14-WLAN Configuration Guide (AC)

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04-WLAN access configuration
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Contents

Configuring WLAN access· 1

About WLAN access· 1

WLAN access process· 1

Scanning· 1

Association· 3

Client access control 3

AP group-based access control 3

SSID-based access control 4

Whitelist- and blacklist-based access control 5

ACL-based access control 5

Restrictions: Hardware compatibility with WLAN access· 6

Restrictions and guidelines: WLAN access configuration· 6

WLAN access tasks at a glance· 6

Configuring wireless services· 7

Configuring a service template· 7

Configuring a description for a service template· 8

Setting an SSID·· 8

Setting the maximum number of associated clients for a service template· 8

Enabling a service template· 9

Binding a service template to a radio· 9

Configuring an AP to not inherit the specified service template from the AP group· 10

Configuring client data forwarding· 10

Specifying the client traffic forwarder 10

Enabling client traffic forwarding· 11

Setting the encapsulation format for client data frames· 11

Specifying the method for APs to process traffic from unknown clients· 11

Configuring client management 12

Enabling client association at the AC or APs· 12

Enabling quick association· 12

Specifying the Web server to which client information is reported· 12

Enabling generation of client logs in the specified format 13

Setting the VLAN allocation method for clients· 13

Configuring clients to prefer the authorization VLAN after roaming· 14

Enabling immediate client association upon successful local authentication· 14

Setting the aging timer for the cache of clients· 15

Setting the idle period before client reauthentication· 15

Configuring differentiated accounting of client traffic· 16

Configuring client maintenance· 16

Setting the client idle timeout 16

Configuring client keepalive· 17

Performing a wireless link quality test 17

Configuring client statistics reporting· 18

Enabling APs to report client smart operations and maintenance statistics· 18

Setting the NAS ID·· 19

Setting the NAS port type· 20

Configuring client association ratio optimization· 20

Enabling beacon frames and probe responses to carry the BSS load IE· 21

Configuring VIP clients· 21

Configuring the VIP client group· 21

Configuring non-VIP client rate limit 22

Configuring policy-based forwarding· 22

Restrictions and guidelines for policy-based forwarding· 22

Prerequisites for policy-based forwarding· 22

Configuring a forwarding policy· 22

Enabling traffic forwarding to the external network in local forwarding mode· 23

Applying a forwarding policy to a service template· 23

Applying a forwarding policy to a user profile· 24

Configuring client access control 24

Specifying a permitted AP group for client association· 24

Specifying a permitted SSID for client association· 25

Adding a client to the whitelist 25

Adding a client to the static blacklist 25

Configuring the dynamic blacklist 25

Configuring ACL-based access control 26

Disabling an AP from responding to broadcast probe requests· 27

Deploying a configuration file to an AP· 27

Enabling SNMP notifications for WLAN access· 28

Enabling smart client access· 28

Display and maintenance commands for WLAN access· 28

WLAN access configuration examples· 30

Example: Configuring WLAN access· 30

Example: Configuring whitelist-based access control 32

Example: Configuring static blacklist-based access control 32

Example: Configuring ACL-based access control 33

 


Configuring WLAN access

About WLAN access

Wireless access is provided by APs deployed at the edge of a wired network. The APs connect to the uplink through wired connections and provide wireless access services to downlink clients.

WLAN access process

A wireless client can access a WLAN only when it completes the scanning, link layer authentication, association, and WLAN authentication processes.

For more information about data link layer authentication, see "Configuring WLAN security." For more information about WLAN authentication, see "Configuring WLAN authentication."

Figure 1 WLAN access process

Scanning

Active scanning

A wireless client periodically scans surrounding wireless networks by sending probe requests. It obtains network information from received probe responses. Based on whether a probe request carries an SSID, active scanning can be divided into the following types:

·     Active scanning of all wireless networks.

As shown in Figure 2, the client periodically sends a probe request on each of its supported channels to scan wireless networks. APs that receive the probe request send a probe response that carries the available wireless network information. The client associates with the optimal AP.

Figure 2 Scanning all wireless networks

·     Active scanning of a specific wireless network.

As shown in Figure 3, the client periodically sends a probe request carrying the specified SSID or the SSID of the wireless network it has been associated with. When an AP that can provide wireless services with the specified SSID receives the probe request, it sends a probe response.

Figure 3 Scanning a specific wireless network

Passive scanning

As shown in Figure 4, the clients periodically listen for beacon frames sent by APs on their supported channels to get information about surrounding wireless networks. Then the clients select an AP for association. Passive scanning is used when clients want to save power.

Figure 4 Passive scanning

Association

A client sends an association request to the associated AP after passing date link layer authentication. Upon receiving the request, the AP determines the capability supported by the wireless client and sends an association response to the client. Then the client is associated with the AP.

Client access control

The following client access control methods are available:

·     AP group-based access control—Allows clients associated with APs in the specified AP group to access the WLAN.

·     SSID-based access control—Allows clients associated with the specified SSID to access the WLAN.

·     Whitelist- and blacklist-based access control—Uses the whitelist and blacklists to control client access.

·     ACL-based access control—Uses ACL rules bound to APs or service templates to control client access.

AP group-based access control

As shown in Figure 5, for AP group-based access control, configure AP group 1 as the permitted AP group for Client 1 and Client 2, and configure AP group 2 as the permitted AP group for Client 3.

When a client passes authentication, the server sends the related user profile to the AC. The AC examines whether the AP with which the client associates is in the permitted AP group. If it is, the client is allowed to access the WLAN. If it is not, the AC logs off the client.

Figure 5 AP group-based access control

SSID-based access control

As shown in Figure 6, for SSID-based access control, configure ssida as the permitted SSID for Client 1 and Client 2, and configure ssidb as the permitted SSID for Client 3.

When a client passes authentication, the server sends the related user profile to the AC. The AC examines whether the associated SSID of the client is the permitted SSID. If it is, the client is allowed to access the WLAN. If it is not, the AC logs off the client.

Figure 6 SSID-based access control

Whitelist- and blacklist-based access control

You can configure the whitelist or blacklists to filter frames from clients for client access control.

Whitelist-based access control

The whitelist contains the MAC addresses of all clients allowed to access the WLAN. Frames from clients not in the whitelist are discarded. This list is manually configured.

Blacklist-based access control

The following blacklists are available for access control:

·     Static blacklist—Contains the MAC addresses of clients forbidden to access the WLAN. This list is manually configured.

·     Dynamic blacklist—Contains the MAC addresses of clients forbidden to access the WLAN. An AP adds the MAC address of a client forbidden to access the WLAN to the list when WIPS is configured or when URL redirection is enabled for WLAN MAC authentication clients. The entries in the list are removed when the aging time expires. The dynamic blacklist can take effect on the AC or on APs, depending on the configuration. For more information about WIPS, see "Configuring WIPS." For more information about WLAN MAC authentication, see "Configuring WLAN authentication."

Working mechanism

When an AP receives an association request and sends an Add Mobile message to the AC, the AC performs the following operations to determine whether to permit the client:

1.     Searches the whitelist:

¡     If the client MAC address does not match any entry in the whitelist, the client is rejected.

¡     If a match is found, the client is permitted.

2.     Searches the static and dynamic blacklists if no whitelist entries exist:

¡     If the client MAC address matches an entry in either blacklist, the client is rejected.

¡     If no match is found, or no blacklist entries exist, the client is permitted.

Figure 7 Whitelist- and blacklist-based access control

ACL-based access control

This feature controls client access by using ACL rules bound to an AP or a service template.

Upon receiving an association request from a client, the device performs the following actions:

·     Allows the client to access the WLAN if a match is found and the rule action is permit.

·     Denies the client's access to the WLAN if no match is found or the matched rule has a deny statement.

Restrictions: Hardware compatibility with WLAN access

For information about MSR routers that can function as ACs, see "Compatibility of hardware and AC functionality."

Restrictions and guidelines: WLAN access configuration

You can configure APs by using the following methods:

·     Configure APs one by one in AP view.

·     Assign APs to an AP group and configure the AP group in AP group view.

·     Configure all APs in global configuration view.

For an AP, the settings made in these views for the same parameter take effect in descending order of AP view, AP group view, and global configuration view.

WLAN access tasks at a glance

To configure WLAN access, perform the following tasks:

1.     Configuring wireless services

¡     Configuring a service template

¡     (Optional.) Configuring a description for a service template

¡     Setting an SSID

¡     (Optional.) Setting the maximum number of associated clients for a service template

¡     Enabling a service template

¡     Binding a service template to a radio

¡     (Optional.) Configuring an AP to not inherit the specified service template from the AP group

2.     (Optional.) Configuring client data forwarding

¡     Specifying the client traffic forwarder

¡     Enabling client traffic forwarding

¡     Setting the encapsulation format for client data frames

¡     Specifying the method for APs to process traffic from unknown clients

3.     (Optional.) Configuring client management

¡     Enabling client association at the AC or APs

¡     Enabling quick association

¡     Specifying the Web server to which client information is reported

¡     Enabling generation of client logs in the specified format

¡     Setting the VLAN allocation method for clients

¡     Configuring clients to prefer the authorization VLAN after roaming

¡     Enabling immediate client association upon successful local authentication

¡     Setting the aging timer for the cache of clients

¡     Setting the idle period before client reauthentication

4.     (Optional.) Configuring client maintenance

¡     Setting the client idle timeout

¡     Configuring client keepalive

¡     Performing a wireless link quality test

¡     Configuring client statistics reporting

¡     Enabling APs to report client smart operations and maintenance statistics

¡     Setting the NAS ID

¡     Setting the NAS port type

¡     Configuring client association ratio optimization

¡     Enabling beacon frames and probe responses to carry the BSS load IE

5.     (Optional.) Configuring VIP clients

6.     (Optional.) Configuring policy-based forwarding

7.     (Optional.) Configuring client access control

¡     Specifying a permitted AP group for client association

¡     Specifying a permitted SSID for client association

¡     Adding a client to the whitelist

¡     Adding a client to the static blacklist

¡     Configuring the dynamic blacklist

¡     Configuring ACL-based access control

8.     (Optional.) Disabling an AP from responding to broadcast probe requests

9.     (Optional.) Deploying a configuration file to an AP

10.     (Optional.) Enabling SNMP notifications for WLAN access

Configuring wireless services

Configuring a service template

About this task

A service template defines a set of wireless service attributes, such as SSID and authentication method.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create a service template.

wlan service-template service-template-name

By default, no service template exists.

3.     (Optional.) Assign clients coming online through the service template to the specified VLAN.

vlan vlan-id

By default, clients are assigned VLAN 1 after coming online through a service template.

Configuring a description for a service template

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

3.     Configure a description for the service template.

description text

By default, no description is configured for a service template.

Setting an SSID

About this task

APs broadcast SSIDs in beacon frames for clients to discover them. When a BSS is unavailable or when you do not want clients to discover the BSS, you can enable SSID-hidden. With SSID-hidden enabled, the BSS hides its SSID in beacon frames and does not respond to broadcast probe requests. A client must send probe requests with the specified SSID to access the WLAN. This feature can protect the WLAN from being attacked.

When the number of clients associated with an AP reaches the upper limit, the AP automatically hides its SSIDs in beacon frames, and other clients cannot discover and associate with the AP. For these clients to discover the AP, you can configure the SSID broadcast feature. However, these clients still cannot associate with the AP.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

3.     Set an SSID for the service template.

ssid ssid-name

By default, no SSID is set for a service template.

4.     (Optional.) Enable SSID-hidden in beacon frames.

beacon ssid-hide

By default, SSIDs are not hidden in beacon frames.

5.     (Optional.) Enable SSID broadcast in beacon frames.

beacon ssid-advertise

By default, an AP hides SSIDs in beacon frames when the maximum number of associated clients is reached.

Setting the maximum number of associated clients for a service template

About this task

Perform this task to limit the associated client quantity to avoid overload. With this feature configured, new clients cannot access the WLAN and the SSID is hidden when the maximum number is reached.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

3.     Set the maximum number of associated clients for the service template.

client max-count max-number

By default, the number of associated clients for a service template is not limited.

Enabling a service template

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

3.     Enable the service template.

service-template enable

By default, a service template is disabled.

Binding a service template to a radio

About this task

If you bind a service template to a radio, the AP creates a BSS that can provide wireless services defined in the service template.

You can perform the following tasks when binding a service template to a radio:

·     Bind a VLAN group to the radio so that clients associated with the BSS will be assigned evenly to all VLANs in the VLAN group.

·     Bind the NAS port ID or the NAS ID to the radio to identify the network access server.

·     Enable the AP to hide SSIDs in beacon frames.

Restrictions and guidelines

You can bind a maximum of 16 service templates to a radio.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter AP view or an AP group's AP model view.

¡     Enter AP view.

wlan ap ap-name

¡     Execute the following commands in sequence to enter an AP group's AP model view:

wlan ap-group group-name

ap-model ap-model

3.     Enter radio view.

radio radio-id

4.     Bind a service template to the radio.

service-template service-template-name [ vlan vlan-id1 | vlan-group vlan-group-name ] [ ssid-hide ] [ nas-port-id nas-port-id ] [ nas-id nas-id ]

By default:

¡     In radio view, the configuration in an AP group's radio view is used.

¡     In an AP group's radio view, no service template is bound to a radio.

Configuring an AP to not inherit the specified service template from the AP group

About this task

By default, APs in an AP group inherit the service template bound to the AP group and create BSSs. You can perform this task to configure an AP to not inherit the specified service template from the AP group to which it belongs.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter AP view.

wlan ap ap-name

3.     Enter radio view.

radio radio-id

4.     Configure the AP to not inherit the specified service template from the AP group.

inherit exclude service-template service-template-name

By default, an AP inherits the service template bound to the AP group to which it belongs.

Configuring client data forwarding

Specifying the client traffic forwarder

About this task

The AC (centralized forwarding) or APs (local forwarding) can forward client traffic. Using APs to forward client traffic releases the forwarding burden on the AC.

If APs forward client traffic, you can specify a VLAN or a VLAN range for the APs to forward traffic from the specified VLANs. The AC forwards data traffic from the other VLANs.

Restrictions and guidelines

For the configuration of using the AC to forward client traffic to take effect, make sure client traffic forwarding has been enabled.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

3.     Specify the client traffic forwarder.

client forwarding-location { ac | ap [ vlan { start-vlan [ to end-vlan ] } ] }

For information about the default setting, see the command reference for the device.

Enabling client traffic forwarding

Restrictions and guidelines

You must enable this feature if you configure the AC as the client traffic forwarder.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enable client traffic forwarding.

wlan client forwarding enable

By default, client traffic forwarding is enabled.

Setting the encapsulation format for client data frames

About this task

In a centralized forwarding infrastructure, an AP sends data frames from clients to the AC over the CAPWAP tunnel. You can set the encapsulation format for the client data frames to 802.3 or 802.11. As a best practice, set the format to 802.3 so the AC does not need to perform frame format conversion.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

3.     Set the encapsulation format for client data frames.

client frame-format { dot3 | dot11 }

By default, client data frames are encapsulated in the 802.3 format.

Specifying the method for APs to process traffic from unknown clients

About this task

Perform this task to configure APs using the specified service template to drop data packets from unknown clients and deauthenticate these clients or to drop the packets only.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

3.     Specify the method for APs to process traffic from unknown clients.

unknown-client [ deauthenticate | drop ]

By default, APs drop packets from unknown clients and deauthenticate these clients.

Configuring client management

Enabling client association at the AC or APs

About this task

If you enable client association at the AC, management frames are sent to the AC over the CAPWAP tunnel. This ensures security and facilitates management. As a best practice, enable client association at the APs when the network between AC and APs is complicated.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

3.     Enable client association at the AC or APs.

client association-location { ac | ap }

By default, client association is performed at the AC.

Enabling quick association

About this task

Enabling band navigation might affect client association efficiency. For delay-sensitive services or in an environment where band navigation is not needed, you can enable quick association for a service template.

Quick association disables band navigation on clients associated with the service template. The device will not perform band navigation even if the feature is enabled in the WLAN.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

3.     Enable quick association.

quick-association enable

By default, quick association is disabled.

Specifying the Web server to which client information is reported

About this task

Perform this task to enable the device to report client information, such as client MAC address, associated AP, and association time, to the specified Web server through HTTP. The Web server accepts client information only when the server's host name, port number, and path are specified.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Specify the host name and port number of the Web server.

wlan web-server host host-name port port-number

By default, the host name and port number of the Web server are not specified.

3.     Specify the path of the Web server.

wlan web-server api-path path

By default, the path of the Web server is not specified.

4.     (Optional.) Set the maximum number of client entries that can be reported at a time.

wlan web-server max-client-entry number

By default, a maximum of ten client entries can be reported at a time.

Enabling generation of client logs in the specified format

About this task

The device supports client logs in the following formats:

·     H3C—Logs AP name, radio ID, client MAC address, SSID, BSSID, and client online status. By default, the device generates client logs only in H3C format.

·     Normal—Logs AP MAC address, AP name, client IP address, client MAC address, SSID, and BSSID.

·     Sangfor—Logs AP MAC address, client IP address, and client MAC address.

This feature enables the device to generate client logs in normal or sangfor format and send the logs to the information center. Log destinations are determined by the information center settings. For more information about the information center, see Network Management and Monitoring Configuration Guide.

This feature does not affect generation of client logs in the H3C format.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enable the device to generate client logs in the specified format.

customlog format wlan { normal | sangfor }

By default, the device generates client logs only in the H3C format.

Setting the VLAN allocation method for clients

About this task

When a client comes online for the first time, the associated AP assigns a random VLAN to it. When the client comes online again, the VLAN assigned to the client depends on the allocation method.

·     Static allocation—The client inherits the VLAN that has been assigned to it. If the IP address lease has not expired, the client will use the same IP address. This method helps save IP addresses.

·     Dynamic allocation—The AP re-assigns a VLAN to the client. This method balances clients in all VLANs.

Restrictions and guidelines

Removing VLANs from or adding VLANs to the client VLAN group does not affect online clients.

After a client goes offline and comes online again, its VLAN might change in the following situations:

·     In static or compatible static allocation mode, the AP will assign a new VLAN to the client if its original VLAN has been removed from the VLAN group.

·     If you change the VLAN allocation method from dynamic to static or compatible static, the AP might assign the clients a different VLAN after they come online again.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

3.     Set the VLAN allocation method for clients.

client vlan-alloc { dynamic | static }

By default, the VLAN allocation method for clients is dynamic.

Configuring clients to prefer the authorization VLAN after roaming

About this task

Typically, the VLAN of a client remains unchanged after client roaming. However, if the client triggers a security alert configured on IMC after roams to another AP, the issued authorization VLAN for user isolation takes effect.

Restrictions and guidelines

As a best practice, configure this feature on all ACs in a mobility group.

This feature takes effect only on 802.1X and MAC authentication clients.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

3.     Configure clients to prefer the authorization VLAN after roaming.

client preferred-vlan authorized

By default, clients prefer the authorization VLAN after roaming.

Enabling immediate client association upon successful local authentication

About this task

By default, an AP reports information about locally authenticated clients that pass authentication to the AC, and the AC creates client entries and informs the AP to get the clients online. If the CAPWAP tunnel between the AC and the AP operates incorrectly, clients might fail to come online and are reauthenticated repeatedly.

To avoid this problem, you can allow clients to come online immediately after successful local authentication so that the AP can forward client traffic when the AC cannot be reached. The AP synchronizes client information to the AC when the tunnel recovers.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

3.     Enable clients to come online immediately upon successful local authentication.

undo client report-mandatory

By default, locally authenticated clients come online after successful client information reporting.

Setting the aging timer for the cache of clients

About this task

The cache of a client saves the PMK list, access VLAN, and other authorized information for the client. If an offline client comes online again before the aging timer expires, it can inherit all information in its cache for fast roaming. If the client does not come online before the aging timer expires, the AC clears the client cache.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

3.     Set the aging timer for the cache of clients.

client cache aging-time aging-time

By default, the aging timer for the cache of clients is 180 seconds.

Setting the idle period before client reauthentication

About this task

When URL redirection for WLAN MAC authentication is enabled, an AP redirects clients whose information is not recorded on the RADIUS server to the specified URL for Web authentication. Clients passing Web authentication are logged off and must perform MAC reauthentication to come online. However, MAC reauthentication fails if the IP addresses assigned to the clients have not expired.

Perform this task to add these clients to the dynamic blacklist for the specified idle period after they pass Web authentication to reduce reauthentication failures.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Set the idle period before client reauthentication.

wlan client reauthentication-period [ period-value ]

By default, the idle period is 10 seconds.

Configuring differentiated accounting of client traffic

About differentiated accounting of client traffic

This feature enables APs to perform differentiated accounting of client traffic based on the accounting policy applied to each user profile.

Upon client association, the authentication server deploys the user profile bound to the client account to the client authenticator (AC or AP). If the AC is the authenticator, it deploys the user profile to the AP.

If no accounting policy is applied to a user profile, the system performs AAA accounting.

Restrictions and guidelines

Accounting policy changes, including deletion, for a user profile do not affect online clients.

Prerequisites

On the authentication server, bind user profiles to clients.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create an accounting policy and enter its view or enter the view of an existing accounting policy.

wlan accounting-policy policy-name

3.     Specify a traffic level for ACL-based accounting.

accounting-level level acl { acl-number | ipv6 ipv6-acl-number }

By default, no traffic levels are specified for ACL-based accounting.

4.     Return to system view.

quit

5.     Enter user profile view.

user-profile profile-name

6.     Apply an accounting policy to the user profile.

wlan apply accounting-policy policy-name

By default, no accounting policy is applied.

Configuring client maintenance

Setting the client idle timeout

About this task

If an online client does not send any frames to the associated AP before the client idle timeout timer expires, the AP logs off the client.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter AP view or AP group view.

¡     Enter AP view.

wlan ap ap-name

¡     Enter AP group view.

wlan ap-group group-name

3.     Set the client idle timeout.

client idle-timeout timeout

By default:

¡     In AP view, an AP uses the configuration in AP group view.

¡     In AP group view, the client idle timeout is 3600 seconds.

Configuring client keepalive

About this task

This feature enables an AP to send keepalive packets to clients at the specified interval to determine whether the clients are online. If the AP does not receive any replies from a client within three keepalive intervals, it logs off the client.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter AP view or AP group view.

¡     Enter AP view.

wlan ap ap-name

¡     Enter AP group view.

wlan ap-group group-name

3.     Enable client keepalive.

client keep-alive enable

By default:

¡     In AP view, an AP uses the configuration in AP group view.

¡     In AP group view, client keepalive is disabled.

4.     (Optional.) Set the client keepalive interval.

client keep-alive interval interval

By default:

¡     In AP view, an AP uses the configuration in AP group view.

¡     In AP group view, the client keepalive interval is 300 seconds.

Performing a wireless link quality test

About this task

This feature enables an AP to test the quality of the link to a wireless client. The AP sends empty data frames to the client at each supported rate. Then it calculates link quality information such as RSSI, packet retransmissions, and RTT based on the responses from the client.

The timeout for a wireless link quality test is 10 seconds. If the wireless link test is not completed before the timeout expires, test results cannot be obtained.

Procedure

To perform a wireless link quality test, execute the wlan link-test mac-address command in user view.

Configuring client statistics reporting

About this task

This feature enables an AP to report client statistics to the AC at the specified intervals for client entry update. The AC informs the AP to log off a client if the client's information does not exist in the saved entries.

To avoid frequent client re-association, disable this feature when the network is in a bad condition.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter AP view or AP group view.

¡     Enter AP view.

wlan ap ap-name

¡     Enter AP group view.

wlan ap-group group-name

3.     Configure client statistics reporting.

client-statistics-report { disable | enable [ interval interval ] }

By default:

¡     In AP view, an AP uses the configuration in AP group view.

¡     In AP group view, client statistics reporting is enabled.

Enabling APs to report client smart operations and maintenance statistics

About reporting client smart operations and maintenance statistics

This feature enables an AP to report client smart operations and maintenance (O&M) statistics to the AC at intervals specified by the client-statistics-report command. The AC reports the statistics to the cloud platform. Users can view client statistics from the Web interface.

Restrictions and guidelines

Disable this feature when the network condition is poor.

For VIP client features to take effect, you must enable this feature when any VIP client feature is enabled.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enable AP view or AP group view.

¡     Enter AP view.

wlan local-ac enable

¡     Enter AP group view.

wlan ap-group group-name

3.     Enable an AP to report client smart O&M statistics to the AC.

client-statistics-report smart-maintenance enable

By default:

¡     In AP view, an AP uses the configuration in an AP group's AP model view.

¡     In AP group view, an AP reports client smart O&M statistics to the AC.

Setting the NAS ID

About this task

A network access server identifier (NAS ID), network access server port identifier (NAS port ID), or network access server VLAN identifier (NAS VLAN ID) identifies the network access server of a client and differentiates the source of client traffic.

Restrictions and guidelines

If you specify a NAS ID or NAS port ID when binding a service template to a radio, the radio uses the NAS ID or NAS port ID specified for the service template.

If a NAS port ID has been specified by using the nas-port-id command, clients use the specified NAS port ID. If no NAS port ID is specified, clients use the specified NAS port ID format to generate NAS port IDs.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Set the format of NAS port IDs for wireless clients.

wlan nas-port-id format { 2 | 4 }

By default, clients use format 2 to generate NAS port IDs.

3.     Enter AP view, AP group view, or global configuration view.

¡     Enter AP view.

wlan ap ap-name

¡     Enter AP group view.

wlan ap-group group-name

¡     Enter global configuration view.

wlan global-configuration

4.     Set the NAS ID.

nas-id nas-id

By default:

¡     In AP view, an AP uses the configuration in AP group view. If no NAS ID is set in AP group view, the AP uses the configuration in global configuration view.

¡     In AP group view, an AP uses the configuration in global configuration view.

¡     In global configuration view, no NAS ID is set.

5.     Set the NAS port ID.

nas-port-id nas-port-id

By default:

¡     In AP view, an AP uses the configuration in AP group view. If no NAS port ID is set in AP group view, the AP uses the configuration in global configuration view.

¡     In AP group view, an AP uses the configuration in global configuration view.

¡     In global configuration view, no NAS port ID is set.

6.     Set the NAS VLAN ID and enable the AC to encapsulate the VLAN ID in RADIUS requests.

nas-vlan vlan-id

By default, no NAS VLAN ID is set. Authentication requests sent to the RADIUS server do not contain the NAS VLAN ID field.

This feature is supported only in AP view.

Set the NAS VLAN ID when a third-party Security Accounting Management (SAM) server is used as the RADIUS server.

Setting the NAS port type

About this task

RADIUS requests carry the NAS port type attribute to indicate type of the access port for 802.1X and MAC authentication clients.

Restrictions and guidelines

Make sure the service template is disabled before you perform this task.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template

3.     Set the NAS port type.

nas-port-type value

By default, the NAS port type is WLAN-IEEE 802.11 with a code value of 19.

Configuring client association ratio optimization

About this task

This feature enables the device to recalculate the client association success ratio, association congestion ratio, and abnormal disassociation ratio by using the specified index to get smaller ratio values.

The client association success ratio is the number of successful client associations divided by the total number of client association attempts. The client association congestion ratio is the number of failed client associations caused by AP overloading divided by the total number of client association attempts. The client abnormal disassociation ratio is the number of abnormal disassociations divided by the sum of successful associations and online clients.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter global configuration view.

wlan association optimization value

By default, the index is 0. The device does not optimize client association ratios.

Enabling beacon frames and probe responses to carry the BSS load IE

About BSS load IE in beacon frames and probe responses

A BSS load IE contains information about the number of online clients in the BSS, channel usage, and remaining media time.

Restrictions and guidelines

As a best practice, enable this feature in Hotspot 2.0 networks or networks configured with WLAN roaming to help clients identify the optimal WLAN.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enable beacon frames and probe responses to carry the BSS load IE.

wlan client bss-load-ie enable [ update-interval interval ]

By default, beacon frames and probe responses do not carry the BSS load IE.

Configuring VIP clients

Configuring the VIP client group

About this task

The VIP client group contains a group of VIP clients associated with the same radio. You can view information about online VIP clients in the VIP client group from the cloud platform.

Restrictions and guidelines

You can add a maximum of 64 clients to the VIP client group.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create the VIP client group and enter its view.

wlan vip-client-group

3.     Add a client to the VIP client group.

client-mac mac-address [ level level ]

By default, no clients exist in the VIP client group.

4.     (Optional.) Set the interval at which an AP reports VIP client statistics to the AC.

report-interval interval

By default, an AP reports VIP client statistics to the AC at intervals of 50 seconds.

5.     (Optional.) Configure VIP client rate limit.

vip limit rate level level { inbound | outbound } mode { dynamic [ min min-cir ] [ max max-cir ] | static } cir cir

By default, VIP client rate limit is disabled.

Configuring non-VIP client rate limit

About this task

With non-VIP client rate limit configured, all non-VIP clients associated with a radio are rate limited when the radio has associated VIP clients. When all VIP clients associated with the radio go offline or if the radio does not have associated VIP clients, non-VIP clients are not rate limited.

Restrictions and guidelines

You can rate limit both inbound and outbound traffic.

If you configure both radio-based client rate limit and non-VIP client rate limit, only non-VIP clients are rate limited and the VIP clients are not rate limited.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create the VIP client group and enter its view.

wlan vip-client-group

3.     Configure non-VIP client rate limit.

non-vip limit rate { inbound | outbound } [ mode { dynamic [ min min-cir ] [ max max-cir ] | static } ] cir cir

By default, non-VIP client rate limit is configured.

Configuring policy-based forwarding

Restrictions and guidelines for policy-based forwarding

Make sure the AC and its associated APs are in different network segments.

You can apply a forwarding policy to a service template or user profile. The AC preferentially uses the forwarding policy applied to a user profile to direct client traffic forwarding. If the user profile of a client does not have a forwarding policy, the AC uses the forwarding policy applied to the service template.

Prerequisites for policy-based forwarding

Before configuring policy-based forwarding, you must specify the AC to perform authentication for clients. For more information about specifying the authentication location, see "Configuring WLAN authentication."

Configuring a forwarding policy

About this task

A forwarding policy contains one or multiple forwarding rules. Each forwarding rule specifies a traffic match criterion and the forwarding mode for matching traffic. The traffic match criterion can be a basic ACL, an advanced ACL, or a Layer 2 ACL. The forwarding mode can be local forwarding or centralized forwarding.

Actions defined in ACL rules do not take effect in wireless packet forwarding. All matched packets are forwarded based on the forwarding mode.

For more information about ACLs, see ACL and QoS Configuration Guide.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create a forwarding policy and enter its view.

wlan forwarding-policy policy-name

3.     Configure a forwarding rule.

classifier acl { acl-number | ipv6 ipv6-acl-number } behavior { local | remote }

Repeat this command to configure more forwarding rules.

Enabling traffic forwarding to the external network in local forwarding mode

About this task

When local forwarding is enabled, APs drop client packets destined to the external network. This feature enables an AP to replace the destination MAC address of a client packet destined to the external network with the AP's MAC address. Through NAT, the packet's source IP address is converted to an IP address in the same network segment as the AP. This enables APs to forward client traffic to an external network correctly.

Restrictions and guidelines

This feature is supported only on APs that support NAT.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter WLAN forwarding policy view.

wlan forwarding-policy policy-name

3.     Enable traffic forwarding to the external network when local forwarding is enabled.

client behavior-local network-flow-forwarding enable

By default, APs drop client packets destined to the external network when local forwarding is enabled.

Applying a forwarding policy to a service template

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

3.     Apply a forwarding policy to the service template.

client forwarding-policy-name policy-name

By default, no forwarding policy is applied to a service template.

For the forwarding policy to take effect, you must enable policy-based forwarding for the service template.

4.     Enable policy-based forwarding.

client forwarding-policy enable

By default, policy-based forwarding is disabled for a service template.

Applying a forwarding policy to a user profile

About this task

For the AC to perform policy-based forwarding for clients that use a user profile, apply a forwarding policy to the user profile. After a client passes authentication, the authentication server sends the user profile name specified for the client to the AC. The AC will forward traffic of the client based on the forwarding policy applied to the user profile.

Restrictions and guidelines

If you modify or delete the applied forwarding policy, the change takes effect when the client comes online again.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter user profile view.

user-profile profile-name

3.     Apply a forwarding policy to the user profile.

wlan client forwarding-policy-name policy-name

By default, no forwarding policy is applied to a user profile.

For the forwarding policy applied to the user profile to take effect, you must enable policy-based forwarding for the service template that the user profile uses.

4.     Return to system view.

quit

5.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

6.     Enable policy-based forwarding.

client forwarding-policy enable

By default, policy-based forwarding is disabled for a service template.

Configuring client access control

Specifying a permitted AP group for client association

About this task

Perform this task to enable clients to associate with APs in the specified AP group.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter user profile view.

user-profile profile-name

3.     Specify a permitted AP group for client association.

wlan permit-ap-group ap-group-name

By default, no permitted AP group is specified for client association.

Specifying a permitted SSID for client association

About this task

Perform this task to allow clients to associate with a WLAN through the specified SSID.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter user profile view.

user-profile profile-name

3.     Specify a permitted SSID for client association.

wlan permit-ssid ssid-name

By default, no permitted SSID is specified for client association.

Adding a client to the whitelist

Restrictions and guidelines

When you add the first client to the whitelist, the system asks you whether to disconnect all online clients. Enter Y at the prompt to configure the whitelist.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Add a client to the whitelist.

wlan whitelist mac-address mac-address

Adding a client to the static blacklist

Restrictions and guidelines

You cannot add a client to both the whitelist and the static blacklist.

If the whitelist and blacklists are configured, only the whitelist takes effect.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Add a client to the static blacklist.

wlan static-blacklist mac-address mac-address

Configuring the dynamic blacklist

About this task

You can configure the dynamic blacklist to take effect on the AC or on APs.

If you configure the dynamic blacklist to take effect on the AC, all APs connected to the AC will reject the clients in the dynamic blacklist. If you configure the dynamic blacklist to take effect on APs, the AP associated with the clients in the dynamic blacklist will reject the clients, but the clients can still associate with other APs connected to the AC.

Entries in the dynamic blacklist are removed when the aging timer expires.

Restrictions and guidelines

As a best practice, configure the dynamic blacklist to take effect on the AC in high-density environments.

The configured aging timer takes effect only on entries newly added to the dynamic blacklist.

If the whitelist and blacklists are configured, only the whitelist takes effect.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Choose one option as needed:

¡     Configure the dynamic blacklist to take effect on APs.

wlan dynamic-blacklist active-on-ap

¡     Configure the dynamic blacklist to take effect on the AC.

undo wlan dynamic-blacklist active-on-ap

By default, the dynamic blacklist takes effect on APs.

3.     (Optional.) Set the aging timer for dynamic blacklist entries.

wlan dynamic-blacklist lifetime lifetime

By default, the aging timer is 300 seconds.

The aging timer for dynamic blacklist entries takes effect only on rogue client entries.

Configuring ACL-based access control

Restrictions and guidelines

The ACL-based access control configuration takes precedence over the whitelist and blacklist configuration. As a best practice, do not configure both ACL-based access control and whitelist- and blacklist-based access control on the same device.

If the specified ACL contains a deny statement, configure a permit statement for the ACL to permit all clients. If you do not do so, no clients can come online.

The configuration in AP view takes precedence over the configuration in service template view.

This feature supports only Layer 2 ACLs and can only use source MAC address as the match criterion. If you specify an ACL of another type, the configuration does not take effect.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view or AP view.

¡     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

¡     Enter AP view.

wlan ap ap-name

3.     Specify an ACL.

access-control acl acl-number

By default, no ACL is specified.

Disabling an AP from responding to broadcast probe requests

About this task

Broadcast probe requests do not carry any SSIDs. Upon receiving a broadcast probe request, an AP responds with a probe response that carries service information for the AP.

This feature enables clients that send unicast probe requests to the AP to associate with the AP more easily.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter AP view or AP group view.

¡     Enter AP view.

wlan ap ap-name

¡     Enter AP group view.

wlan ap-group group-name

3.     Disable the AP from responding to broadcast probe requests.

broadcast-probe reply disable

By default:

¡     In AP view, an AP uses the configuration in AP group view.

¡     In AP group view, an AP responds to broadcast probe requests.

Deploying a configuration file to an AP

About this task

Deploy a configuration file to an AP if you want to update its configuration file or configure features that require a configuration file. For example, to configure a user profile for an AP in local forwarding mode, you must write related commands to a configuration file and then deploy the configuration file to the AP. The configuration file takes effect when the CAPWAP tunnel to the AC is in Run state. It does not survive an AP reboot.

Restrictions and guidelines

Make sure the configuration file is stored in the storage medium of the AC. Contents in the configuration file must be complete commands.

This feature takes effect every time the specified AP comes online.

An AP can only use its main IP address to establish a CAPWAP tunnel to the AC if the AP is configured by using a configuration file.

In an IRF fabric, save the configuration file on each member ACs in case of master and backup AC switchover. The map-configuration command takes effect only on the master AC. If you specify a path when executing the command, make sure the path leads to the file on the master AC.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter AP view or an AP group's AP model view.

¡     Enter AP view.

wlan ap ap-name

¡     Execute the following commands in sequence to enter an AP group's AP model view:

wlan ap-group group-name

ap-model ap-model

3.     Deploy a configuration file to the AP.

map-configuration filename

By default, no configuration file is deployed to an AP.

Enabling SNMP notifications for WLAN access

About this task

To report critical WLAN access events to an NMS, enable SNMP notifications for WLAN access. For WLAN access event notifications to be sent correctly, you must also configure SNMP as described in Network Management and Monitoring Configuration Guide.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Choose the options to configure as needed:

¡     Enable SNMP notifications for client access.

snmp-agent trap enable wlan client

¡     Enable SNMP notifications for client audit.

snmp-agent trap enable wlan client-audit

By default, SNMP notifications are disabled.

Enabling smart client access

About smart client access

This feature enables H3C wireless clients to access the WLAN automatically when the AKM mode is set to PSK or when the radio is bound to an empty service template.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

3.     Enable smart client access.

client smart-access enable

By default, smart client access is disabled.

Display and maintenance commands for WLAN access

Execute display commands in any view and the reset command in user view.

 

Task

Command

Display the number of online clients at both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands.

display wlan ap all client-number

Display the number of online clients and channel information for each radio.

display wlan ap all radio client-number

Display the number of online clients in each AP group.

display wlan ap-group all client-number

Display blacklist entries.

display wlan blacklist { dynamic | static }

Display basic service set (BSS) information.

 

display wlan bss { all | ap ap-name | bssid bssid } [ verbose ]

In IRF mode:

display wlan bss { all | ap ap-name | bssid bssid } [ slot slot-number ] [ verbose ]

Display client information.

display wlan client [ ap ap-name [ radio radio-id ] | mac-address mac-address | service-template service-template-name | frequency-band { 2.4 | 5 } | vlan vlan-id ] [ verbose ]

Display information about client IPv6 addresses.

display wlan client ipv6

Display client online duration.

display wlan client online-duration [ ap ap-name ] [ verbose ]

Display client status information.

display wlan client status [ mac-address mac-address ] [ verbose ]

Display WLAN forwarding policy information.

display wlan forwarding-policy

Display service template information.

display wlan service-template [ service-template-name ] [ verbose ]

Display client statistics.

display wlan statistics client [ mac-address mac-address ]

Display client connection history.

display wlan statistics connect-history { ap { all | name ap-name } | service-template service-template-name }

Display service template statistics

display wlan statistics service-template service-template-name

Display VIP client statistics that an AP reports to the AC.

display wlan statistics vip-client [ mac-address mac-address ] [ history-record ]

Display whitelist entries.

display wlan whitelist

Log off the specified client or all clients.

reset wlan client { all | mac-address mac-address }

Remove the specified client or all clients from the dynamic blacklist.

reset wlan dynamic-blacklist [ mac-address mac-address ]

Clear client statistics.

reset wlan statistics client { all | mac-address mac-address }

Clear service template statistics.

reset wlan statistics service-template service-template-name

WLAN access configuration examples

Example: Configuring WLAN access

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 8, the switch acts as the DHCP server to assign IP addresses to the AP and the client. The AP provides wireless services with the SSID trade-off.

Figure 8 Network diagram

Procedure

1.     Create VLAN 100, and assign an IP address to VLAN-interface 100.

<AC> system-view

[AC] vlan 100

[AC-vlan100]quit

[AC] interface vlan-interface 100

[AC-Vlan-interface100] ip address 10.1.9.58 16

2.     Create the manual AP ap1, and specify the AP model and serial ID.

[AC] wlan ap ap1 model WA4320i-ACN

[AC-wlan-ap-ap1] serial-id 219801A0CNC138011454

3.     Configure a service template and bind it to the AP radio:

# Create the service template service1, set the SSID to trade-off, assign clients coming online through the service template to VLAN 100, and enable the service template.

<AC> system-view

[AC] wlan service-template service1

[AC-wlan-st-service1] ssid trade-off

[AC-wlan-st-service1] vlan 100

[AC-wlan-st-service1] service-template enable

[AC-wlan-st-service1] quit

# Set the working channel to channel 157 for radio 1 of the AP.

[AC] wlan ap ap1

[AC-wlan-ap-ap1] radio 1

[AC-wlan-ap-ap1-radio-1] channel 157

# Bind the service template service1 to radio 1.

[AC-wlan-ap-ap1-radio-1] radio enable

[AC-wlan-ap-ap1-radio-1] service-template service1

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that the SSID is trade-off, and the service template is enabled.

[AC] display wlan service-template verbose

Service template name                            : service1

Description                                      : Not configured

SSID                                             : trade-off

SSID-hide                                        : Disabled

User-isolation                                   : Disabled

Service template status                          : Enabled

Maximum clients per BSS                          : 64

Frame format                                     : Dot3

Seamless roam status                             : Disabled

Seamless roam RSSI threshold                     : 50

Seamless roam RSSI gap                           : 20

VLAN ID                                          : 100

AKM mode                                         : Not configured

Security IE                                      : Not configured

Cipher suite                                     : Not configured

TKIP countermeasure time                         : 0 sec

PTK life time                                    : 43200 sec

PTK rekey                                        : Enabled

GTK rekey                                        : Enabled

GTK rekey method                                 : Time-based

GTK rekey time                                   : 86400 sec

GTK rekey client-offline                         : Disabled

WPA3 status                                      : Disabled

PPSK                                             : Disabled

PPSK Fail Permit                                 : Disabled

Enhance-open status                              : Enabled

Enhanced-open transition-mode service-template   : N/A

User authentication mode                         : Bypass

Intrusion protection                             : Disabled

Intrusion protection mode                        : Temporary-block

Temporary block time                             : 180 sec

Temporary service stop time                      : 20 sec

Fail VLAN ID                                     : 1

Critical VLAN ID                                 : Not configured

802.1X handshake                                 : Enabled

802.1X handshake secure                          : Disabled

802.1X domain                                    : my-domain

MAC-auth domain                                  : Not configured

Max 802.1X users per BSS                         : 4096

Max MAC-auth users per BSS                       : 4096

802.1X re-authenticate                           : Enabled

Authorization fail mode                          : Online

Accounting fail mode                             : Online

Authorization                                    : Permitted

Key derivation                                   : N/A

PMF status                                       : Disabled

Hotspot policy number                            : Not configured

Forwarding policy status                         : Disabled

Forwarding policy name                           : Not configured

Forwarder                                        : AC

FT status                                        : Disabled

QoS trust                                        : Port

QoS priority                                     : 0

# Associate the client with the AP. (Details not shown.)

# Verify that the client can access the WLAN.

[AC] display wlan client service-template service1

Total number of clients: 1

 

MAC address       Username   AP name    RID   IP address      IPv6 address   VLAN

0023-8933-223b    N/A        ap1        1     10.1.9.3                       100

Example: Configuring whitelist-based access control

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 9, configure the whitelist to permit only the client whose MAC address is 0000-000f-1211 to access the WLAN.

Figure 9 Network diagram

Procedure

# Add the MAC address 0000-000f-1211 to the whitelist.

<AC> system-view

[AC] wlan whitelist mac-address 0000-000f-1211

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that the MAC address 0000-000f-1211 is in the whitelist.

[AC] display wlan whitelist

Total number of clients: 1

 MAC addresses:

  0000-000f-1211

Example: Configuring static blacklist-based access control

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 10, configure the static blacklist to forbid the client whose MAC address is 0000-000f-1211 to access the WLAN.

Figure 10 Network diagram

Procedure

# Add the MAC address 0000-000f-1211 to the static blacklist.

<AC> system-view

[AC] wlan static-blacklist mac-address 0000-000f-1211

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that the MAC address 0000-000f-1211 is in the static blacklist.

[AC] display wlan blacklist static

Total number of clients: 1

 MAC addresses:

  0000-000f-1211

Example: Configuring ACL-based access control

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 11, configure ACL-based access control to allow Client 1 and clients with the same OUI as Client 2 to access the WLAN.

Figure 11 Network diagram

Procedure

# Create Layer 2 ACL 4000, and create ACL rules to permit Client 1 and clients with the same OUI as Client 2.

<Sysname> system-view

[Sysname] acl mac 4000

[Sysname-acl-mac-4000] rule 0 permit source-mac 0000-000f-1121 ffff-ffff-ffff

[Sysname-acl-mac-4000] rule 1 permit source-mac 000e-35b2-000e ffff-ff00-0000

[Sysname-acl-mac-4000] quit

# Bind ACL 4000 to service template service1.

[Sysname] wlan service service1

[Sysname-wlan-st-service1] access-control acl 4000

Verifying the configuration

# Execute the display wlan client command to verify that only Client 1 and clients with the same OUI as Client 2 (including Client 2) can access the WLAN.

[AC] display wlan client

Total number of clients: 2

 

MAC address    Username             AP name               R IP address      VLAN

0000-000f-1121 N/A                  ap                    1 192.168.100.12  1

000e-35b2-000e N/A                  ap                    1 192.168.100.13  1