius-server active-client

Total 1 RADIUS clients.

Client IP: 10.1.1.2

[SwitchB] display radius-server active-user dot1x

Total 1 RADIUS users matched.

Username: dot1x

  Description: Not configured

  Authorization attributes:

    VLAN ID: 4

    ACL number: Not configured

  Validity period:

    Expiration time: Not configured

2.     On the host, use account dot1x for 802.1X authentication.

If the host runs the Windows built-in 802.1X client, configure the network connection properties as follows:

a.     Click the Authentication tab of the properties window.

b.     Select the Enable IEEE 802.1X authentication for this network option.

c.     Select MD5 challenge as the EAP type.

d.     Click OK.

If the host runs the iNode client, no advanced authentication options are required. The user passes authentication after entering the correct user name and password on the authentication page or the iNode client.

 

IMPORTANT

IMPORTANT:

Make sure the client can update its IP address to access the resources in the authorized VLAN after passing authentication.

 

3.     On the NAS, verify that the RADIUS server assigns the port to VLAN 4 after the user passes authentication. (Details not shown.)

4.     On the NAS, display online 802.1X user information.

[SwitchA] display dot1x connection

Troubleshooting AAA

RADIUS authentication failure

Symptom

User authentication always fails.

Analysis

Possible reasons include:

·     A communication failure exists between the NAS and the RADIUS server.

·     The username is not in the userid@isp-name format, or the ISP domain is not correctly configured on the NAS.

·     The user is not configured on the RADIUS server.

·     The password entered by the user is incorrect.

·     The RADIUS server and the NAS are configured with different shared keys.

Solution

To resolve the problem:

1.     Verify the following items:

¡     The NAS and the RADIUS server can ping each other.

¡     The username is in the userid@isp-name format and the ISP domain is correctly configured on the NAS.

¡     The user is configured on the RADIUS server.

¡     The correct password is entered.

¡     The same shared key is configured on both the RADIUS server and the NAS.

2.     If the problem persists, contact H3C Support.

RADIUS packet delivery failure

Symptom

RADIUS packets cannot reach the RADIUS server.

Analysis

Possible reasons include:

·     A communication failure exists between the NAS and the RADIUS server.

·     The NAS is not configured with the IP address of the RADIUS server.

·     The authentication and accounting UDP ports configured on the NAS are incorrect.

·     The RADIUS server's authentication and accounting port numbers are being used by other applications.

Solution

To resolve the problem:

1.     Verify the following items:

¡     The link between the NAS and the RADIUS server works well at both the physical and data link layers.

¡     The IP address of the RADIUS server is correctly configured on the NAS.

¡     The authentication and accounting UDP port numbers configured on the NAS are the same as those of the RADIUS server.

¡     The RADIUS server's authentication and accounting port numbers are available.

2.     If the problem persists, contact H3C Support.

RADIUS accounting error

Symptom

A user is authenticated and authorized, but accounting for the user is not normal.

Analysis

The accounting server configuration on the NAS is not correct. Possible reasons include:

·     The accounting port number configured on the NAS is incorrect.

·     The accounting server IP address configured on the NAS is incorrect. For example, the NAS is configured to use a single server to provide authentication, authorization, and accounting services, but in fact the services are provided by different servers.

Solution

To resolve the problem:

1.     Verify the following items:

¡     The accounting port number is correctly configured.

¡     The accounting server IP address is correctly configured on the NAS.

2.     If the problem persists, contact H3C Support.

Troubleshooting HWTACACS

Similar to RADIUS troubleshooting. See "RADIUS authentication failure," "RADIUS packet delivery failure," and "RADIUS accounting error."

LDAP authentication failure

Symptom

User authentication fails.

Analysis

Possible reasons include:

·     A communication failure exists between the NAS and the LDAP server.

·     The LDAP server IP address or port number configured on the NAS is not correct.

·     The username is not in the userid@isp-name format, or the ISP domain is not correctly configured on the NAS.

·     The user is not configured on the LDAP server.

·     The password entered by the user is incorrect.

·     The administrator DN or password is not configured.

·     Some user attributes (for example, the username attribute) configured on the NAS are not consistent with those configured on the server.

·     No user search base DN is specified for the LDAP scheme.

Solution

To resolve the problem:

1.     Verify the following items:

¡     The NAS and the LDAP server can ping each other.

¡     The IP address and port number of the LDAP server configured on the NAS match those of the server.

¡     The username is in the correct format and the ISP domain for the user authentication is correctly configured on the NAS.

¡     The user is configured on the LDAP server.

¡     The correct password is entered.

¡     The administrator DN and the administrator password are correctly configured.

¡     The user attributes (for example, the username attribute) configured on the NAS are consistent with those configured on the LDAP server.

¡     The user search base DN for authentication is specified.

2.     If the problem persists, contact H3C Support.

Appendixes

Appendix A Commonly used RADIUS attributes

Commonly used RADIUS attributes are defined in RFC 2865, RFC 2866, RFC 2867, and RFC 2868.

Table 4 Commonly used RADIUS attributes

No.

Attribute

No.

Attribute

1

User-Name

45

Acct-Authentic

2

User-Password

46

Acct-Session-Time

3

CHAP-Password

47

Acct-Input-Packets

4

NAS-IP-Address

48

Acct-Output-Packets

5

NAS-Port

49

Acct-Terminate-Cause

6

Service-Type

50

Acct-Multi-Session-Id

7

Framed-Protocol

51

Acct-Link-Count

8

Framed-IP-Address

52

Acct-Input-Gigawords

9

Framed-IP-Netmask

53

Acct-Output-Gigawords

10

Framed-Routing

54

(unassigned)

11

Filter-ID

55

Event-Timestamp

12

Framed-MTU

56-59

(unassigned)

13

Framed-Compression

60

CHAP-Challenge

14

Login-IP-Host

61

NAS-Port-Type

15

Login-Service

62

Port-Limit

16

Login-TCP-Port

63

Login-LAT-Port

17

(unassigned)

64

Tunnel-Type

18

Reply-Message

65

Tunnel-Medium-Type

19

Callback-Number

66

Tunnel-Client-Endpoint

20

Callback-ID

67

Tunnel-Server-Endpoint

21

(unassigned)

68

Acct-Tunnel-Connection

22

Framed-Route

69

Tunnel-Password

23

Framed-IPX-Network

70

ARAP-Password

24

State

71

ARAP-Features

25

Class

72

ARAP-Zone-Access

26

Vendor-Specific

73

ARAP-Security

27

Session-Timeout

74

ARAP-Security-Data

28

Idle-Timeout

75

Password-Retry

29

Termination-Action

76

Prompt

30

Called-Station-Id

77

Connect-Info

31

Calling-Station-Id

78

Configuration-Token

32

NAS-Identifier

79

EAP-Message

33

Proxy-State

80

Message-Authenticator

34

Login-LAT-Service

81

Tunnel-Private-Group-ID

35

Login-LAT-Node

82

Tunnel-Assignment-id

36

Login-LAT-Group

83

Tunnel-Preference

37

Framed-AppleTalk-Link

84

ARAP-Challenge-Response

38

Framed-AppleTalk-Network

85

Acct-Interim-Interval

39

Framed-AppleTalk-Zone

86

Acct-Tunnel-Packets-Lost

40

Acct-Status-Type

87

NAS-Port-Id

41

Acct-Delay-Time

88

Framed-Pool

42

Acct-Input-Octets

89

(unassigned)

43

Acct-Output-Octets

90

Tunnel-Client-Auth-id

44

Acct-Session-Id

91

Tunnel-Server-Auth-id

 

Appendix B Descriptions for commonly used standard RADIUS attributes

No.

Attribute

Description

1

User-Name

Name of the user to be authenticated.

2

User-Password

User password for PAP authentication, only present in Access-Request packets when PAP authentication is used.

3

CHAP-Password

Digest of the user password for CHAP authentication, only present in Access-Request packets when CHAP authentication is used.

4

NAS-IP-Address

IP address for the server to use to identify the client. Typically, a client is identified by the IP address of its access interface. This attribute is only present in Access-Request packets.

5

NAS-Port

Physical port of the NAS that the user accesses.

6

Service-Type

Type of service that the user has requested or type of service to be provided.

7

Framed-Protocol

Encapsulation protocol for framed access.

8

Framed-IP-Address

IP address assigned to the user.

11

Filter-ID

Name of the filter list.

If the name starts with a digit, it indicates an ACL number.

If the name does not start with a digit, it indicates a user profile name.

12

Framed-MTU

MTU for the data link between the user and NAS. For example, this attribute can be used to define the maximum size of EAP packets allowed to be processed in 802.1X EAP authentication.

14

Login-IP-Host

IP address of the NAS interface that the user accesses.

15

Login-Service

Type of service that the user uses for login.

18

Reply-Message

Text to be displayed to the user, which can be used by the server to communicate information, for example, the cause of the authentication failure.

26

Vendor-Specific

Vendor-specific proprietary attribute. A packet can contain one or more proprietary attributes, each of which can contain one or more subattributes.

27

Session-Timeout

Maximum service duration for the user before termination of the session.

28

Idle-Timeout

Maximum idle time permitted for the user before termination of the session.

30

Called-Station-Id

ID of the NAS sent to the server.

For wired users, this attribute is typically the MAC address of the user access interface. (For PPP users, this attribute is the called number.)

For wireless users, this attribute is the information of the AP to which the users are connecting.

31

Calling-Station-Id

User identification that the NAS sends to the server. For the LAN access service provided by an H3C device, this attribute includes the MAC address of the user.

32

NAS-Identifier

Identification that the NAS uses to identify itself to the RADIUS server.

40

Acct-Status-Type

Type of the Accounting-Request packet. Possible values include:

·     1—Start.

·     2—Stop.

·     3—Interim-Update.

·     4—Reset-Charge.

·     7—Accounting-On. (Defined in the 3rd Generation Partnership Project.)

·     8—Accounting-Off. (Defined in the 3rd Generation Partnership Project.)

·     9 to 14—Reserved for tunnel accounting.

·     15—Reserved for failed.

45

Acct-Authentic

Authentication method used by the user. Possible values include:

·     1—RADIUS.

·     2—Local.

·     3—Remote.

60

CHAP-Challenge

CHAP challenge generated by the NAS for MD5 calculation during CHAP authentication.

61

NAS-Port-Type

Type of the physical port of the NAS that is authenticating the user. Possible values include:

·     15—Ethernet.

·     16—Any type of ADSL.

·     17—Cable. (With cable for cable TV.)

·     19—WLAN-IEEE 802.11.

·     201—VLAN.

·     202—ATM.

If the port is an ATM or Ethernet one and VLANs are implemented on it, the value of this attribute is 201.

64

Tunnel-Type

Tunneling protocols used.

The value 13 represents VLAN. If the value is 13, the device interprets the Tunnel-Type, Tunnel-Medium-Type, and Tunnel-Private-Group-ID attributes as attributes to assign VLANs.

65

Tunnel-Medium-Type

Transport medium type to use for creating a tunnel.

For VLAN assignment, the value must be 6 to indicate the 802 media plus Ethernet.

79

EAP-Message

Used to encapsulate EAP packets to allow RADIUS to support EAP authentication.

80

Message-Authenticator

Used for authentication and verification of authentication packets to prevent spoofing Access-Requests. This attribute is present when EAP authentication is used.

81

Tunnel-Private-Group-ID

Group ID for a tunnel session. To assign VLANs, the NAS conveys VLAN IDs by using this attribute.

87

NAS-Port-Id

String for describing the port of the NAS that is authenticating the user.

168

Framed-IPv6-Address

Server-assigned IPv6 address for the NAS to assign to the host. The address must be unique.

 

Appendix C RADIUS subattributes (vendor ID 25506)

Table 5 lists all RADIUS subattributes with a vendor ID of 25506. Support for these subattributes depends on the device model.

Table 5 RADIUS subattributes (vendor ID 25506)

No.

Subattribute

Description

1

Input-Peak-Rate

Peak rate in the direction from the user to the NAS, in bps.

2

Input-Average-Rate

Average rate in the direction from the user to the NAS, in bps.

3

Input-Basic-Rate

Basic rate in the direction from the user to the NAS, in bps.

4

Output-Peak-Rate

Peak rate in the direction from the NAS to the user, in bps.

5

Output-Average-Rate

Average rate in the direction from the NAS to the user, in bps.

6

Output-Basic-Rate

Basic rate in the direction from the NAS to the user, in bps.

15

Remanent_Volume

Total amount of data available for the connection, in different units for different server types.

17

ISP-ID

ISP domain where the user obtains authorization information.

20

Command

Operation for the session, used for session control. Possible values include:

·     1—Trigger-Request.

·     2—Terminate-Request.

·     3—SetPolicy.

·     4—Result.

·     5—PortalClear.

25

Result_Code

Result of the Trigger-Request or SetPolicy operation, zero for success and any other value for failure.

26

Connect_ID

Index of the user connection.

27

PortalURL

PADM redirect URL assigned to PPPoE users.

28

Ftp_Directory

FTP, SFTP, or SCP user working directory.

When the RADIUS client acts as the FTP, SFTP, or SCP server, this attribute is used to set the working directory for an FTP, SFTP, or SCP user on the RADIUS client.

29

Exec_Privilege

EXEC user priority.

32

NAT-IP-Address

Public IP address assigned to the user when the source IP address and port are translated.

33

NAT-Start-Port

Start port number of the port range assigned to the user when the source IP address and port are translated.

34

NAT-End-Port

End port number of the port range assigned to the user when the source IP address and port are translated.

59

NAS_Startup_Timestamp

Startup time of the NAS in seconds, which is represented by the time elapsed after 00:00:00 on Jan. 1, 1970 (UTC).

60

Ip_Host_Addr

User IP address and MAC address included in authentication and accounting requests, in the format A.B.C.D hh:hh:hh:hh:hh:hh. A space is required between the IP address and the MAC address.

61

User_Notify

Information that must be sent from the server to the client transparently.

62

User_HeartBeat

Hash value assigned after an 802.1X user passes authentication, which is a 32-byte string. This attribute is stored in the user list on the NAS and verifies the handshake packets from the 802.1X user. This attribute only exists in Access-Accept and Accounting-Request packets.

98

Multicast_Receive_Group

IP address of the multicast group that the user's host joins as a receiver. This subattribute can appear multiple times in a multicast packet to indicate that the user belongs to multiple multicast groups.

100

IP6_Multicast_Receive_Group

IPv6 address of the multicast group that the user's host joins as a receiver. This subattribute can appear multiple times in a multicast packet to indicate that the user belongs to multiple multicast groups.

101

MLD-Access-Limit

Maximum number of MLD multicast groups that the user can join concurrently.

102

local-name

L2TP local tunnel name.

103

IGMP-Access-Limit

Maximum number of IGMP multicast groups that the user can join concurrently.

104

VPN-Instance

MPLS L3VPN instance to which a user belongs.

105

ANCP-Profile

ANCP profile name.

135

Client-Primary-DNS

IP address of the primary DNS server.

136

Client-Secondary-DNS

IP address of the secondary DNS server.

140

User_Group

User groups assigned after the user passes authentication.

Typically, a user can belong to only one user group.

144

Acct_IPv6_Input_Octets

Bytes of IPv6 packets in the inbound direction. The measurement unit depends on the configuration on the device.

145

Acct_IPv6_Output_Octets

Bytes of IPv6 packets in the outbound direction. The measurement unit depends on the configuration on the device.

146

Acct_IPv6_Input_Packets

Number of IPv6 packets in the inbound direction. The measurement unit depends on the configuration on the device.

147

Acct_IPv6_Output_Packets

Number of IPv6 packets in the outbound direction. The measurement unit depends on the configuration on the device.

148

Acct_IPv6_Input_Gigawords

Bytes of IPv6 packets in the inbound direction. The measurement unit is 4G bytes.

149

Acct_IPv6_Output_Gigawords

Bytes of IPv6 packets in the outbound direction. The measurement unit is 4G bytes.

155

User-Roles

List of space-separated user roles.

210

Av-Pair

User-defined attribute pair. Available attribute pairs include:

·     Server-assigned voice VLAN in the format of device-traffic-class=voice.

·     Server-assigned user role in the format of shell:role=xxx.

·     Server-assigned ACL in the format of url-redirect-acl=xxx.

·     Server-assigned Web redirect URL in the format of url-redirect=xxx.

·     Server-deployed command to reboot a port, in the format of subscriber:command=bounce-host-port.

·     Server-assigned port shutdown duration in the format of bounce:seconds=xxx.

·     Server-deployed command to shut down a port, in the format of subscriber:command=disable-host-port.

·     Server-assigned VSI in the format of vxlan:vsi-name=xxx.

·     VSI-based ACL resource assignment capability in the format of ACL:match-by-vsiindex=x. Value 1 of x indicates that this feature is supported, and the other values of x are reserved.

·     Server-assigned blackhole MAC address attribute in the format of mac:block-mac=xxx.

·     Server-assigned MAC authentication offline detect timer (in seconds) in the format of mac-authentication: offline-detect-time=xxx. Value 0 of xxx indicates that MAC authentication offline detection is disabled.

·     Server-assigned MAC authentication offline detection flag in the format of mac-authentication: offline-detect-check=x. x has the following values:

¡     0—The device does not search for the ARP snooping entry or ND snooping entry of the MAC address.

¡     1—The device searches for the ARP snooping entry or ND snooping entry of the MAC address.

·     Server-assigned dynamic ACL. For more information about the format of this attribute, see "Appendix D Format of dynamic authorization ACLs." Support for this attribute in 802.1X authentication and MAC authentication depends on the device model. If the server assigns a user both this attribute and the Filter-ID attribute, the device will ignore this attribute. The device does not support using CoA messages to change the content assigned by this attribute or assign another ACL to the user.

216

Ita-Policy

ITA policy name.

218

H3c-DHCP-Option

DHCP option information for the DHCP client. This attribute includes the following fields:

·     Type—Type of the option attribute. By default, the length of this field is 1 byte. You can use the include-attribute 218 vendor-id 25506 dhcp-option command to change the length of this field to 2 bytes to meet the requirement of HUAWEI servers.

·     Length—Length of the Value field. The Length field is 1 byte.

·     Value—Value of the option attribute. This field cannot exceed 246 bytes.

230

NAS-Port-Name

Interface through which the user is connected to the NAS.

246

Auth_Detail_Result

Accounting details. The server sends Access-Accept packets with subattributes 246 and 250 in the following situations:

·     1—The subscriber charge is overdue. The subscriber is allowed to access network resources in the whitelist. If the subscriber accesses other network resources, the device redirects it to the URL specified by subattribute 250.

·     2—The broadband lease of the subscriber expires. The device redirects the subscriber to the URL specified by subattribute 250 when the subscriber requests to access webpages for the first time.

247

Input-Committed-Burst-Size

Committed burst size from the user to the NAS, in bits. The total length cannot exceed 4 bytes for this field.

This subattribute must be assigned together with the Input-Average-Rate attribute.

248

Output-Committed-Burst-Size

Committed burst size from the NAS to the user, in bits. The total length cannot exceed 4 bytes for this field.

This subattribute must be assigned together with the Output-Average-Rate attribute.

249

authentication-type

Authentication type. The value can be:

·     1—Intranet access authentication.

·     2—Internet access authentication.

If the packet does not contain this subattribute, common authentication applies.

250

WEB-URL

Redirect URL for users.

251

Subscriber-ID

Family plan ID.

252

Subscriber-Profile

QoS policy name for the family plan of the subscriber.

255

Product_ID

Product name.

Appendix D Format of dynamic authorization ACLs

The server might assign a dynamic authorization ACL that contains multiple rules to a user in different ways:

·     Assign only one Av-Pair subattribute to the user. In this subattribute, the dynamic ACL contains multiple rules separated by question marks (?).

·     Assign multiple Av-Pair subattributes to the user. All the subattributes contain the same dynamic ACL and a different rule. Support for this method depends on the server model.

The format of a dynamic ACL rule is as follows:

aclrule?same?acl-name?acl-type?ver-type?rule-id?protocol=protocol-type?counting?dst-ip=ip-addr?src-ip=ip-addr?dst-port=port-value?src-port=port-value?action=action-type

The fields in the rule are described in Table 6. The following is an example of a dynamic ACL rule:

aclrule?same?test?1?1?1?protocol=3?counting?dst-ip=1.1.1.1/1.1.1.1?src-ip=1.1.1.1/0?dst-port=1.2000?src-port=5.2000-3000?action=1

Table 6 Fields in a dynamic ACL rule

Field

Description

Remarks

aclrule

Indicates that the following part is information about a dynamic ACL rule.

Required

same

Indicates that the current user will inherit the dynamic ACL rules that have been successfully assigned to another authenticated user.

If the server assigns one user the same dynamic ACL as another user but the rules are different for the two users, the device applies the dynamic ACL rules of the user that comes online first to the other user.

Required

acl-name

ACL name, a case-insensitive string of 1 to 63 characters. The ACL name must begin with a letter and it cannot be all or the same as an existing static ACL on the device.

Required

acl-type

ACL type. 1 indicates an advanced ACL. In the current software version, only advanced ACLs are supported.

Required

ver-type

IP protocol type:

·     1—IPv4.

·     2—IPv6.

Required

rule-id

ACL rule number, in the range of 0 to 65534.

Required

protocol-type

Protocol type:

·     1—IP.

·     2—ICMP.

·     3—TCP.

·     4—UDP.

·     5—ICMPv6.

·     6—IPv6.

Optional

counting

Indicates that rule match statistics is enabled. If a rule does not include this field, rule match statistics is disabled for the rule.

Optional

ip-addr

IP address information. For example, 1.1.1.1/1.1.1.1, 1.1.1.1/0, or 3::3/128.

If the value is any, the rule matches any IP address.

Optional

port-value

TCP or UDP port information, in the X.YYY format.

·     X—Operator.

¡     1—Equal to.

¡     2—Greater than.

¡     3—Smaller than.

¡     4—Not equal to.

¡     5—In the range of.

·     YYY—Port number information.

For example, 1.3000 and 5.2000-3000.

Optional

action-type

Action type:

·     1—Deny.

·     2—Permit.

Optional

 

The following restrictions apply to dynamic authorization ACLs:

·     For the former six fields (aclrule?same?acl-name?acl-type?ver-type?rule-id) of a dynamic ACL rule, their positions are fixed. The device cannot interpret a dynamic ACL rule if the positions of the six fields are changed. For the other fields, position changes are allowed.

·     The settings for all the fields in the rules must meet the configuration logic of ACL rules on the device so the device can correctly interpret the rules.

·     All dynamic ACL rules in one authorization must belong to the same ACL name.

·     A dynamic ACL must have rules and the format of the rules must be valid.