11-Network Management and Monitoring Configuration Guide

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01-System maintenance and debugging configuration

Using ping, tracert, and system debugging

This chapter covers ping, tracert, and information about debugging the system.

Ping

Use the ping utility to determine if a specific address is reachable.

Ping sends ICMP echo requests (ECHO-REQUEST) to the destination device. Upon receiving the requests, the destination device responds with ICMP echo replies (ECHO-REPLY) to the source device. The source device outputs statistics about the ping operation, including the number of packets sent, number of echo replies received, and the round-trip time. You can measure the network performance by analyzing these statistics.

Using a ping command to test network connectivity

Execute ping commands in any view.

 

Task

Command

Determine if a specified address in an IP network is reachable.

When you configure the ping command for a low-speed network, set a larger value for the timeout timer (indicated by the -t keyword in the command).

ping [ ip ] [ -a source-ip | -c count | -f | -h ttl | -i interface-type interface-number | -m interval | -n | -p pad | -q | -r | -s packet-size | -t timeout | -tos tos | -v | -vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] * host

 

Ping example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 1, determine if Device A and Device C can reach each other. If they can reach each other, get detailed information about routes from Device A to Device C.

Figure 1 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

# Use the ping command on Device A to test connectivity to Device C.

Ping 1.1.2.2 (1.1.2.2): 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break

56 bytes from 1.1.2.2: icmp_seq=0 ttl=254 time=2.137 ms

56 bytes from 1.1.2.2: icmp_seq=1 ttl=254 time=2.051 ms

56 bytes from 1.1.2.2: icmp_seq=2 ttl=254 time=1.996 ms

56 bytes from 1.1.2.2: icmp_seq=3 ttl=254 time=1.963 ms

56 bytes from 1.1.2.2: icmp_seq=4 ttl=254 time=1.991 ms

 

--- Ping statistics for 1.1.2.2 ---

5 packet(s) transmitted, 5 packet(s) received, 0.0% packet loss

round-trip min/avg/max/std-dev = 1.963/2.028/2.137/0.062 ms

The output shows that:

·          Device A sends five ICMP packets to Device C and Device A receives five ICMP packets.

·          No ICMP packet is lost.

·          The route is reachable.

# Get detailed information about routes from Device A to Device C.

<DeviceA> ping -r 1.1.2.2

Ping 1.1.2.2 (1.1.2.2): 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break

56 bytes from 1.1.2.2: icmp_seq=0 ttl=254 time=4.685 ms

RR:      1.1.2.1

         1.1.2.2

         1.1.1.2

         1.1.1.1

56 bytes from 1.1.2.2: icmp_seq=1 ttl=254 time=4.834 ms  (same route)

56 bytes from 1.1.2.2: icmp_seq=2 ttl=254 time=4.770 ms  (same route)

56 bytes from 1.1.2.2: icmp_seq=3 ttl=254 time=4.812 ms  (same route)

56 bytes from 1.1.2.2: icmp_seq=4 ttl=254 time=4.704 ms  (same route)

 

--- Ping statistics for 1.1.2.2 ---

5 packet(s) transmitted, 5 packet(s) received, 0.0% packet loss

round-trip min/avg/max/std-dev = 4.685/4.761/4.834/0.058 ms

The test procedure of ping –r is as shown in Figure 1:

1.        The source device (Device A) sends an ICMP echo request to the destination device (Device C) with the RR option blank.

2.        The intermediate device (Device B) adds the IP address of its outbound interface (1.1.2.1) to the RR option of the ICMP echo request, and forwards the packet.

3.        Upon receiving the request, the destination device copies the RR option in the request and adds the IP address of its outbound interface (1.1.2.2) to the RR option. Then the destination device sends an ICMP echo reply.

4.        The intermediate device adds the IP address of its outbound interface (1.1.1.2) to the RR option in the ICMP echo reply, and then forwards the reply.

5.        Upon receiving the reply, the source device adds the IP address of its inbound interface (1.1.1.1) to the RR option. The detailed information of routes from Device A to Device C is formatted as: 1.1.1.1 <-> {1.1.1.2; 1.1.2.1} <-> 1.1.2.2.

Tracert

Tracert (also called Traceroute) enables retrieval of the IP addresses of Layer 3 devices in the path to a specific destination. In the event of network failure, use tracert to test network connectivity and identify failed nodes.

Figure 2 Tracert operation

 

Tracert uses received ICMP error messages to get the IP addresses of devices. Tracert works as shown in Figure 2:

1.        The source device sends a UDP packet with a TTL value of 1 to the destination device. The destination UDP port is not used by any application on the destination device.

2.        The first hop (Device B, the first Layer 3 device that receives the packet) responds by sending a TTL-expired ICMP error message to the source, with its IP address (1.1.1.2) encapsulated. This way, the source device can get the address of the first Layer 3 device (1.1.1.2).

3.        The source device sends a packet with a TTL value of 2 to the destination device.

4.        The second hop (Device C) responds with a TTL-expired ICMP error message, which gives the source device the address of the second Layer 3 device (1.1.2.2).

5.        This process continues until a packet sent by the source device reaches the ultimate destination device. Because no application uses the destination port specified in the packet, the destination device responds with a port-unreachable ICMP message to the source device, with its IP address encapsulated. This way, the source device gets the IP address of the destination device (1.1.3.2).

6.        The source device thinks that the packet has reached the destination device after receiving the port-unreachable ICMP message, and the path to the destination device is 1.1.1.2 to 1.1.2.2 to 1.1.3.2.

Prerequisites

Before you use a tracert command, perform the tasks in this section.

·          Enable sending of ICMP timeout packets on the intermediate devices (devices between the source and destination devices). If the intermediate devices are H3C devices, execute the ip ttl-expires enable command on the devices. For more information about this command, see Layer 3—IP Services Command Reference.

·          Enable sending of ICMP destination unreachable packets on the destination device. If the destination device is an H3C device, execute the ip unreachables enable command. For more information about this command, see Layer 3—IP Services Command Reference.

Using a tracert command to identify failed or all nodes in a path

Execute tracert commands in any view.

 

Task

Command

 

Display the routes from source to destination.

tracert [ -a source-ip | -f first-ttl | -m max-ttl | -p port | -q packet-number | -t tos | -vpn-instance vpn-instance-name | -w timeout ] * host

 

Tracert example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 3, Device A failed to Telnet to Device C.

Test the network connectivity between Device A and Device C. If they cannot reach each other, locate the failed nodes in the network.

Figure 3 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

1.        Configure the IP addresses for devices as shown in Figure 3.

2.        Configure a static route on Device A.

<DeviceA> system-view

[DeviceA] ip route-static 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 1.1.1.2

[DeviceA] quit

3.        Use the ping command to test connectivity between Device A and Device C.

<DeviceA> ping 1.1.2.2

Ping 1.1.2.2(1.1.2.2): 56 -data bytes, press CTRL_C to break

Request time out

Request time out

Request time out

Request time out

Request time out

 

--- Ping statistics for 1.1.2.2 ---

5 packet(s) transmitted,0 packet(s) received,100.0% packet loss

The output shows that Device A and Device C cannot reach each other.

4.        Use the tracert command to identify failed nodes:

# Enable sending of ICMP timeout packets on Device B.

<DeviceB> system-view

[DeviceB] ip ttl-expires enable

# Enable sending of ICMP destination unreachable packets on Device C.

<DeviceC> system-view

[DeviceC] ip unreachables enable

# Execute the tracert command on Device A.

<DeviceA> tracert 1.1.2.2

traceroute to 1.1.2.2(1.1.2.2) 30 hops at most,40 bytes each packet, press CTRL_C to break

 1  1.1.1.2 1 ms 2 ms 1 ms

 2  * * *

 3  * * *

 4  * * *

 5

<DeviceA>

The output shows that:

¡  Device A can reach Device B but cannot reach Device C.

¡  An error has occurred on the connection between Device B and Device C.

5.        Use the debugging ip icmp command on Device A and Device C to verify that they can send and receive the specific ICMP packets.

Or use the display ip routing-table command to verify that there is a route from Device A to Device C.

System debugging

The device supports debugging for the majority of protocols and features and provides debugging information to help users diagnose errors.

Debugging information control switches

The following switches control the display of debugging information:

·          Module debugging switchControls whether to generate the module-specific debugging information.

·          Screen output switch—Controls whether to display the debugging information on a certain screen. Use terminal monitor and terminal logging level commands to turn on the screen output switch. For more information about these two commands, see Network Management and Monitoring Command Reference.

As shown in Figure 4, assume that the device can provide debugging for the three modules 1, 2, and 3. The debugging information can be output on a terminal only when both the module debugging switch and the screen output switch are turned on.

Debugging information is typically displayed on a console. You can also send debugging information to other destinations. For more information, see "Configuring the information center."

Figure 4 Relationship between the module and screen output switch

 

Debugging a feature module

Output of debugging commands is memory intensive. To guarantee system performance, enable debugging only for modules that are in an exceptional condition. When debugging is complete, use the undo debugging all command to disable all the debugging functions.

To debug a feature module:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enable debugging for a specified module in user view.

debugging { all [ timeout time ] | module-name [ option ] }

By default, all debugging functions are disabled.

2.       (Optional.) Display the enabled debugging in any view.

display debugging [ module-name ]

N/A

 

 

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