09-Security Configuration Guide

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10-SSH configuration
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10-SSH configuration 474.31 KB

Contents

Configuring SSH·· 1

Overview· 1

How SSH works· 1

SSH authentication methods· 2

SSH support for Suite B· 3

FIPS compliance· 4

Configuring the device as an SSH server 4

SSH server configuration task list 4

Generating local key pairs· 4

Enabling the Stelnet server 5

Enabling the SFTP server 5

Enabling the SCP server 6

Configuring NETCONF over SSH· 6

Configuring user lines for SSH login· 6

Configuring a client's host public key· 7

Configuring an SSH user 8

Configuring the SSH management parameters· 9

Specifying a PKI domain for the SSH server 10

Configuring the device as an Stelnet client 11

Stelnet client configuration task list 11

Specifying the source IP address for SSH packets· 11

Establishing a connection to an Stelnet server 11

Establishing a connection to an Stelnet server based on Suite B· 13

Configuring the device as an SFTP client 14

SFTP client configuration task list 14

Specifying the source IP address for SFTP packets· 14

Establishing a connection to an SFTP server 15

Establishing a connection to an SFTP server based on Suite B· 16

Working with SFTP directories· 17

Working with SFTP files· 17

Displaying help information· 18

Terminating the connection with the SFTP server 18

Configuring the device as an SCP client 18

Establishing a connection to an SCP server 18

Establishing a connection to an SCP server based on Suite B· 21

Specifying algorithms for SSH2· 21

Specifying key exchange algorithms for SSH2· 21

Specifying public key algorithms for SSH2· 22

Specifying encryption algorithms for SSH2· 22

Specifying MAC algorithms for SSH2· 23

Displaying and maintaining SSH· 23

Stelnet configuration examples· 23

Password authentication enabled Stelnet server configuration example· 23

Publickey authentication enabled Stelnet server configuration example· 26

Password authentication enabled Stelnet client configuration example· 31

Publickey authentication enabled Stelnet client configuration example· 35

Stelnet configuration example based on 128-bit Suite B algorithms· 37

SFTP configuration examples· 41

Password authentication enabled SFTP server configuration example· 41

Publickey authentication enabled SFTP client configuration example· 43

SFTP configuration example based on 192-bit Suite B algorithms· 47

SCP configuration examples· 50

SCP configuration example with password authentication· 51

SCP configuration example based on Suite B algorithms· 52

NETCONF over SSH configuration example with password authentication· 59

Network requirements· 59

Configuration procedure· 60

Verifying the configuration· 61

 


Configuring SSH

Overview

Secure Shell (SSH) is a network security protocol. Using encryption and authentication, SSH can implement secure remote access and file transfer over an insecure network.

SSH uses the typical client-server model to establish a channel for secure data transfer based on TCP.

SSH includes two versions: SSH1.x and SSH2.0 (hereinafter referred to as SSH1 and SSH2), which are not compatible. SSH2 is better than SSH1 in performance and security.

The device can work as an SSH server or as an SSH client.

·           When acting as an SSH server, the device provides services for SSH clients and supports the following SSH versions:

¡  For Secure Telnet (Stelnet), Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP), or Secure Copy (SCP) connections, the device supports SSH2 and SSH1 in non-FIPS mode and SSH2 in FIPS mode.

¡  For NETCONF-over-SSH connections, the device supports only SSH2 in both non-FIPS and FIPS modes.

·           When acting as an SSH client, the device supports only SSH2. It allows users to establish SSH connections with an SSH server.

The device supports the following SSH applications:

·           Secure Telnet—Stelnet provides secure and reliable network terminal access services. Through Stelnet, a user can securely log in to a remote server. Stelnet can protect devices against attacks, such as IP spoofing and plain text password interception. The device can act as an Stelnet server or an Stelnet client.

·           SFTP—Based on SSH2, it uses SSH connections to provide secure file transfer. The device can act as an SFTP server, allowing a remote user to log in to the SFTP server for secure file management and transfer. The device can also act as an SFTP client, enabling a user to log in from the device to a remote device for secure file transfer.

·           SCP—Based on SSH2, it offers a secure approach to copying files. The device can act as an SCP server, allowing a user to log in to the device for file upload and download. The device can also act as an SCP client, enabling a user to log in from the device to a remote device for secure file transfer.

·           NETCONF over SSH—Based on SSH2, it enables users to securely log in to the device through SSH and perform NETCONF operations on the device through the NETCONF-over-SSH connections. The device can act only as a server in NETCONF-over-SSH connections. For more information about NETCONF, see Network Management and Monitoring Configuration Guide.

How SSH works

This section uses SSH2 as an example to list the stages to establish an SSH session. For more information about these stages, see SSH Technology White Paper.

Table 1 Stages to establish an SSH session

Stages

Description

Connection establishment

The SSH server listens to connection requests on port 22. After a client initiates a connection request, the server and the client establish a TCP connection.

Version negotiation

The two parties determine a version to use.

Algorithm negotiation

SSH supports multiple algorithms. Based on the local algorithms, the two parties negotiate the following algorithms:

·          Key exchange algorithm for generating session keys.

·          Encryption algorithm for encrypting data.

·          Public key algorithm for digital signature and authentication.

·          HMAC algorithm for protecting data integrity.

Key exchange

The two parties use the DH exchange algorithm to dynamically generate the session keys and session ID.

·          The session keys are used for protecting data transfer.

·          The session ID is used for identifying the SSH connection.

In this stage, the client also authenticates the server.

Authentication

The SSH server authenticates the client in response to the client's authentication request.

Session request

After passing the authentication, the client sends a session request to the server to request the establishment of a session (or request the Stelnet, SFTP, SCP, or NETCONF service).

Interaction

After the server grants the request, the client and the server start to communicate with each other in the session.

In this stage, you can paste commands in text format and execute them at the CLI. The text pasted at one time must be no more than 2000 bytes. As a best practice to execute correct command execution, paste commands that are in the same view.

To execute commands of more than 2000 bytes, save the commands in a configuration file, upload the file to the server through SFTP, and use it to restart the server.

 

SSH authentication methods

This section describes authentication methods that are supported by the device when it acts as an SSH server.

Password authentication

The SSH server authenticates a client through the AAA mechanism. The password authentication process is as follows:

1.      The client sends the server an authentication request that includes the encrypted username and password.

2.      The server performs the following operations:

a.    Decrypts the request to get the username and password in plain text.

b.    Verifies the username and password locally or through remote AAA authentication.

c.    Informs the client of the authentication result.

If the AAA server requires the user to enter a password for secondary authentication, it sends the SSH server an authentication response carrying a prompt. The prompt is transparently transmitted to the client to notify the user to enter a specific password. When the user enters the correct password, the AAA server examines the password validity. If the password is valid, the SSH server returns an authentication success message to the client.

For more information about AAA, see "Configuring AAA."

 

 

NOTE:

SSH1 clients do not support secondary password authentication that is initiated by the AAA server.

 

Publickey authentication

The server authenticates a client by verifying the digital signature of the client. The publickey authentication process is as follows:

1.      The client sends the server a publickey authentication request that includes the username, public key, and public key algorithm name.

If the digital certificate of the client is required in authentication, the client also encapsulates the digital certificate in the authentication request. The digital certificate carries the public key information of the client.

2.      The server verifies the client's public key.

¡  If the public key is invalid, the server informs the client of the authentication failure.

¡  If the public key is valid, the server requests the digital signature of the client. After receiving the signature, the server uses the public key to verify the signature, and informs the client of the authentication result.

When acting as an SSH server, the device supports using the public key algorithms RSA, DSA, and ECDSA to verify digital signatures.

When acting as an SSH client, the device supports using the public key algorithms RSA, DSA, and ECDSA to generate digital signatures.

For more information about public key configuration, see "Managing public keys."

Password-publickey authentication

The server requires SSH2 clients to pass both password authentication and publickey authentication. However, an SSH1 client only needs to pass either authentication, regardless of the requirement of the server.

Any authentication

The server requires clients to pass password authentication or publickey authentication.

SSH support for Suite B

Suite B contains a set of encryption and authentication algorithms that meet high security requirements. Table 2 lists all algorithms in Suite B.

The SSH server and client support using the X.509v3 certificate for identity authentication in compliance with the algorithm, negotiation, and authentication specifications defined in RFC 6239.

Table 2 Suite B algorithms

Security level

Key exchange algorithm

Encryption algorithm and HMAC algorithm

Public key algorithm

128-bit

ecdh-sha2-nistp256

AEAD_AES_128_GCM

x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp256

x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp384

192-bit

ecdh-sha2-nistp384

AEAD_AES_256_GCM

x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp384

Both

ecdh-sha2-nistp256

ecdh-sha2-nistp384

AEAD_AES_128_GCM

AEAD_AES_256_GCM

x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp256

x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp384

 

FIPS compliance

The device supports the FIPS mode that complies with NIST FIPS 140-2 requirements. Support for features, commands, and parameters might differ in FIPS mode and non-FIPS mode. For more information about FIPS mode, see "Configuring FIPS."

Configuring the device as an SSH server

SSH server configuration task list

Tasks at a glance

Remarks

(Optional.) Generating local key pairs

N/A

(Required.) Enabling the Stelnet server

Required for Stelnet servers.

(Required.) Enabling the SFTP server

Required for SFTP servers.

(Required.) Enabling the SCP server

Required for SCP servers.

(Required.) Configuring NETCONF over SSH

Required for NETCONF-over-SSH servers.

(Required.) Configuring user lines for SSH login

Required for Stelnet servers and NETCONF-over-SSH servers.

(Required.) Configuring a client's host public key

Required if the authentication method is publickey, password-publickey, or any.

Configuring the PKI domain for verifying the client certificate

See "Configuring PKI."

Required if the following conditions exist:

·          The authentication method is publickey.

·          The clients send the public keys to the server through digital certificates for validity check.

The PKI domain must have the CA certificate to verify the client certificate.

(Required/optional.) Configuring an SSH user

Required if the authentication method is publickey, password-publickey, or any.

Optional if the authentication method is password.

(Optional.) Configuring the SSH management parameters

N/A

(Optional.) Specifying a PKI domain for the SSH server

N/A

 

Generating local key pairs

The DSA, RSA, or ECDSA key pairs are required for generating the session keys and session ID in the key exchange stage. They can also be used by a client to authenticate the server. When a client authenticates the server, it compares the public key received from the server with the server's public key that the client saved locally. If the keys are consistent, the client uses the locally saved server's public key to decrypt the digital signature received from the server. If the decryption succeeds, the server passes the authentication.

When you execute any one of the SSH commands on the device to trigger the running of the SSH application, the SSH server automatically generates two RSA key pairs. You can also use the public-key local create command to generate DSA, RSA, or ECDSA key pairs on the device.

Configuration restrictions and guidelines

When you generate local key pairs, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·           SSH supports locally generated DSA, RSA, and ECDSA key pairs only with default names.

·           To support SSH clients that use different types of key pairs, generate DSA, RSA, and ECDSA key pairs on the SSH server.

·           The SSH server operating in FIPS mode supports only RSA and ECDSA key pairs. When both RSA and ECDSA key pairs exist, the SSH server uses only the ECDSA key pair.

·           The public-key local create rsa command generates a server key pair and a host key pair for RSA. In SSH1, the public key in the server key pair is used to encrypt the session key for secure transmission of the session key. Because SSH2 uses the DH algorithm to generate each session key on the SSH server and the client, no session key transmission is required. The server key pair is not used in SSH2.

·           The public-key local create dsa command generates only one DSA host key pair. SSH1 does not support the DSA algorithm.

·           The key modulus length must be less than 2048 bits when you use the public-key local create dsa command on the SSH server.

·           The public-key local create ecdsa secp256r1 or public-key local create ecdsa secp384r1 command generates only one ECDSA host key pair. SSH1 does not support the ECDSA algorithm.

Configuration procedure

To generate local key pairs on the SSH server:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Generate local key pairs.

public-key local create { dsa | ecdsa { secp256r1 | secp384r1 } | rsa }

By default, no local key pairs exist.

 

Enabling the Stelnet server

After you enable the Stelnet server on the device, clients can log in to the device through Stelnet.

To enable the Stelnet server:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enable the Stelnet server.

ssh server enable

By default, the Stelnet server is disabled.

 

Enabling the SFTP server

After you enable the SFTP server on the device, clients can log in to the device through SFTP.

The device that acts as an SFTP server does not support SFTP connections initiated by SSH1 clients.

To enable the SFTP server:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enable the SFTP server.

sftp server enable

By default, the SFTP server is disabled.

 

Enabling the SCP server

After you enable the SCP server on the device, clients can log in to the device through SCP.

The device that acts as an SCP server does not support SCP connections initiated by SSH1 clients.

To enable the SCP server:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enable the SCP server.

scp server enable

By default, the SCP server is disabled.

 

Configuring NETCONF over SSH

After you enable NETCONF over SSH on the device, a client can perform NETCONF operations on the device through a NETCONF-over-SSH connection.

When the device acts as a server in the NETCONF-over-SSH connection, connection requests initiated by SSH1 clients are not supported.

For more information about NETCONF over SSH commands, see Network Management and Monitoring Command Reference.

To configure NETCONF over SSH:

 

Step

Command

Remark

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enable NETCONF over SSH.

netconf ssh server enable

By default, NETCONF over SSH is disabled.

3.      Specify a port to listen for NETCONF-over-SSH connections.

netconf ssh server port port-number

By default, port 830 listens for NETCONF-over-SSH connections.

 

Configuring user lines for SSH login

Depending on the SSH application, an SSH client can be an Stelnet client, SFTP client, SCP client, or NETCONF-over-SSH client.

Only Stelnet and NETCONF-over-SSH clients require the user line configuration. The user line configuration takes effect on the clients at the next login.

To configure the user lines for Stelnet and NETCONF-over-SSH clients:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enter VTY user line view.

line vty number [ ending-number ]

N/A

3.      Set the login authentication mode to scheme.

authentication-mode scheme

By default, the authentication mode is password.

For more information about this command, see Fundamentals Command Reference.

 

Configuring a client's host public key

In publickey authentication, the server compares the SSH username and client's host public key that it receives from the client with the locally saved SSH username and the client's host public key. If they are the same, the server checks the digital signature that the client sends. The client generates the digital signature by using the private key that is associated with the client's host public key.

For publickey authentication, password-publickey authentication, or any authentication, you must perform the following tasks:

1.      Configure the client's DSA, RSA, or ECDSA host public key on the server.

As a best practice, configure no more than 20 SSH client host public keys on an SSH server.

2.      Specify the associated host private key on the client to generate the digital signature.

If the device acts as an SSH client, specify the public key algorithm on the client. The algorithm determines the associated host private key for generating the digital signature.

You can enter the content of a client's host public key or import the client's host public key from the public key file. As a best practice, import the client's host public key.

Entering a client's host public key

Before you enter the client's host public key, you must use the display public-key local public command on the client to obtain the client's host public key.

To enter a client's host public key:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enter public key view.

public-key peer keyname

N/A

3.      Configure a client's host public key.

Enter the content of the host public key

The host public key must be in the DER encoding format without being converted.

When you enter the contents for a host public key, you can use spaces and carriage returns between characters. When you save the host public key, spaces and carriage returns are removed automatically.

For more information, see "Managing public keys."

4.      Return to system view.

peer-public-key end

N/A

 

Importing the client's host public key from the public key file

Before you import the host public key, upload the client's public key file (in binary) to the server, for example, through FTP or TFTP. During the import process, the server automatically converts the host public key in the public key file to a string in PKCS format.

To import a client's host public key from the public key file:

 

Step

Command

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

2.      Import a client's public key from a public key file.

public-key peer keyname import sshkey filename

 

Configuring an SSH user

Configure an SSH user and a local user depending on the authentication method.

·           If the authentication method is publickey, you must create an SSH user and a local user on the SSH server. The two users must have the same username, so that the SSH user can be assigned the correct working directory and user role.

·           If the authentication method is password, you must perform one of the following tasks:

¡  For local authentication, configure a local user on the SSH server.

¡  For remote authentication, configure an SSH user on a remote authentication server, for example, a RADIUS server.

You do not need to create an SSH user by using the ssh user command. However, if you want to display all SSH users, including the password-only SSH users, for centralized management, you can use this command to create them. If such an SSH user has been created, make sure you have specified the correct service type and authentication method.

·           If the authentication method is password-publickey or any, you must create an SSH user and perform one of the following tasks:

¡  For local authentication, configure a local user on the SSH server.

¡  For remote authentication, configure an SSH user on a remote authentication server, for example, a RADIUS server.

In either case, the local user or the SSH user configured on the remote authentication server must have the same username as the SSH user.

Configuration restrictions and guidelines

When you configure an SSH user, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·           An SSH server supports up to 1024 SSH users.

·           For an SFTP or SCP user, the working directory depends on the authentication method.

¡  If the authentication method is password, the working directory is authorized by AAA.

¡  If the authentication method is publickey or password-publickey, the working folder is specified by the authorization-attribute command in the associated local user view.

·           For an SSH user, the user role also depends on the authentication method.

¡  If the authentication method is password, the user role is authorized by the remote AAA server or the local device.

¡  If the authentication method is publickey or password-publickey, the user role is specified by the authorization-attribute command in the associated local user view.

·           If you change the authentication method or public key for a logged-in SSH user, the changes take effect at the next login.

·           For all authentication methods except password authentication, you must specify a client's host public key or digital certificate.

¡  For a client that directly sends the user's public key information to the server, you must specify the client's host public key on the server. The specified public key must already exist. For more information about public keys, see "Configuring a client's host public key."

¡  For a client that sends the user's public key information to the server through a digital certificate, you must specify the PKI domain on the server. This PKI domain verifies the client certificate. To make sure the authorized SSH users can pass the authentication, the specified PKI domain must have the correct CA certificate. To specify the PKI domain, use the ssh user or ssh server pki-domain command. For more information about configuring a PKI domain, see "Configuring PKI."

·           When the device operates in FIPS mode as an SSH server, the device does not support the authentication method of any or publickey.

For information about configuring local users and remote authentication, see "Configuring AAA."

Configuration procedure

To configure an SSH user, and specify the service type and authentication method:

 

Step

Command

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

2.      Create an SSH user, and specify the service type and authentication method.

·          In non-FIPS mode:
ssh user
username service-type { all | netconf | scp | sftp | stelnet } authentication-type { password | { any | password-publickey | publickey } [ assign { pki-domain domain-name | publickey keyname } ] }

·          In FIPS mode:
ssh user
username service-type { all | netconf | scp | sftp | stelnet } authentication-type { password | password-publickey [ assign { pki-domain domain-name | publickey keyname } ] }

 

Configuring the SSH management parameters

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enable the SSH server to support SSH1 clients.

ssh server compatible-ssh1x enable

By default, the SSH server supports SSH1 clients.

This command is not available in FIPS mode.

3.      Set the minimum update interval for the RSA server key pair.

ssh server rekey-interval hours

By default, the RSA server key pair is not updated.

This command takes effect only on SSH1 users.

This command is not available in FIPS mode.

4.      Set the SSH user authentication timeout timer.

ssh server authentication-timeout time-out-value

The default setting is 60 seconds.

If a user does not finish the authentication when the timeout timer expires, the connection cannot be established.

5.      Set the maximum number of SSH authentication attempts.

ssh server authentication-retries times

The default setting is 3.

If a user does not finish the authentication when the timeout timer expires, the connection cannot be established.

6.      Specify an ACL to control SSH user connections.

·          Control IPv4 SSH user connections:
ssh server acl { advanced-acl-number | basic-acl-number | mac-acl-number }

·          Control IPv6 SSH user connections:
ssh server ipv6 acl { ipv6 { advanced-acl-number | basic-acl-number } | mac-acl-number }

By default, no ACLs are specified and all SSH users can initiate connections to the server.

7.      Set the DSCP value in the packets that the SSH server sends to the SSH clients.

·          Set the DSCP value in IPv4 packets:
ssh server dscp dscp-value

·          Set the DSCP value in IPv6 packets:
ssh server ipv6 dscp dscp-value

The default setting is 48.

The DSCP value of a packet defines the priority of the packet and affects the transmission priority of the packet. A bigger DSCP value represents a higher priority.

8.      Configure the SFTP connection idle timeout timer.

sftp server idle-timeout time-out-value

The default setting is 10 minutes.

When the idle timeout timer expires, the system automatically terminates the connection.

9.      Specify the maximum number of concurrent online SSH users.

aaa session-limit ssh max-sessions

The default setting is 32.

When the number of online SSH users reaches the upper limit, the system denies new SSH connection requests.

Changing the upper limit does not affect online SSH users.

 

Specifying a PKI domain for the SSH server

The PKI domain specified for the SSH server has the following functions:

·           The SSH server uses the PKI domain to send its certificate to the client in the key exchange stage.

·           The SSH server uses the PKI domain to authenticate the client's certificate if no PKI domain is specified for the client authentication by using the ssh user command.

To specify a PKI domain for the SSH server:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Specify a PKI domain for the SSH server.

ssh server pki-domain domain-name

By default, no PKI domain is specified for the SSH server.

 

Configuring the device as an Stelnet client

Stelnet client configuration task list

Tasks at a glance

(Optional.) Specifying the source IP address for SSH packets

(Required.) Establishing a connection to an Stelnet server

(Optional.) Establishing a connection to an Stelnet server based on Suite B

 

Specifying the source IP address for SSH packets

As a best practice, specify the IP address of a loopback interface as the source interface of SSH packets for the following purposes:

·           Ensuring the communication between the Stelnet client and the Stelnet server.

·           Improving the manageability of Stelnet clients in authentication service.

To specify the source IP address for SSH packets:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Specify the source address for SSH packets.

·          Specify the source IPv4 address for SSH packets:
ssh client source { interface interface-type interface-number | ip ip-address }

·          Specify the source IPv6 address for SSH packets:
ssh client ipv6 source
{ interface interface-type interface-number | ipv6 ipv6-address }

By default, the source IP address for SSH packets is not configured.

The IPv4 SSH packets use the primary IPv4 address of the output interface specified in the routing entry as their source address. The IPv6 SSH packets automatically select an IPv6 address as their source address in compliance with RFC 3484.

 

Establishing a connection to an Stelnet server

When you try to access an Stelnet server, the device must use the server's host public key to authenticate the server. If the server's host public key is not configured on the device, the device will notify you to confirm whether to continue with the access.

·           If you choose to continue, the device accesses the server and downloads the server's host public key.

·           If you choose to not continue, the connection cannot be established.

As a best practice, configure the server's host public key on the device in an insecure network.

The client cannot establish connections to both IPv4 and IPv6 Stelnet servers.

To establish a connection to an Stelnet server:

 

Task

Command

Remarks

Establish a connection to an Stelnet server.

·          In non-FIPS mode, establish a connection to an IPv4 Stelnet server:
ssh2 server [ port-number ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] [ identity-key { dsa | ecdsa-sha2-nistp256
| ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | rsa | { x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 } pki-domain domain-name } | prefer-compress zlib | prefer-ctos-cipher { 3des-cbc | aes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | des-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-ctos-hmac { md5 | md5-96 | sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } | prefer-kex { dh-group-exchange-sha1 | dh-group1-sha1 | dh-group14-sha1 | ecdh-sha2-nistp256 | ecdh-sha2-nistp384 } | prefer-stoc-cipher { 3des-cbc | aes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | des-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-stoc-hmac { md5 | md5-96 | sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } ] * [ dscp dscp-value | escape character | { public-key keyname | server-pki-domain domain-name } | source { interface interface-type interface-number | ip ip-address } ] *

·          In FIPS mode, establish a connection to an IPv4 Stelnet server:
ssh2 server [ port-number ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] [ identity-key { ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 | ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | rsa | { x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 } pki-domain domain-name } | prefer-compress zlib | prefer-ctos-cipher { aes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-ctos-hmac { sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } | prefer-kex { dh-group14-sha1 | ecdh-sha2-nistp256 | ecdh-sha2-nistp384 } | prefer-stoc-cipher { aes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-stoc-hmac { sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } ] * [ escape character | { public-key keyname | server-pki-domain domain-name } | source { interface interface-type interface-number | ip ip-address } ] *

·          In non-FIPS mode, establish a connection to an IPv6 Stelnet server:
ssh2 ipv6 server [ port-number ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] [ -i interface-type interface-number ] [ identity-key { dsa | ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 | ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | rsa | { x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 } pki-domain domain-name } | prefer-compress zlib | prefer-ctos-cipher { 3des-cbc | aes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | des-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-ctos-hmac { md5 | md5-96 | sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } | prefer-kex { dh-group-exchange-sha1 | dh-group1-sha1 | dh-group14-sha1 | ecdh-sha2-nistp256 | ecdh-sha2-nistp384 } | prefer-stoc-cipher { 3des-cbc | aes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | des-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-stoc-hmac { md5 | md5-96 | sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } ] * [ dscp dscp-value | escape character | { public-key keyname | server-pki-domain domain-name } | source { interface interface-type interface-number | ipv6 ipv6-address } ] *

·          In FIPS mode, establish a connection to an IPv6 Stelnet server:
ssh2 ipv6 server [ port-number ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] [ -i interface-type interface-number ] [ identity-key { ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 | ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | rsa | { x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 } pki-domain domain-name } | prefer-compress zlib | prefer-ctos-cipher { aes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-ctos-hmac { sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } | prefer-kex { dh-group14-sha1 | ecdh-sha2-nistp256 | ecdh-sha2-nistp384 } | prefer-stoc-cipheraes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-stoc-hmac { sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } ] * [ escape character | { public-key keyname | server-pki-domain domain-name } | source { interface interface-type interface-number | ipv6 ipv6-address } ] *

Available in user view.

 

Establishing a connection to an Stelnet server based on Suite B

Task

Command

Remarks

Establish a connection to an Stelnet server based on Suite B.

·          Establish a connection to an IPv4 Stelnet server based on Suite B:
ssh2 server [ port-number ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] suite-b [ 128-bit | 192-bit ] pki-domain domain-name [ server-pki-domain domain-name ] [ prefer-compress zlib ] [ dscp dscp-value | escape character | source { interface interface-type interface-number | ip ip-address } ] *

·          Establish a connection to an IPv6 Stelnet server based on Suite B:
ssh2 ipv6 server [ port-number ] [ -i interface-type interface-number ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] suite-b [ 128-bit | 192-bit ] pki-domain domain-name [ server-pki-domain domain-name ] [ interface interface-type interface-number ] [ prefer-compress zlib ] [ dscp dscp-value | escape character | source { interface interface-type interface-number | ipv6 ipv6-address } ] *

Available in user view.

The client cannot establish connections to both IPv4 and IPv6 Stelnet servers.

 

Configuring the device as an SFTP client

SFTP client configuration task list

Tasks at a glance

(Optional.) Specifying the source IP address for SFTP packets

(Required.) Establishing a connection to an SFTP server

(Optional.) Establishing a connection to an SFTP server based on Suite B

(Optional.) Working with SFTP directories

(Optional.) Working with SFTP files

(Optional.) Displaying help information

(Optional.) Terminating the connection with the SFTP server

 

Specifying the source IP address for SFTP packets

As a best practice, specify the IP address of a loopback interface as the source interface of SFTP packets for the following purposes:

·           Ensuring the communication between the SFTP client and the SFTP server.

·           Improving the manageability of SFTP clients in the authentication service.

To specify the source IP address for SFTP packets:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Specify the source address for SFTP packets.

·          Specify the source IPv4 address for SFTP packets:
sftp client source { ip ip-address | interface interface-type interface-number }

·          Specify the source IPv6 address for SFTP packets:
sftp client ipv6 source { ipv6 ipv6-address | interface interface-type interface-number }

By default, the source IP address for SFTP packets is not configured.

The IPv4 SFTP packets use the primary IPv4 address of the output interface specified in the routing entry as their source IP address. The IPv6 SFTP packets automatically select an IPv6 address as their source address in compliance with RFC 3484.

 

Establishing a connection to an SFTP server

When you try to access an SFTP server, the device must use the server's host public key to authenticate the server. If the server's host public key is not configured on the device, the device will notify you to confirm whether to continue with the access.

·           If you choose to continue, the device accesses the server and downloads the server's host public key.

·           If you choose to not continue, the connection cannot be established.

As a best practice, configure the server's host public key on the device in an insecure network.

After the connection is established, you can directly enter SFTP client view on the server to perform file or directory operations.

The client cannot establish connections to both IPv4 and IPv6 SFTP servers.

To establish a connection to an SFTP server:

 

Task

Command

Remarks

Establish a connection to an SFTP server.

·          In non-FIPS mode, establish a connection to an IPv4 SFTP server:
sftp server [ port-number ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] [ identity-key { dsa | ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 | ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | rsa | { x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 } pki-domain domain-name } | prefer-compress zlib | prefer-ctos-cipher { 3des-cbc | aes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | des-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-ctos-hmac { md5 | md5-96 | sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } | prefer-kex { dh-group-exchange-sha1 | dh-group1-sha1 | dh-group14-sha1 | ecdh-sha2-nistp256 | ecdh-sha2-nistp384 } | prefer-stoc-cipher { 3des-cbc | aes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | des-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-stoc-hmac { md5 | md5-96 | sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } ] * [ dscp dscp-value | { public-key keyname | server-pki-domain domain-name } | source { interface interface-type interface-number | ip ip-address
} ] *

·          In FIPS mode, establish a connection to an IPv4 SFTP server:
sftp server [ port-number ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] [ identity-key { ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 | ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | rsa | { x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 } pki-domain domain-name } | prefer-compress zlib | prefer-ctos-cipher { aes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-ctos-hmac { sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } | prefer-kex { dh-group14-sha1 | ecdh-sha2-nistp256 | ecdh-sha2-nistp384 } | prefer-stoc-cipher { aes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-stoc-hmac { sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } ] * [ { public-key keyname | server-pki-domain domain-name } | source { interface interface-type interface-number | ip ip-address } ] *

·          In non-FIPS mode, establish a connection to an IPv6 SFTP server:
sftp ipv6 server [ port-number ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] [ -i interface-type interface-number ] [ identity-key { dsa | ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 | ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | rsa | { x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 } pki-domain domain-name } | prefer-compress zlib | prefer-ctos-cipher { 3des-cbc | aes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | des-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-ctos-hmac { md5 | md5-96 | sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } | prefer-kex { dh-group-exchange-sha1 | dh-group1-sha1 | dh-group14-sha1 | ecdh-sha2-nistp256 | ecdh-sha2-nistp384 } | prefer-stoc-cipher { 3des-cbc | aes128-cbc  | aes256-cbc | des-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-stoc-hmac { md5 | md5-96 | sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } ] * [ dscp dscp-value | { public-key keyname | server-pki-domain domain-name } | source { interface interface-type interface-number | ipv6 ipv6-addres
s } ] *

·          In FIPS mode, establish a connection to an IPv6 SFTP server:
sftp ipv6 server [ port-number ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] [ -i interface-type interface-number ] [ identity-key { ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 | ecdsa-sha2-nistp384
| rsa | { x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 } pki-domain domain-name } | prefer-compress zlib | prefer-ctos-cipheraes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-ctos-hmac { sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } | prefer-kex { dh-group14-sha1 | ecdh-sha2-nistp256 | ecdh-sha2-nistp384 } | prefer-stoc-cipher { aes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-stoc-hmac { sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } ] * [ { public-key keyname | server-pki-domain domain-name } | source { interface interface-type interface-number | ipv6 ipv6-address } ] *

Available in user view.

 

Establishing a connection to an SFTP server based on Suite B

After the connection is established, you are in SFTP client view of the server and can perform file or directory operations.

To establish a connection to an SFTP server based on Suite B:

 

Task

Command

Remarks

Establish a connection to an SFTP server based on Suite B.

·          Establish a connection to an IPv4 SFTP server based on Suite B:
sftp server [ port-number ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] suite-b [ 128-bit | 192-bit ] pki-domain domain-name [ server-pki-domain domain-name ] [ prefer-compress zlib ] [ dscp dscp-value | source { interface interface-type interface-number | ip ip-address } ] *

·          Establish a connection to an IPv6 SFTP server based on Suite B:
sftp ipv6 server [ port-number ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] [ -i interface-type interface-number ] suite-b [ 128-bit | 192-bit ] pki-domain domain-name [ server-pki-domain domain-name ] [ prefer-compress zlib ] [ dscp dscp-value | source { interface interface-type interface-number | ipv6 ipv6-address } ] *

Available in user view.

The client cannot establish connections to both IPv4 and IPv6 SFTP servers.

 

Working with SFTP directories

Task

Command

Remarks

Change the working directory on the SFTP server.

cd [ remote-path ]

Available in SFTP client view.

Return to the upper-level directory.

cdup

Available in SFTP client view.

Display the current working directory on the SFTP server.

pwd

Available in SFTP client view.

Display files under a directory.

·          dir [ -a | -l ] [ remote-path ]

·          ls [ -a | -l ] [ remote-path ]

Available in SFTP client view.

The dir command has the same function as the ls command.

Change the name of a directory on the SFTP server.

rename oldname newname

Available in SFTP client view.

Create a new directory on the SFTP server.

mkdir remote-path

Available in SFTP client view.

Delete one or more directories from the SFTP server.

rmdir remote-path

Available in SFTP client view.

 

Working with SFTP files

Task

Command

Remarks

Change the name of a file on the SFTP server.

rename old-name new-name

Available in SFTP client view.

Download a file from the remote server and save it locally.

get remote-file [ local-file ]

Available in SFTP client view.

Upload a local file to the SFTP server.

put local-file [ remote-file ]

Available in SFTP client view.

Display the files under a directory.

·          dir [ -a | -l ] [ remote-path ]

·          ls [ -a | -l ] [ remote-path ]

Available in SFTP client view.

The dir command has the same function as the ls command.

Delete one or more directories from the SFTP server.

·          delete remote-file

·          remove remote-file

Available in SFTP client view.

The delete command has the same function as the remove command.

 

Displaying help information

Task

Command

Remarks

Display the help information of SFTP client commands.

·          help

·          ?

Available in SFTP client view.

 

Terminating the connection with the SFTP server

Task

Command

Remarks

Terminate the connection with the SFTP server and return to user view.

·          bye

·          exit

·          quit

Available in SFTP client view.

These three commands have the same function.

 

Configuring the device as an SCP client

Establishing a connection to an SCP server

This section describes how to configure the device as an SCP client to establish a connection with an SCP server and transfer files with the server.

When you try to access an SCP server, the device must use the server's host public key to authenticate the server. If the server's host public key is not configured on the device, the device will notify you to confirm whether to continue with the access.

·           If you choose to continue, the device accesses the server and downloads the server's host public key.

·           If you choose to not continue, the connection cannot be established.

As a best practice, configure the server's host public key on the device in an insecure network.

The client cannot establish connections to both IPv4 and IPv6 SCP servers.

To transfer files with an SCP server:

 

Task

Command

Remarks

Connect to the SCP server, and transfer files with the server.

¡  In non-FIPS mode, connect to the IPv4 SCP server, and transfer files with this server:
scp server [ port-number ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] { put | get } source-file-name [ destination-file-name ] [ identity-key { dsa | ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 | ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | rsa | { x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 } pki-domain domain-name } | prefer-compress zlib | prefer-ctos-cipher { 3des-cbc | aes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | des-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-ctos-hmac { md5 | md5-96 | sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } | prefer-kex { dh-group-exchange-sha1 | dh-group1-sha1 | dh-group14-sha1 | ecdh-sha2-nistp256 | ecdh-sha2-nistp384 } | prefer-stoc-cipher { 3des-cbc | aes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | des-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-stoc-hmac { md5 | md5-96 | sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } ] * [ { public-key keyname | server-pki-domain domain-name } | source { interface interface-type interface-number | ip ip-address } ] *

·          In FIPS mode, connect to the IPv4 SCP server, and transfer files with this server:
scp server [ port-number ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] { put | get } source-file-name [ destination-file-name ] [ identity-key  { ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 | ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | rsa | { x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 } pki-domain domain-name } | prefer-compress zlib | prefer-ctos-cipher { aes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-ctos-hmac { sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } | prefer-kex { dh-group14-sha1 | ecdh-sha2-nistp256 | ecdh-sha2-nistp384 } | prefer-stoc-cipher { aes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-stoc-hmac { sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } ] * [ { public-key keyname | server-pki-domain domain-name } | source { interface interface-type interface-number | ip ip-address } ] *

¡  In non-FIPS mode, connect to the IPv6 SCP server, and transfer files with this server:
scp ipv6 server [ port-number ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] [ -i interface-type interface-number  ] { put | get } source-file-name [ destination-file-name ] [ identity-key { dsa | ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 | ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | rsa | { x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 } pki-domain domain-name } | prefer-compress zlib | prefer-ctos-cipher { 3des-cbc | aes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | des-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-ctos-hmac { md5 | md5-96 | sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } | prefer-kex { dh-group-exchange-sha1 | dh-group1-sha1 | dh-group14-sha1 | ecdh-sha2-nistp256 | ecdh-sha2-nistp384 } | prefer-stoc-cipher { 3des-cbc | aes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | des-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-stoc-hmac { md5 | md5-96 | sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } ] * [ { public-key keyname | server-pki-domain domain-name } | source { interface interface-type interface-number | ipv6 ipv6-address } ] *

·          In FIPS mode, connect to the IPv6 SCP server, and transfer files with this server:
scp ipv6 server [ port-number ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] [ -i interface-type interface-number ] { put | get } source-file-name [ destination-file-name ] [ identity-key { ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 | ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | rsa | { x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 } pki-domain domain-name } | prefer-compress zlib | prefer-ctos-cipher { aes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-ctos-hmac { sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } | prefer-kex { dh-group14-sha1 | ecdh-sha2-nistp256 | ecdh-sha2-nistp384 } | prefer-stoc-cipher { aes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } | prefer-stoc-hmac { sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } ] * [ { public-key keyname | server-pki-domain domain-name } | source { interface interface-type interface-number | ipv6 ipv6-address } ] *

Available in user view.

 

Establishing a connection to an SCP server based on Suite B

Task

Command

Remarks

Establish a connection to an SCP server based on Suite B.

·          Establish a connection to an IPv4 SCP server based on Suite B:
scp server [ port-number ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] { put | get } source-file-name [ destination-file-name ] suite-b [ 128-bit | 192-bit ] pki-domain domain-name [ server-pki-domain domain-name ] [ prefer-compress zlib ] [ source { interface interface-type interface-number | ip ip-address } ] *

·          Establish a connection to an IPv6 SCP server based on Suite B:
scp ipv6 server [ port-number ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] [ -i interface-type interface-number ] { put | get } source-file-name [ destination-file-name ] suite-b [ 128-bit | 192-bit ] pki-domain domain-name [ server-pki-domain domain-name ] [ prefer-compress zlib ] [ source { interface interface-type interface-number | ipv6 ipv6-address } ] *

Available in user view.

The client cannot establish connections to both IPv4 and IPv6 SCP servers.

 

Specifying algorithms for SSH2

Perform this task to specify the following types of algorithms that the SSH2 client and server use for algorithm negotiation during the Stelnet, SFTP, or SCP session establishment:

·           Key exchange algorithms.

·           Public key algorithms.

·           Encryption algorithms.

·           MAC algorithms.

If you specify algorithms, SSH2 uses only the specified algorithms for algorithm negotiation. The client uses the specified algorithms to initiate the negotiation, and the server uses the matching algorithms to negotiate with the client.

If multiple algorithms of the same type are specified, the algorithm specified earlier has a higher priority during negotiation. The specified SSH2 algorithms do not affect SSH1 sessions.

Specifying key exchange algorithms for SSH2

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Specify key exchange algorithms for SSH2.

·          In non-FIPS mode:
ssh2 algorithm key-exchange
{ dh-group-exchange-sha1 | dh-group1-sha1 | dh-group14-sha1 | ecdh-sha2-nistp256 | ecdh-sha2-nistp384 } *

·          In FIPS mode:
ssh2 algorithm key-exchange { dh-group14-sha1 | ecdh-sha2-nistp256 | ecdh-sha2-nistp384 } *

By default, SSH2 uses the key exchange algorithms ecdh-sha2-nistp256, ecdh-sha2-nistp384, dh-group14-sha1, dh-group-exchange-sha1, and dh-group1-sha1 in descending order of priority for algorithm negotiation.

 

Specifying public key algorithms for SSH2

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Specify public key algorithms for SSH2.

·          In non-FIPS mode:
ssh2 algorithm public-key { dsa | ecdsa-sha2-nistp256
| ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | rsa | x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 } *

·          In FIPS mode:
ssh2 algorithm public-key
{ ecdsa-sha2-nistp256
| ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | rsa | x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 | x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 } *

By default, SSH2 uses the public key algorithms x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp256, x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp384, ecdsa-sha2-nistp256, ecdsa-sha2-nistp384, rsa, and dsa in descending order of priority for algorithm negotiation.

 

Specifying encryption algorithms for SSH2

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Specify encryption algorithms for SSH2.

·          In non-FIPS mode:
ssh2 algorithm cipher { 3des-cbc | aes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | des-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } *

·          In FIPS mode:
ssh2 algorithm cipher { aes128-cbc | aes256-cbc | aes128-ctr | aes192-ctr | aes256-ctr | aes128-gcm | aes256-gcm } *

By default, SSH2 uses the encryption algorithms aes128-ctr, aes192-ctr, aes256-ctr, aes128-gcm, aes256-gcm, aes128-cbc, 3des-cbc, aes256-cbc, and des-cbc in descending order of priority for algorithm negotiation.

 

Specifying MAC algorithms for SSH2

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Specify MAC algorithms for SSH2.

·          In non-FIPS mode:
ssh2 algorithm mac { md5 | md5-96 | sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } *

·          In FIPS mode:
ssh2 algorithm mac { sha1 | sha1-96 | sha2-256 | sha2-512 } *

By default, SSH2 uses the MAC algorithms sha2-256, sha2-512, sha1, md5, sha1-96, and md5-96 in descending order of priority for algorithm negotiation.

 

Displaying and maintaining SSH

Execute display commands in any view.

 

Task

Command

Display the source IP address configured for the SFTP client.

display sftp client source

Display the source IP address configured for the Stelnet client.

display ssh client source

Display SSH server status or sessions.

display ssh server { session | status }

Display SSH user information on the SSH server.

display ssh user-information [ username ]

Display the public keys of the local key pairs.

display public-key local { dsa | ecdsa | rsa } public [ name publickey-name ]

Display the public keys of the SSH peers.

display public-key peer [ brief | name publickey-name ]

 

Stelnet configuration examples

Unless otherwise noted, devices in the configuration examples are in non-FIPS mode.

When you configure Stelnet on a device that operates in FIPS mode, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·           The modulus length of the key pair must be 2048 bits.

·           When the device acts as an Stelnet server, only RSA and ECDSA key pairs are supported. When both RSA and ECDSA key pairs exist, the device uses only the ECDSA key pair.

Password authentication enabled Stelnet server configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 1:

·           You can log in to Switch through the Stelnet client that runs on the host.

·           After login, you are assigned the user role network-admin for configuration management.

·           The switch acts as the Stelnet server and uses password authentication.

·           The username and password of the client are saved on the switch.

Figure 1 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

1.      Configure the Stelnet server:

# Generate RSA key pairs.

<Switch> system-view

[Switch] public-key local create rsa

The range of public key size is (512 ~ 2048).

If the key modulus is greater than 512, it will take a few minutes.

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Input the modulus length [default = 1024]:

Generating Keys...

........................++++++

...................++++++

..++++++++

............++++++++

Create the key pair successfully.

# Generate a DSA key pair.

[Switch] public-key local create dsa

The range of public key size is (512 ~ 2048).

If the key modulus is greater than 512, it will take a few minutes.

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Input the modulus length [default = 1024]:

Generating Keys...

.++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++*

........+......+.....+......................................+

...+.................+..........+...+.

Create the key pair successfully.

# Generate an ECDSA key pair.

[Switch] public-key local create ecdsa secp256r1                                

Generating Keys...                                                             

.                                                                              

Create the key pair successfully.

# Enable the Stelnet server.

[Switch] ssh server enable

# Assign an IP address to VLAN-interface 2. The Stelnet client uses this IP address as the destination for SSH connection.

[Switch] interface vlan-interface 2

[Switch-Vlan-interface2] ip address 192.168.1.40 255.255.255.0

[Switch-Vlan-interface2] quit

# Set the authentication mode to AAA for the user lines.

[Switch] line vty 0 63

[Switch-line-vty0-63] authentication-mode scheme

[Switch-line-vty0-63] quit

# Create a local device management user client001.

[Switch] local-user client001 class manage

# Specify the plaintext password as aabbcc and the service type as ssh for the user.

[Switch-luser-manage-client001] password simple aabbcc

[Switch-luser-manage-client001] service-type ssh

# Assign the user role network-admin to the user.

[Switch-luser-manage-client001] authorization-attribute user-role network-admin

[Switch-luser-manage-client001] quit

# Create an SSH user client001. Specify the service type as stelnet and the authentication method as password for the user. By default, password authentication is used if no SSH user is created.

[Switch] ssh user client001 service-type stelnet authentication-type password

2.      Establish a connection to the Stelnet server:

There are different types of Stelnet client software, such as PuTTY and OpenSSH. This example uses an Stelnet client that runs PuTTY version 0.58.

To establish a connection to the Stelnet server:

a.    Launch PuTTY.exe to enter the interface shown in Figure 2.

b.    In the Host Name (or IP address) field, enter the IP address 192.168.1.40 of the Stelnet server.

Figure 2 Specifying the host name (or IP address)

 

c.    Click Open to connect to the server.

If the connection is successfully established, the system notifies you to enter the username and password. After entering the username (client001 in this example) and password (aabbcc in this example), you can enter the CLI of the server.

Publickey authentication enabled Stelnet server configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 3:

·           You can log in to the switch through the Stelnet client (SSH2) that runs on the host.

·           After login, you are assigned the user role network-admin for configuration management.

·           The switch acts as the Stelnet server and uses publickey authentication and the RSA public key algorithm.

Figure 3 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

In the server configuration, the client's host public key is required. Use the client software to generate RSA key pairs on the client before configuring the Stelnet server.

There are different types of Stelnet client software, such as PuTTY and OpenSSH. This example uses an Stelnet client that runs PuTTY version 0.58.

The configuration procedure is as follows:

1.      Generate RSA key pairs on the Stelnet client:

a.    Run PuTTYGen.exe on the client, select SSH-2 RSA and click Generate.

Figure 4 Generating a key pair on the client

 

b.    Continuously move the mouse and do not place the mouse over the green progress bar shown in Figure 5. Otherwise, the progress bar stops moving and the key pair generating progress stops.

Figure 5 Generating process

 

c.    After the key pair is generated, click Save public key to save the public key.

A file saving window appears.

d.    Enter a file name (key.pub in this example), and click Save.

Figure 6 Saving a key pair on the client

 

e.    On the page as shown in Figure 6, click Save private key to save the private key.

A confirmation dialog box appears.

f.     Click Yes.

A file saving window appears.

g.    Enter a file name (private.ppk in this example), and click Save.

h.    Transmit the public key file to the server through FTP or TFTP. (Details not shown.)

2.      Configure the Stelnet server:

# Generate RSA key pairs.

<Switch> system-view

[Switch] public-key local create rsa

The range of public key size is (512 ~ 2048).

If the key modulus is greater than 512, it will take a few minutes.

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Input the modulus length [default = 1024]:

Generating Keys...

........................++++++

...................++++++

..++++++++

............++++++++

Create the key pair successfully.

# Generate a DSA key pair.

[Switch] public-key local create dsa

The range of public key size is (512 ~ 2048).

If the key modulus is greater than 512, it will take a few minutes.

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Input the modulus length [default = 1024]:

Generating Keys...

.++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++*

........+......+.....+......................................+

...+.................+..........+...+

Create the key pair successfully.

# Generate an ECDSA key pair.

[Switch] public-key local create ecdsa secp256r1                                

Generating Keys...                                                             

.                                                                              

Create the key pair successfully.

# Enable the Stelnet server.

[Switch] ssh server enable

# Assign an IP address to VLAN-interface 2. The Stelnet client uses this IP address as the destination for SSH connection.

[Switch] interface vlan-interface 2

[Switch-Vlan-interface2] ip address 192.168.1.40 255.255.255.0

[Switch-Vlan-interface2] quit

# Set the authentication mode to AAA for the user lines.

[Switch] line vty 0 63

[Switch-line-vty0-63] authentication-mode scheme

[Switch-line-vty0-63] quit

# Import the client's public key from file key.pub and name it switchkey.

[Switch] public-key peer switchkey import sshkey key.pub

# Create an SSH user client002. Specify the authentication method as publickey for the user. Assign the public key switchkey to the user.

[Switch] ssh user client002 service-type stelnet authentication-type publickey assign publickey switchkey

# Create a local device management user client002. Specify the service type as ssh for the user. Assign the user role network-admin to the user.

[Switch] local-user client002 class manage

[Switch-luser-manage-client002] service-type ssh

[Switch-luser-manage-client002] authorization-attribute user-role network-admin

[Switch-luser-manage-client002] quit

3.      Specify the private key file and establish a connection to the Stelnet server:

a.    Launch PuTTY.exe on the Stelnet client to enter the interface shown in Figure 7.

b.    In the Host Name (or IP address) field, enter the IP address 192.168.1.40 of the Stelnet server.

Figure 7 Specifying the host name (or IP address)

 

c.    Select Connection > SSH from the navigation tree.

The window shown in Figure 8 appears.

d.    Specify the Preferred SSH protocol version as 2 in the Protocol options area.

Figure 8 Specifying the preferred SSH version

 

e.    Select Connection > SSH > Auth from the navigation tree.

The window shown in Figure 9 appears.

f.     Click Browse… to bring up the file selection window, navigate to the private key file (private.ppk in this example), and click OK.

Figure 9 Specifying the private key file

 

g.    Click Open to connect to the server.

If the connection is successfully established, the system notifies you to enter the username. After entering the username (client002), you can enter the CLI of the server.

Password authentication enabled Stelnet client configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 10:

·           You can log in to Switch B through the Stelnet client that runs on Switch A.

·           After login, you are assigned the user role network-admin for configuration management.

·           Switch B acts as the Stelnet server and uses password authentication.

·           The username and password of the client are saved on Switch B.

Figure 10 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

1.      Configure the Stelnet server:

# Generate RSA key pairs.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] public-key local create rsa

The range of public key size is (512 ~ 2048).

If the key modulus is greater than 512, it will take a few minutes.

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Input the modulus length [default = 1024]:

Generating Keys...

........................++++++

...................++++++

..++++++++

............++++++++

Create the key pair successfully.

# Generate a DSA key pair.

[SwitchB] public-key local create dsa

The range of public key size is (512 ~ 2048).

If the key modulus is greater than 512, it will take a few minutes.

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Input the modulus length [default = 1024]:

Generating Keys...

.++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++*

........+......+.....+......................................+

...+.................+..........+...+

Create the key pair successfully.

# Generate an ECDSA key pair.

[SwitchB] public-key local create ecdsa secp256r1                                 

Generating Keys...                                                             

.                                                                              

Create the key pair successfully.

# Enable the Stelnet server.

[SwitchB] ssh server enable

# Assign an IP address to VLAN-interface 2. The Stelnet client uses the address as the destination address of the SSH connection.

[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] ip address 192.168.1.40 255.255.255.0

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] quit

# Set the authentication mode to AAA for the user lines.

[SwitchB] line vty 0 63

[SwitchB-line-vty0-63] authentication-mode scheme

[SwitchB-line-vty0-63] quit

# Create a local device management user client001.

[SwitchB] local-user client001 class manage

# Specify the plaintext password as aabbcc and the service type as ssh for the user.

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client001] password simple aabbcc

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client001] service-type ssh

# Assign the user role network-admin to the user.

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client001] authorization-attribute user-role network-admin

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client001] quit

# Create an SSH user client001. Specify the service type as stelnet and the authentication method as password for the user. By default, password authentication is used if no SSH user is created.

[SwitchB] ssh user client001 service-type stelnet authentication-type password

2.      Establish a connection to the Stelnet server 192.168.1.40:

# Assign an IP address to VLAN-interface 2.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] ip address 192.168.1.56 255.255.255.0

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] quit

[SwitchA] quit

Before establishing a connection to the server, you can configure the server's host public key on the client to authenticate the server.

¡  To configure the server's host public key on the client, perform the following tasks:

# Use the display public-key local dsa public command on the server to display the server's host public key. (Details not shown.)

# Enter public key view of the client and copy the host public key of the server to the client.

[SwitchA] public-key peer key1

Enter public key view. Return to system view with "peer-public-key end" command.

[SwitchA-pkey-public-key-key1]308201B73082012C06072A8648CE3804013082011F0281810

0D757262C4584C44C211F18BD96E5F0

[SwitchA-pkey-public-key-key1]61C4F0A423F7FE6B6B85B34CEF72CE14A0D3A5222FE08CECE

65BE6C265854889DC1EDBD13EC8B274

[SwitchA-pkey-public-key-key1]DA9F75BA26CCB987723602787E922BA84421F22C3C89CB9B0

6FD60FE01941DDD77FE6B12893DA76E

[SwitchA-pkey-public-key-key1]EBC1D128D97F0678D7722B5341C8506F358214B16A2FAC4B3

68950387811C7DA33021500C773218C

[SwitchA-pkey-public-key-key1]737EC8EE993B4F2DED30F48EDACE915F0281810082269009E

14EC474BAF2932E69D3B1F18517AD95

[SwitchA-pkey-public-key-key1]94184CCDFCEAE96EC4D5EF93133E84B47093C52B20CD35D02

492B3959EC6499625BC4FA5082E22C5

[SwitchA-pkey-public-key-key1]B374E16DD00132CE71B020217091AC717B612391C76C1FB2E

88317C1BD8171D41ECB83E210C03CC9

[SwitchA-pkey-public-key-key1]B32E810561C21621C73D6DAAC028F4B1585DA7F42519718CC

9B09EEF0381840002818000AF995917

[SwitchA-pkey-public-key-key1]E1E570A3F6B1C2411948B3B4FFA256699B3BF871221CC9C5D

F257523777D033BEE77FC378145F2AD

[SwitchA-pkey-public-key-key1]D716D7DB9FCABB4ADBF6FB4FDB0CA25C761B308EF53009F71

01F7C62621216D5A572C379A32AC290

[SwitchA-pkey-public-key-key1]E55B394A217DA38B65B77F0185C8DB8095522D1EF044B465E

8716261214A5A3B493E866991113B2D

[SwitchA-pkey-public-key-key1]485348

[SwitchA-pkey-public-key-key1] peer-public-key end

[SwitchA] quit

# Establish an SSH connection to the server, and specify the host public key of the server.

<SwitchA> ssh2 192.168.1.40 publickey key1

Username: client001

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Connecting to 192.168.1.40 port 22.

client001@192.168.1.40's password:

Enter a character ~ and a dot to abort.

 

******************************************************************************

* Copyright (c) 2004-2017 New H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.*

* Without the owner's prior written consent,                                 *

* no decompiling or reverse-engineering shall be allowed.                    *

******************************************************************************

 

<SwitchB>

After you enter the correct password, you log in to Switch B successfully.

¡  If the client does not have the server's host public key, the system notifies you to confirm whether to continue with the access when you access the server. Select Yes to access the server and download the server's host public key.

<SwitchA> ssh2 192.168.1.40

Username: client001

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Connecting to 192.168.1.40 port 22.

The server is not authenticated. Continue? [Y/N]:y

Do you want to save the server public key? [Y/N]:y

client001@192.168.1.40's password:

Enter a character ~ and a dot to abort.

 

******************************************************************************

* Copyright (c) 2004-2017 New H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.*

* Without the owner's prior written consent,                                 *

* no decompiling or reverse-engineering shall be allowed.                    *

******************************************************************************

 

<SwitchB>

After you enter the correct password, you can log in to Switch B successfully. The server's host public key is saved on the client. At the next connection attempt, the system will not notify you to authenticate the server.

Publickey authentication enabled Stelnet client configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 11:

·           You can log in to Switch B through the Stelnet client that runs on Switch A.

·           After login, you are assigned the user role network-admin for configuration management.

·           Switch B acts as the Stelnet server and uses publickey authentication and the DSA public key algorithm.

Figure 11 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

In the server configuration, the client public key is required. Use the client software to generate a DSA key pair on the client before configuring the Stelnet server.

1.      Configure the Stelnet client:

# Assign an IP address to VLAN-interface 2.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] ip address 192.168.1.56 255.255.255.0

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] quit

# Generate a DSA key pair.

[SwitchA] public-key local create dsa

The range of public key size is (512 ~ 2048).

If the key modulus is greater than 512, it will take a few minutes.

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Input the modulus length [default = 1024]:

Generating Keys...

.++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++*

........+......+.....+......................................+

...+.................+..........+...+

Create the key pair successfully.

# Export the DSA host public key to file key.pub.

[SwitchA] public-key local export dsa ssh2 key.pub

[SwitchA] quit

# Transmit the public key file key.pub to the server through FTP or TFTP. (Details not shown.)

2.      Configure the Stelnet server:

# Generate RSA key pairs.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] public-key local create rsa

The range of public key size is (512 ~ 2048)

If the key modulus is greater than 512, it will take a few minutes.

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Input the modulus length [default = 1024]:

Generating Keys...

........................++++++

...................++++++

..++++++++

............++++++++

Create the key pair successfully.

# Generate a DSA key pair.

[SwitchB] public-key local create dsa

The range of public key size is (512 ~ 2048).

If the key modulus is greater than 512, it will take a few minutes.

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Input the modulus length [default = 1024]:

Generating Keys...

.++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++*

........+......+.....+......................................+

...+.................+..........+...+

Create the key pair successfully.

# Generate an ECDSA key pair.

[SwitchB] public-key local create ecdsa secp256r1                                 

Generating Keys...                                                             

.                                                                              

Create the key pair successfully.

# Enable Stelnet server.

[SwitchB] ssh server enable

# Assign an IP address to VLAN-interface 2. The Stelnet client uses the address as the destination address of the SSH connection.

[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] ip address 192.168.1.40 255.255.255.0

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] quit

# Set the authentication mode to AAA for the user lines.

[SwitchB] line vty 0 63

[SwitchB-line-vty0-63] authentication-mode scheme

[SwitchB-line-vty0-63] quit

# Import the peer public key from the file key.pub, and name it switchkey.

[SwitchB] public-key peer switchkey import sshkey key.pub

# Create an SSH user client002. Specify the authentication method as publickey for the user. Assign the public key switchkey to the user.

[SwitchB] ssh user client002 service-type stelnet authentication-type publickey assign publickey switchkey

# Create a local device management user client002. Specify the service type as ssh for the user. Assign the user role network-admin to the user.

[SwitchB] local-user client002 class manage

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client002] service-type ssh

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client002] authorization-attribute user-role network-admin

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client002] quit

3.      Establish an SSH connection to the Stelnet server 192.168.1.40.

<SwitchA> ssh2 192.168.1.40

Username: client002

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Connecting to 192.168.1.40 port 22.

The server is not authenticated. Continue? [Y/N]:y

Do you want to save the server public key? [Y/N]:n

client002@192.168.1.40's password:

Enter a character ~ and a dot to abort.

 

******************************************************************************

* Copyright (c) 2004-2017 New H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.*

* Without the owner's prior written consent,                                 *

* no decompiling or reverse-engineering shall be allowed.                    *

******************************************************************************

 

<SwitchB>

Select Yes to access the server and download the server's host public key. At the next connection attempt, the client authenticates the server by using the saved server's host public key on the client.

Stelnet configuration example based on 128-bit Suite B algorithms

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 12, Switch A acts as an Stelnet client (SSH2). Switch B acts as the Stelnet server (SSH2), and it uses publickey authentication.

Configure Switch A to establish an Stelnet connection to Switch B based on the 128-bit Suite B algorithms. After the connection is established, you can log in to Switch B as a network administrator to configure and manage Switch B.

Figure 12 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

1.      Generate the client's certificate and the server's certificate. (Details not shown.)

You must first configure the certificates of the server and the client because they are required for identity authentication between the two parties.

In this example, the server's certificate file is ssh-server-ecdsa256.p12 and the client's certificate file is ssh-client-ecdsa256.p12.

2.      Configure the Stelnet client:

 

 

NOTE:

You can modify the pkix version of the client software OpenSSH to support Suite B. This example uses an H3C switch as an Stelnet client.

 

# Upload the server's certificate file ssh-server-ecdsa256.p12 and the client's certificate file ssh-client-ecdsa256.p12 to the Stelnet client through FTP or TFTP. (Details not shown.)

# Create a PKI domain named server256 for verifying the server's certificate and enter its view.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] pki domain server256

# Disable CRL checking.

[SwitchA-pki-domain-server256] undo crl check enable

[SwitchA-pki-domain-server256] quit

# Import local certificate file ssh-server-ecdsa256.p12 to PKI domain server256.

[SwitchA] pki import domain server256 p12 local filename ssh-server-ecdsa256.p12

The system is going to save the key pair. You must specify a key pair name, which is a case-insensitive string of 1 to 64 characters. Valid characters include a to z, A to Z, 0 to 9, and hyphens (-).

Please enter the key pair name[default name: server256]:

# Display information about local certificates in PKI domain server256.

[SwitchA] display pki certificate domain server256 local

Certificate:

    Data:

        Version: 3 (0x2)

        Serial Number: 3 (0x3)

    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256

        Issuer: C=CN, ST=Beijing, L=Beijing, O=H3C, OU=Software, CN=SuiteB CA

        Validity

            Not Before: Aug 21 08:39:51 2015 GMT

            Not After : Aug 20 08:39:51 2016 GMT

        Subject: C=CN, ST=Beijing, O=H3C, OU=Software, CN=SSH Server secp256

        Subject Public Key Info:

            Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey

                Public-Key: (256 bit)

                pub:

                    04:a2:b4:b4:66:1e:3b:d5:50:50:0e:55:19:8d:52:

                    6d:47:8c:3d:3d:96:75:88:2f:9a:ba:a2:a7:f9:ef:

                    0a:a9:20:b7:b6:6a:90:0e:f8:c6:de:15:a2:23:81:

                    3c:9e:a2:b7:83:87:b9:ad:28:c8:2a:5e:58:11:8e:

                    c7:61:4a:52:51

                ASN1 OID: prime256v1

                NIST CURVE: P-256

        X509v3 extensions:

            X509v3 Basic Constraints:

                CA:FALSE

            Netscape Comment:

                OpenSSL Generated Certificate

            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:

                08:C1:F1:AA:97:45:19:6A:DA:4A:F2:87:A1:1A:E8:30:BD:31:30:D7

            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:

                keyid:5A:BE:85:49:16:E5:EB:33:80:25:EB:D8:91:50:B4:E6:3E:4F:B8:22

 

    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256

         30:65:02:31:00:a9:16:e9:c1:76:f0:32:fc:4b:f9:8f:b6:7f:

         31:a0:9f:de:a7:cc:33:29:27:2c:71:2e:f9:0d:74:cb:25:c9:

         00:d2:52:18:7f:58:3f:cc:7e:8b:d3:42:65:00:cb:63:f8:02:

         30:01:a2:f6:a1:51:04:1c:61:78:f6:6b:7e:f9:f9:42:8d:7c:

         a7:bb:47:7c:2a:85:67:0d:81:12:0b:02:98:bc:06:1f:c1:3c:

         9b:c2:1b:4c:44:38:5a:14:b2:48:63:02:2b

# Create a PKI domain named client256 for the client's certificate and enter its view.

[SwitchA] pki domain client256

# Disable CRL checking.

[SwitchA-pki-domain-client256] undo crl check enable

[SwitchA-pki-domain-client256] quit

# Import local certificate file ssh-client-ecdsa256.p12 to PKI domain client256.

[SwitchA] pki import domain client256 p12 local filename ssh-client-ecdsa256.p12

The system is going to save the key pair. You must specify a key pair name, which is a case-insensitive string of 1 to 64 characters. Valid characters include a to z, A to Z, 0 to 9, and hyphens (-).

Please enter the key pair name[default name: client256]:

# Display information about local certificates in PKI domain client256.

[SwitchA] display pki certificate domain client256 local

Certificate:

    Data:

        Version: 3 (0x2)

        Serial Number: 4 (0x4)

    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256

        Issuer: C=CN, ST=Beijing, L=Beijing, O=H3C, OU=Software, CN=SuiteB CA

        Validity

            Not Before: Aug 21 08:41:09 2015 GMT

            Not After : Aug 20 08:41:09 2016 GMT

        Subject: C=CN, ST=Beijing, O=H3C, OU=Software, CN=SSH Client secp256

        Subject Public Key Info:

            Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey

                Public-Key: (256 bit)

                pub:

                    04:da:e2:26:45:87:7a:63:20:e7:ca:7f:82:19:f5:

                    96:88:3e:25:46:f8:2f:9a:4c:70:61:35:db:e4:39:

                    b8:38:c4:60:4a:65:28:49:14:32:3c:cc:6d:cd:34:

                    29:83:84:74:a7:2d:0e:75:1c:c2:52:58:1e:22:16:

                    12:d0:b4:8a:92

                ASN1 OID: prime256v1

                NIST CURVE: P-256

        X509v3 extensions:

            X509v3 Basic Constraints:

                CA:FALSE

            Netscape Comment:

                OpenSSL Generated Certificate

            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:

                1A:61:60:4D:76:40:B8:BA:5D:A1:3C:60:BC:57:98:35:20:79:80:FC

            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:

                keyid:5A:BE:85:49:16:E5:EB:33:80:25:EB:D8:91:50:B4:E6:3E:4F:B8:22

 

    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256

         30:66:02:31:00:9a:6d:fd:7d:ab:ae:54:9a:81:71:e6:bb:ad:

         5a:2e:dc:1d:b3:8a:bf:ce:ee:71:4e:8f:d9:93:7f:a3:48:a1:

         5c:17:cb:22:fa:8f:b3:e5:76:89:06:9f:96:47:dc:34:87:02:

         31:00:e3:af:2a:8f:d6:8d:1f:3a:2b:ae:2f:97:b3:52:63:b6:

         18:67:70:2c:93:2a:41:c0:e7:fa:93:20:09:4d:f4:bf:d0:11:

         66:0f:48:56:01:1e:c3:be:37:4e:49:19:cf:c6

# Assign an IP address to VLAN-interface 2.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] ip address 192.168.1.56 255.255.255.0

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] quit

3.      Configure the Stelnet server:

# Upload the server's certificate file ssh-server-ecdsa256.p12 and the client's certificate file ssh-client-ecdsa256.p12 to the Stelnet server through FTP or TFTP. (Details not shown.)

# Create a PKI domain named client256 for verifying the client's certificate and import the file of the client's certificate to this domain. (Details not shown.)

# Create a PKI domain named server256 for the server's certificate and import the file of the server's certificate to this domain. (Details not shown.)

# Specify Suite B algorithms for algorithm negotiation.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] ssh2 algorithm key-exchange ecdh-sha2-nistp256

[SwitchB] ssh2 algorithm cipher aes128-gcm

[SwitchB] ssh2 algorithm public-key x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp384

# Specify server256 as the PKI domain of the server's certificate.

[SwitchB] ssh server pki-domain server256

# Enable the Stelnet server.

[SwitchB] ssh server enable

# Assign an IP address to VLAN-interface 2.

[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] ip address 192.168.1.40 255.255.255.0

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] quit

# Set the authentication mode to AAA for user lines.

[SwitchB] line vty 0 63

[SwitchB-line-vty0-63] authentication-mode scheme

[SwitchB-line-vty0-63] quit

# Create a local device management user named client001. Authorize the user to use the SSH service and assign the network-admin user role to the user.

[SwitchB] local-user client001 class manage

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client001] service-type ssh

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client001] authorization-attribute user-role network-admin

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client001] quit

# Create an SSH user named client001. Specify the publickey authentication method for the user and specify client256 as the PKI domain for verifying the client's certificate.

[Switch] ssh user client001 service-type stelnet authentication-type publickey assign pki-domain client256

4.      Establish an SSH connection to the Stelnet server based on the 128-bit Suite B algorithms:

# Establish an SSH connection to the server at 192.168.1.40.

<SwitchA>  ssh2 192.168.1.40 suite-b 128-bit pki-domain client256 server-pki-domain server256

Username: client001

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Connecting to 192.168.1.40 port 22.

Enter a character ~ and a dot to abort.

 

******************************************************************************

* Copyright (c) 2004-2017 New H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.*

* Without the owner's prior written consent,                                 *

* no decompiling or reverse-engineering shall be allowed.                    *

******************************************************************************

 

<SwitchB>

SFTP configuration examples

Unless otherwise noted, devices in the configuration examples are in non-FIPS mode.

When you configure SFTP on a device that operates in FIPS mode, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·           The modulus length of the key pair must be 2048 bits.

·           When the device acts as an SFTP server, only RSA and ECDSA key pairs are supported. When both RSA and ECDSA key pairs exist, the device uses only the ECDSA key pair.

Password authentication enabled SFTP server configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 13:

·           You can log in to the switch through the SFTP client that runs on the host.

·           After login, you are assigned the user role network-admin to execute file management and transfer operations.

·           The switch acts as the SFTP server and uses password authentication.

·           The username and password of the client are saved on the switch.

Figure 13 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

1.      Configure the SFTP server:

# Generate RSA key pairs.

<Switch> system-view

[Switch] public-key local create rsa

The range of public key size is (512 ~ 2048).

If the key modulus is greater than 512, it will take a few minutes.

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Input the modulus length [default = 1024]:

Generating Keys...

........................++++++

...................++++++

..++++++++

............++++++++

Create the key pair successfully.

# Generate a DSA key pair.

[Switch] public-key local create dsa

The range of public key size is (512 ~ 2048).

If the key modulus is greater than 512, it will take a few minutes.

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Input the modulus length [default = 1024]:

Generating Keys...

.++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++*

........+......+.....+......................................+

...+.................+..........+...+

Create the key pair successfully.

# Generate an ECDSA key pair.

[Switch] public-key local create ecdsa secp256r1                                 

Generating Keys...                                                             

.                                                                              

Create the key pair successfully.

# Enable the SFTP server.

[Switch] sftp server enable

# Assign an IP address to VLAN-interface 2. The SFTP client uses the address as the destination for SSH connection.

[Switch] interface vlan-interface 2

[Switch-Vlan-interface2] ip address 192.168.1.45 255.255.255.0

[Switch-Vlan-interface2] quit

# Create a local device management user client002. Specify the plaintext password as aabbcc and the service type as ssh for the user. Assign the user role network-admin and the working directory flash:/ to the user.

[Switch] local-user client002 class manage

[Switch-luser-manage-client002] password simple aabbcc

[Switch-luser-manage-client002] service-type ssh

[Switch-luser-manage-client002] authorization-attribute user-role network-admin work-directory flash:/

[Switch-luser-manage-client002] quit

# Create an SSH user client002. Specify the authentication method as password and the service type as sftp for the user. By default, password authentication is used if no SSH user is created.

[Switch] ssh user client002 service-type sftp authentication-type password

2.      Establish a connection between the SFTP client and the SFTP server:

The device supports different types of SFTP client software. This example uses an SFTP client that runs PSFTP of PuTTy version 0.58.

 

 

NOTE:

PSFTP supports only password authentication.

 

To establish a connection to the SFTP server:

a.    Run the psftp.exe to launch the client interface shown in Figure 14, and enter the following command:

open 192.168.1.45

b.    Enter username client002 and password aabbcc as prompted to log in to the SFTP server.

Figure 14 SFTP client interface

 

Publickey authentication enabled SFTP client configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 15:

·           You can log in to Switch B through the SFTP client that runs on Switch A.

·           After login, you are assigned the user role network-admin to execute file management and transfer operations.

·           Switch B acts as the SFTP server and uses publickey authentication and the RSA public key algorithm.

Figure 15 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

In the server configuration, the client's host public key is required. Generate RSA key pairs on the client before configuring the SFTP server.

1.      Configure the SFTP client:

# Assign an IP address to VLAN-interface 2.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] ip address 192.168.0.2 255.255.255.0

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] quit

# Generate RSA key pairs.

[SwitchA] public-key local create rsa

The range of public key size is (512 ~ 2048).

If the key modulus is greater than 512, it will take a few minutes.

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Input the modulus length [default = 1024]:

Generating Keys...

........................++++++

...................++++++

..++++++++

............++++++++

Create the key pair successfully.

# Export the host public key to the file pubkey.

[SwitchA] public-key local export rsa ssh2 pubkey

[SwitchA] quit

# Transmit the public key file pubkey to the server through FTP or TFTP. (Details not shown.)

2.      Configure the SFTP server:

# Generate RSA key pairs.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] public-key local create rsa

The range of public key size is (512 ~ 2048).

If the key modulus is greater than 512, it will take a few minutes.

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Input the modulus length [default = 1024]:

Generating Keys...

........................++++++

...................++++++

..++++++++

............++++++++

Create the key pair successfully.

# Generate a DSA key pair.

[SwitchB] public-key local create dsa

The range of public key size is (512 ~ 2048).

If the key modulus is greater than 512, it will take a few minutes.

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Input the modulus length [default = 1024]:

Generating Keys...

.++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++*

........+......+.....+......................................+

...+.................+..........+...+

Create the key pair successfully.

# Generate an ECDSA key pair.

[SwitchB] public-key local create ecdsa secp256r1                                 

Generating Keys...                                                             

.                                                                               

Create the key pair successfully.

# Enable the SFTP server.

[SwitchB] sftp server enable

# Assign an IP address to VLAN-interface 2. The SFTP client uses the address as the destination for SSH connection.

[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] ip address 192.168.0.1 255.255.255.0

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] quit

# Import the peer public key from the file pubkey, and name it switchkey.

[SwitchB] public-key peer switchkey import sshkey pubkey

# Create an SSH user client001. Specify the service type as sftp and the authentication method as publickey for the user. Assign the public key switchkey to the user.

[SwitchB] ssh user client001 service-type sftp authentication-type publickey assign publickey switchkey

# Create a local device management user client001.

[SwitchB] local-user client001 class manage

# Specify the service type as ssh for the user.

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client001] service-type ssh

# Assign the user role network-admin and the working directory flash:/ to the user.

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client001] authorization-attribute user-role network-admin work-directory flash:/

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client001] quit

3.      Establish a connection to the SFTP server:

# Establish a connection to the SFTP server and enter SFTP client view.

<SwitchA> sftp 192.168.0.1 identity-key rsa

Username: client001

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Connecting to 192.168.0.1 port 22.

The server is not authenticated. Continue? [Y/N]:y

Do you want to save the server public key? [Y/N]:n

sftp>

# Display files under the current directory of the server, delete the file z, and verify the result.

sftp> dir -l

-rwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup      1759 Aug 23 06:52 config.cfg

-rwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup       225 Aug 24 08:01 pubkey2

-rwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup       283 Aug 24 07:39 pubkey

drwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup         0 Sep 01 06:22 new

-rwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup       225 Sep 01 06:55 pub

-rwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup         0 Sep 01 08:00 z

sftp> delete z

Removing /z

sftp> dir -l

-rwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup      1759 Aug 23 06:52 config.cfg

-rwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup       225 Aug 24 08:01 pubkey2

-rwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup       283 Aug 24 07:39 pubkey

drwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup         0 Sep 01 06:22 new

-rwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup       225 Sep 01 06:55 pub

# Add a directory new1 and verify the result.

sftp> mkdir new1

sftp> dir -l

-rwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup      1759 Aug 23 06:52 config.cfg

-rwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup       225 Aug 24 08:01 pubkey2

-rwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup       283 Aug 24 07:39 pubkey

drwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup         0 Sep 01 06:22 new

-rwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup       225 Sep 01 06:55 pub

drwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup         0 Sep 02 06:30 new1

# Rename directory new1 to new2 and verify the result.

sftp> rename new1 new2

sftp> dir -l

-rwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup      1759 Aug 23 06:52 config.cfg

-rwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup       225 Aug 24 08:01 pubkey2

-rwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup       283 Aug 24 07:39 pubkey

drwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup         0 Sep 01 06:22 new

-rwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup       225 Sep 01 06:55 pub

drwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup         0 Sep 02 06:33 new2

# Download the file pubkey2 from the server and save it as a local file public.

sftp> get pubkey2 public

Fetching / pubkey2 to public

/pubkey2                                  100% 225     1.4KB/s   00:00

# Upload the local file pu to the server, save it as puk, and verify the result.

sftp> put pu puk

Uploading pu to / puk

sftp> dir -l

-rwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup      1759 Aug 23 06:52 config.cfg

-rwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup       225 Aug 24 08:01 pubkey2

-rwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup       283 Aug 24 07:39 pubkey

drwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup         0 Sep 01 06:22 new

drwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup         0 Sep 02 06:33 new2

-rwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup       283 Sep 02 06:35 pub

-rwxrwxrwx   1 noone    nogroup       283 Sep 02 06:36 puk

sftp>

# Exit SFTP client view.

sftp> quit

<SwitchA>

SFTP configuration example based on 192-bit Suite B algorithms

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 16, Switch A acts as an SFTP client (SSH2). Switch B acts as the SFTP server (SSH2), and it uses publickey authentication.

Configure Switch A to establish an SFTP connection to Switch B based on the 192-bit Suite B algorithms. After the connection is established, you can log in to Switch B as a network administrator to manage and transfer files.

Figure 16 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

1.      Generate the client's certificate and the server's certificate. (Details not shown.)

You must first configure the certificates of the server and the client because they are required for identity authentication between the two parties.

In this example, the server's certificate file is ssh-server-ecdsa384.p12 and the client's certificate file is ssh-client-ecdsa384.p12.

2.      Configure the SFTP client:

 

 

NOTE:

You can modify the pkix version of the client software OpenSSH to support Suite B. This example uses an H3C switch as an SFTP client.

 

# Upload the server's certificate file ssh-server-ecdsa384.p12 and the client's certificate file ssh-client-ecdsa384.p12 to the SFTP client through FTP or TFTP. (Details not shown.)

# Create a PKI domain named server384 for verifying the server's certificate and enter its view.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] pki domain server384

# Disable CRL checking.

[SwitchA-pki-domain-server384] undo crl check enable

[SwitchA-pki-domain-server384] quit

# Import local certificate file ssh-server-ecdsa384.p12 to PKI domain server384.

[SwitchA] pki import domain server384 p12 local filename ssh-server-ecdsa384.p12

The system is going to save the key pair. You must specify a key pair name, which is a case-insensitive string of 1 to 64 characters. Valid characters include a to z, A to Z, 0 to 9, and hyphens (-).

Please enter the key pair name[default name: server384]:

# Display information about local certificates in PKI domain server384.

[SwitchA] display pki certificate domain server384 local

Certificate:

    Data:

        Version: 3 (0x2)

        Serial Number: 1 (0x1)

    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA384

        Issuer: C=CN, ST=Beijing, L=Beijing, O=H3C, OU=Software, CN=SuiteB CA

        Validity

            Not Before: Aug 20 10:08:41 2015 GMT

            Not After : Aug 19 10:08:41 2016 GMT

        Subject: C=CN, ST=Beijing, O=H3C, OU=Software, CN=ssh server

        Subject Public Key Info:

            Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey

                Public-Key: (384 bit)

                pub:

                    04:4a:33:e5:99:8d:49:45:a7:a3:24:7b:32:6a:ed:

                    b6:36:e1:4d:cc:8c:05:22:f4:3a:7c:5d:b7:be:d1:

                    e6:9e:f0:ce:95:39:ca:fd:a0:86:cd:54:ab:49:60:

                    10:be:67:9f:90:3a:18:e2:7d:d9:5f:72:27:09:e7:

                    bf:7e:64:0a:59:bb:b3:7d:ae:88:14:94:45:b9:34:

                    d2:f3:93:e1:ba:b4:50:15:eb:e5:45:24:31:10:c7:

                    07:01:f9:dc:a5:6f:81

                ASN1 OID: secp384r1

                NIST CURVE: P-384

        X509v3 extensions:

            X509v3 Basic Constraints:

                CA:FALSE

            Netscape Comment:

                OpenSSL Generated Certificate

            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:

                10:16:64:2C:DA:C1:D1:29:CD:C0:74:40:A9:70:BD:62:8A:BB:F4:D5

            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:

                keyid:5A:BE:85:49:16:E5:EB:33:80:25:EB:D8:91:50:B4:E6:3E:4F:B8:22

 

    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA384

         30:65:02:31:00:80:50:7a:4f:c5:cd:6a:c3:57:13:7f:e9:da:

         c1:72:7f:45:30:17:c2:a7:d3:ec:73:3d:5f:4d:e3:96:f6:a3:

         33:fb:e4:b9:ff:47:f1:af:9d:e3:03:d2:24:53:40:09:5b:02:

         30:45:d1:bf:51:fd:da:22:11:90:03:f9:d4:05:ec:d6:7c:41:

         fc:9d:a1:fd:5b:8c:73:f8:b6:4c:c3:41:f7:c6:7f:2f:05:2d:

         37:f8:52:52:26:99:28:97:ac:6e:f9:c7:01

# Create a PKI domain named client384 for the client's certificate and enter its view.

[SwitchA] pki domain client384

# Disable CRL checking.

[SwitchA-pki-domain-client384] undo crl check enable

[SwitchA-pki-domain-client384] quit

# Import local certificate file ssh-client-ecdsa384.p12 to PKI domain client384.

[SwitchA] pki import domain client384 p12 local filename ssh-client-ecdsa384.p12

The system is going to save the key pair. You must specify a key pair name, which is a case-insensitive string of 1 to 64 characters. Valid characters include a to z, A to Z, 0 to 9, and hyphens (-).

Please enter the key pair name[default name: client384]:

# Display information about local certificates in PKI domain client384.

[SwitchA]display pki certificate domain client384 local

Certificate:

    Data:

        Version: 3 (0x2)

        Serial Number: 2 (0x2)

    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA384

        Issuer: C=CN, ST=Beijing, L=Beijing, O=H3C, OU=Software, CN=SuiteB CA

        Validity

            Not Before: Aug 20 10:10:59 2015 GMT

            Not After : Aug 19 10:10:59 2016 GMT

        Subject: C=CN, ST=Beijing, O=H3C, OU=Software, CN=ssh client

        Subject Public Key Info:

            Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey

                Public-Key: (384 bit)

                pub:

                    04:85:7c:8b:f4:7a:36:bf:74:f6:7c:72:f9:08:69:

                    d0:b9:ac:89:98:17:c9:fc:89:94:43:da:9a:a6:89:

                    41:d3:72:24:9b:9a:29:a8:d1:ba:b4:e5:77:ba:fc:

                    df:ae:c6:dd:46:72:ab:bc:d1:7f:18:7d:54:88:f6:

                    b4:06:54:7e:e7:4d:49:b4:07:dc:30:54:4b:b6:5b:

                    01:10:51:6b:0c:6d:a3:b1:4b:c9:d9:6c:d6:be:13:

                    91:70:31:2a:92:00:76

                ASN1 OID: secp384r1

                NIST CURVE: P-384

        X509v3 extensions:

            X509v3 Basic Constraints:

                CA:FALSE

            Netscape Comment:

                OpenSSL Generated Certificate

            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:

                BD:5F:8E:4F:7B:FE:74:03:5A:D1:94:DB:CA:A7:82:D6:F7:78:A1:B0

            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:

                keyid:5A:BE:85:49:16:E5:EB:33:80:25:EB:D8:91:50:B4:E6:3E:4F:B8:22

 

    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA384

         30:66:02:31:00:d2:06:fa:2c:0b:0d:f0:81:90:01:c3:3d:bf:

         97:b3:79:d8:25:a0:e2:0e:ed:00:c9:48:3e:c9:71:43:c9:b4:

         2a:a6:0a:27:80:9e:d4:0f:f2:db:db:5b:40:b1:a9:0a:e4:02:

         31:00:ee:00:e1:07:c0:2f:12:3f:88:ea:fe:19:05:ef:56:ca:

         33:71:75:5e:11:c9:a6:51:4b:3e:7c:eb:2a:4d:87:2b:71:7c:

         30:64:fe:14:ce:06:d5:0a:e2:cf:9a:69:19:ff

# Assign an IP address to VLAN-interface 2.

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] ip address 192.168.0.2 255.255.255.0

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] quit

[SwitchA] quit

3.      Configure the SFTP server:

# Upload the server's certificate file ssh-server-ecdsa384.p12 and the client's certificate file ssh-client-ecdsa384.p12 to the SFTP server through FTP or TFTP. (Details not shown.)

# Create a PKI domain named client384 for verifying the client's certificate and import the file of the client's certificate to this domain. (Details not shown.)

# Create a PKI domain named server384 for the server's certificate and import the file of the server's certificate to this domain. (Details not shown.)

# Specify Suite B algorithms for algorithm negotiation.

[SwitchB] ssh2 algorithm key-exchange ecdh-sha2-nistp384

[SwitchB] ssh2 algorithm cipher aes256-gcm

[SwitchB] ssh2 algorithm public-key x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp384

# Specify server384 as the PKI domain of the server's certificate.

[SwitchB] ssh server pki-domain server384

# Enable the SFTP server.

[SwitchB] sftp server enable

# Assign an IP address to VLAN-interface 2.

[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] ip address 192.168.0.1 255.255.255.0

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] quit

# Set the authentication mode to AAA for user lines.

[SwitchB] line vty 0 63

[SwitchB-line-vty0-63] authentication-mode scheme

[SwitchB-line-vty0-63] quit

# Create a local device management user named client001. Authorize the user to use the SSH service and assign the network-admin user role to the user.

[SwitchB] local-user client001 class manage

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client001] service-type ssh

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client001] authorization-attribute user-role network-admin

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client001] quit

# Create an SSH user named client001. Specify the publickey authentication method for the user and specify client384 as the PKI domain for verifying the client's certificate.

[Switch] ssh user client001 service-type sftp authentication-type publickey assign pki-domain client384

4.      Establish an SFTP connection to the SFTP server based on the 192-bit Suite B algorithms:

# Establish an SFTP connection to the server at 192.168.0.1.

<SwitchA> sftp 192.168.0.1 suite-b 192-bit pki-domain client384 server-pki-domain server384

Username: client001

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Connecting to 192.168.0.1 port 22.

sftp>

SCP configuration examples

Unless otherwise noted, devices in the configuration example are in non-FIPS mode.

When you configure SCP on a device that operates in FIPS mode, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·           The modulus length of the key pair must be 2048 bits.

·           When the device acts as an SCP server, only RSA and ECDSA key pairs are supported. When both RSA and ECDSA key pairs exist, the device uses only the ECDSA key pair.

SCP configuration example with password authentication

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 17:

·           You can log in to Switch B through the SCP client that runs on Switch A.

·           After login, you are assigned the user role network-admin and can securely transfer files with Switch B.

·           Switch B uses the password authentication method.

·           The client's username and password are saved on Switch B.

Figure 17 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

1.      Configure the SCP server:

# Generate RSA key pairs.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] public-key local create rsa

The range of public key size is (512 ~ 2048).

If the key modulus is greater than 512, it will take a few minutes.

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Input the modulus length [default = 1024]:

Generating Keys...

........................++++++

...................++++++

..++++++++

............++++++++

Create the key pair successfully.

# Generate a DSA key pair.

[SwitchB] public-key local create dsa

The range of public key size is (512 ~ 2048).

If the key modulus is greater than 512, it will take a few minutes.

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Input the modulus length [default = 1024]:

Generating Keys...

.++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++*

........+......+.....+......................................+

...+.................+..........+...+.

Create the key pair successfully.

# Generate an ECDSA key pair.

[SwitchB] public-key local create ecdsa secp256r1                                 

Generating Keys...                                                             

.                                                                              

Create the key pair successfully.

# Enable the SCP server.

[SwitchB] scp server enable

# Configure an IP address for VLAN-interface 2. The SCP client uses this address as the destination for SCP connection.

[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] ip address 192.168.0.1 255.255.255.0

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] quit

# Create a local device management user client001.

[SwitchB] local-user client001 class manage

# Specify the plaintext password as aabbcc and the service type as ssh for the user.

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client001] password simple aabbcc

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client001] service-type ssh

# Assign the user role network-admin to the user.

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client001] authorization-attribute user-role network-admin

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client001] quit

# Configure an SSH user client001. Specify the service type as scp and the authentication method as password for the user. By default, password authentication is used if an SSH user is not created.

[SwitchB] ssh user client001 service-type scp authentication-type password

2.      Configure an IP address for VLAN-interface 2 on the SCP client.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] ip address 192.168.0.2 255.255.255.0

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] quit

[SwitchA] quit

3.      Connect to the SCP server, download the file remote.bin from the server, and save it locally with the name local.bin.

<SwitchA> scp 192.168.0.1 get remote.bin local.bin

Username: client001

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Connecting to 192.168.0.1 port 22.

The server is not authenticated. Continue? [Y/N]:y

Do you want to save the server public key? [Y/N]:n

client001@192.168.0.1’s password:

remote.bin                                       100% 2875     2.8KB/s   00:00

SCP configuration example based on Suite B algorithms

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 18, Switch A acts as an SCP client (SSH2). Switch B acts as the SCP server (SSH2), and it uses publickey authentication.

Configure Switch A to establish an SCP connection to Switch B based on the Suite B algorithms. After the connection is established, you can log in to Switch B as a network administrator to transfer files.

Figure 18 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

1.      Generate the client's certificates and the server's certificates. (Details not shown.)

You must first configure the certificates of the server and the client because they are required for identity authentication between the two parties.

In this example, the server's certificate files are ssh-server-ecdsa256.p12 and ssh-server-ecdsa384.p12. The client's certificate files are ssh-client-ecdsa256.p12 and ssh-client-ecdsa384.p12.

2.      Configure the SCP client:

 

 

NOTE:

You can modify the pkix version of the client software OpenSSH to support Suite B. This example uses an H3C switch as an SCP client.

 

# Upload the server's certificate files (ssh-server-ecdsa256.p12 and ssh-server-ecdsa384.p12) and the client's certificate files (ssh-client-ecdsa256.p12 and ssh-client-ecdsa384.p12) to the SCP client through FTP or TFTP. (Details not shown.)

# Create a PKI domain named server256 for verifying the server's certificate ecdsa256 and enter its view.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] pki domain server256

# Disable CRL checking.

[SwitchA-pki-domain-server256] undo crl check enable

[SwitchA-pki-domain-server256] quit

# Import local certificate file ssh-server-ecdsa256.p12 to PKI domain server256.

[SwitchA] pki import domain server256 p12 local filename ssh-server-ecdsa256.p12

The system is going to save the key pair. You must specify a key pair name, which is a case-insensitive string of 1 to 64 characters. Valid characters include a to z, A to Z, 0 to 9, and hyphens (-).

Please enter the key pair name[default name: server256]:

# Display information about local certificates in PKI domain server256.

[SwitchA] display pki certificate domain server256 local

Certificate:

    Data:

        Version: 3 (0x2)

        Serial Number: 3 (0x3)

    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256

        Issuer: C=CN, ST=Beijing, L=Beijing, O=H3C, OU=Software, CN=SuiteB CA

        Validity

            Not Before: Aug 21 08:39:51 2015 GMT

            Not After : Aug 20 08:39:51 2016 GMT

        Subject: C=CN, ST=Beijing, O=H3C, OU=Software, CN=SSH Server secp256

        Subject Public Key Info:

            Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey

                Public-Key: (256 bit)

                pub:

                    04:a2:b4:b4:66:1e:3b:d5:50:50:0e:55:19:8d:52:

                    6d:47:8c:3d:3d:96:75:88:2f:9a:ba:a2:a7:f9:ef:

                    0a:a9:20:b7:b6:6a:90:0e:f8:c6:de:15:a2:23:81:

                    3c:9e:a2:b7:83:87:b9:ad:28:c8:2a:5e:58:11:8e:

                    c7:61:4a:52:51

                ASN1 OID: prime256v1

                NIST CURVE: P-256

        X509v3 extensions:

            X509v3 Basic Constraints:

                CA:FALSE

            Netscape Comment:

                OpenSSL Generated Certificate

            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:

                08:C1:F1:AA:97:45:19:6A:DA:4A:F2:87:A1:1A:E8:30:BD:31:30:D7

            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:

                keyid:5A:BE:85:49:16:E5:EB:33:80:25:EB:D8:91:50:B4:E6:3E:4F:B8:22

 

    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256

         30:65:02:31:00:a9:16:e9:c1:76:f0:32:fc:4b:f9:8f:b6:7f:

         31:a0:9f:de:a7:cc:33:29:27:2c:71:2e:f9:0d:74:cb:25:c9:

         00:d2:52:18:7f:58:3f:cc:7e:8b:d3:42:65:00:cb:63:f8:02:

         30:01:a2:f6:a1:51:04:1c:61:78:f6:6b:7e:f9:f9:42:8d:7c:

         a7:bb:47:7c:2a:85:67:0d:81:12:0b:02:98:bc:06:1f:c1:3c:

         9b:c2:1b:4c:44:38:5a:14:b2:48:63:02:2b

# Create a PKI domain named client256 for the client's certificate ecdsa256 and enter its view.

[SwitchA] pki domain client256

# Disable CRL checking.

[SwitchA-pki-domain-client256] undo crl check enable

[SwitchA-pki-domain-client256] quit

# Import local certificate file ssh-client-ecdsa256.p12 to PKI domain client256.

[SwitchA] pki import domain client256 p12 local filename ssh-client-ecdsa256.p12

The system is going to save the key pair. You must specify a key pair name, which is a case-insensitive string of 1 to 64 characters. Valid characters include a to z, A to Z, 0 to 9, and hyphens (-).

Please enter the key pair name[default name: client256]:

# Display information about local certificates in PKI domain client256.

[SwitchA] display pki certificate domain client256 local

Certificate:

    Data:

        Version: 3 (0x2)

        Serial Number: 4 (0x4)

    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256

        Issuer: C=CN, ST=Beijing, L=Beijing, O=H3C, OU=Software, CN=SuiteB CA

        Validity

            Not Before: Aug 21 08:41:09 2015 GMT

            Not After : Aug 20 08:41:09 2016 GMT

        Subject: C=CN, ST=Beijing, O=H3C, OU=Software, CN=SSH Client secp256

        Subject Public Key Info:

            Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey

                Public-Key: (256 bit)

                pub:

                    04:da:e2:26:45:87:7a:63:20:e7:ca:7f:82:19:f5:

                    96:88:3e:25:46:f8:2f:9a:4c:70:61:35:db:e4:39:

                    b8:38:c4:60:4a:65:28:49:14:32:3c:cc:6d:cd:34:

                    29:83:84:74:a7:2d:0e:75:1c:c2:52:58:1e:22:16:

                    12:d0:b4:8a:92

                ASN1 OID: prime256v1

                NIST CURVE: P-256

        X509v3 extensions:

            X509v3 Basic Constraints:

                CA:FALSE

            Netscape Comment:

                OpenSSL Generated Certificate

            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:

                1A:61:60:4D:76:40:B8:BA:5D:A1:3C:60:BC:57:98:35:20:79:80:FC

            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:

                keyid:5A:BE:85:49:16:E5:EB:33:80:25:EB:D8:91:50:B4:E6:3E:4F:B8:22

 

    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256

         30:66:02:31:00:9a:6d:fd:7d:ab:ae:54:9a:81:71:e6:bb:ad:

         5a:2e:dc:1d:b3:8a:bf:ce:ee:71:4e:8f:d9:93:7f:a3:48:a1:

         5c:17:cb:22:fa:8f:b3:e5:76:89:06:9f:96:47:dc:34:87:02:

         31:00:e3:af:2a:8f:d6:8d:1f:3a:2b:ae:2f:97:b3:52:63:b6:

         18:67:70:2c:93:2a:41:c0:e7:fa:93:20:09:4d:f4:bf:d0:11:

         66:0f:48:56:01:1e:c3:be:37:4e:49:19:cf:c6

# Create a PKI domain named server384 for verifying the server's certificate ecdsa384 and enter its view.

[SwitchA] pki domain server384

# Disable CRL checking.

[SwitchA-pki-domain-server384] undo crl check enable

[SwitchA-pki-domain-server384] quit

# Import local certificate file ssh-server-ecdsa384.p12 to PKI domain server384.

[SwitchA] pki import domain server384 p12 local filename ssh-server-ecdsa384.p12

The system is going to save the key pair. You must specify a key pair name, which is a case-insensitive string of 1 to 64 characters. Valid characters include a to z, A to Z, 0 to 9, and hyphens (-).

Please enter the key pair name[default name: server384]:

# Display information about local certificates in PKI domain server384.

[SwitchA] display pki certificate domain server384 local

Certificate:

    Data:

        Version: 3 (0x2)

        Serial Number: 1 (0x1)

    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA384

        Issuer: C=CN, ST=Beijing, L=Beijing, O=H3C, OU=Software, CN=SuiteB CA

        Validity

            Not Before: Aug 20 10:08:41 2015 GMT

            Not After : Aug 19 10:08:41 2016 GMT

        Subject: C=CN, ST=Beijing, O=H3C, OU=Software, CN=ssh server

        Subject Public Key Info:

            Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey

                Public-Key: (384 bit)

                pub:

                    04:4a:33:e5:99:8d:49:45:a7:a3:24:7b:32:6a:ed:

                    b6:36:e1:4d:cc:8c:05:22:f4:3a:7c:5d:b7:be:d1:

                    e6:9e:f0:ce:95:39:ca:fd:a0:86:cd:54:ab:49:60:

                    10:be:67:9f:90:3a:18:e2:7d:d9:5f:72:27:09:e7:

                    bf:7e:64:0a:59:bb:b3:7d:ae:88:14:94:45:b9:34:

                    d2:f3:93:e1:ba:b4:50:15:eb:e5:45:24:31:10:c7:

                    07:01:f9:dc:a5:6f:81

                ASN1 OID: secp384r1

                NIST CURVE: P-384

        X509v3 extensions:

            X509v3 Basic Constraints:

                CA:FALSE

            Netscape Comment:

                OpenSSL Generated Certificate

            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:

                10:16:64:2C:DA:C1:D1:29:CD:C0:74:40:A9:70:BD:62:8A:BB:F4:D5

            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:

                keyid:5A:BE:85:49:16:E5:EB:33:80:25:EB:D8:91:50:B4:E6:3E:4F:B8:22

 

    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA384

         30:65:02:31:00:80:50:7a:4f:c5:cd:6a:c3:57:13:7f:e9:da:

         c1:72:7f:45:30:17:c2:a7:d3:ec:73:3d:5f:4d:e3:96:f6:a3:

         33:fb:e4:b9:ff:47:f1:af:9d:e3:03:d2:24:53:40:09:5b:02:

         30:45:d1:bf:51:fd:da:22:11:90:03:f9:d4:05:ec:d6:7c:41:

         fc:9d:a1:fd:5b:8c:73:f8:b6:4c:c3:41:f7:c6:7f:2f:05:2d:

         37:f8:52:52:26:99:28:97:ac:6e:f9:c7:01

# Create a PKI domain named client384 for the client's certificate ecdsa384 and enter its view.

[SwitchA] pki domain client384

# Disable CRL checking.

[SwitchA-pki-domain-client384] undo crl check enable

[SwitchA-pki-domain-client384] quit

# Import local certificate file ssh-client-ecdsa384.p12 to PKI domain client384.

[SwitchA] pki import domain client384 p12 local filename ssh-client-ecdsa384.p12

The system is going to save the key pair. You must specify a key pair name, which is a case-insensitive string of 1 to 64 characters. Valid characters include a to z, A to Z, 0 to 9, and hyphens (-).

Please enter the key pair name[default name: client384]:

# Display information about local certificates in PKI domain client384.

[SwitchA] display pki certificate domain client384 local

Certificate:

    Data:

        Version: 3 (0x2)

        Serial Number: 2 (0x2)

    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA384

        Issuer: C=CN, ST=Beijing, L=Beijing, O=H3C, OU=Software, CN=SuiteB CA

        Validity

            Not Before: Aug 20 10:10:59 2015 GMT

            Not After : Aug 19 10:10:59 2016 GMT

        Subject: C=CN, ST=Beijing, O=H3C, OU=Software, CN=ssh client

        Subject Public Key Info:

            Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey

                Public-Key: (384 bit)

                pub:

                    04:85:7c:8b:f4:7a:36:bf:74:f6:7c:72:f9:08:69:

                    d0:b9:ac:89:98:17:c9:fc:89:94:43:da:9a:a6:89:

                    41:d3:72:24:9b:9a:29:a8:d1:ba:b4:e5:77:ba:fc:

                    df:ae:c6:dd:46:72:ab:bc:d1:7f:18:7d:54:88:f6:

                    b4:06:54:7e:e7:4d:49:b4:07:dc:30:54:4b:b6:5b:

                    01:10:51:6b:0c:6d:a3:b1:4b:c9:d9:6c:d6:be:13:

                    91:70:31:2a:92:00:76

                ASN1 OID: secp384r1

                NIST CURVE: P-384

        X509v3 extensions:

            X509v3 Basic Constraints:

                CA:FALSE

            Netscape Comment:

                OpenSSL Generated Certificate

            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:

                BD:5F:8E:4F:7B:FE:74:03:5A:D1:94:DB:CA:A7:82:D6:F7:78:A1:B0

            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:

                keyid:5A:BE:85:49:16:E5:EB:33:80:25:EB:D8:91:50:B4:E6:3E:4F:B8:22

 

    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA384

         30:66:02:31:00:d2:06:fa:2c:0b:0d:f0:81:90:01:c3:3d:bf:

         97:b3:79:d8:25:a0:e2:0e:ed:00:c9:48:3e:c9:71:43:c9:b4:

         2a:a6:0a:27:80:9e:d4:0f:f2:db:db:5b:40:b1:a9:0a:e4:02:

         31:00:ee:00:e1:07:c0:2f:12:3f:88:ea:fe:19:05:ef:56:ca:

         33:71:75:5e:11:c9:a6:51:4b:3e:7c:eb:2a:4d:87:2b:71:7c:

         30:64:fe:14:ce:06:d5:0a:e2:cf:9a:69:19:ff

# Assign an IP address to VLAN-interface 2.

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] ip address 192.168.0.2 255.255.255.0

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] quit

3.      Configure the SCP server:

# Upload the server's certificate files (ssh-server-ecdsa256.p12 and ssh-server-ecdsa384.p12) and the client's certificate files (ssh-client-ecdsa256.p12 and ssh-client-ecdsa384.p12) to the SCP server through FTP or TFTP. (Details not shown.)

# Create a PKI domain named client256 for verifying the client's certificate ecdsa256 and import the file of this certificate to this domain. Create a PKI domain named server256 for the server's certificate ecdsa256 and import the file of this certificate to this domain. (Details not shown.)

# Create a PKI domain named client384 for verifying the client's certificate ecdsa384 and import the file of this certificate to this domain. Create a PKI domain named server384 for the server's certificate ecdsa384 and import the file of this certificate to this domain. (Details not shown.)

# Specify Suite B algorithms for algorithm negotiation.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] ssh2 algorithm key-exchange ecdh-sha2-nistp256 ecdh-sha2-nistp384

[SwitchB] ssh2 algorithm cipher aes128-gcm aes256-gcm

[SwitchB] ssh2 algorithm public-key x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 x509v3-ecdsa-sha2-nistp384

# Enable the SCP server.

[SwitchB] scp server enable

# Assign an IP address to VLAN-interface 2.

[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] ip address 192.168.0.1 255.255.255.0

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] quit

# Set the authentication mode to AAA for user lines.

[SwitchB] line vty 0 63

[SwitchB-line-vty0-63] authentication-mode scheme

[SwitchB-line-vty0-63] quit

# Create a local device management user named client001. Authorize the user to use the SSH service and assign the network-admin user role to the user.

[SwitchB] local-user client001 class manage

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client001] service-type ssh

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client001] authorization-attribute user-role network-admin

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client001] quit

# Create a local device management user named client002. Authorize the user to use the SSH service and assign the network-admin user role to the user.

[SwitchB] local-user client002 class manage

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client002] service-type ssh

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client002] authorization-attribute user-role network-admin

[SwitchB-luser-manage-client002] quit

4.      Establish an SCP connection to the SCP server:

¡  Based on the 128-bit Suite B algorithms:

# Specify server256 as the PKI domain of the server's certificate.

[SwitchB]ssh server pki-domain server256

# Create an SSH user client001. Specify the publickey authentication method for the user and specify client256 as the PKI domain for verifying the client's certificate.

[Switch] ssh user client001 service-type scp authentication-type publickey assign pki-domain client256

# Establish an SCP connection to the SCP server at 192.168.0.1 based on the 128-bit Suite B algorithms.

<SwitchA> scp 192.168.0.1 get src.cfg suite-b 128-bit pki-domain client256 server-pki

-domain server256

Username: client001

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Connecting to 192.168.0.1 port 22.

src.cfg                                       100% 4814     4.7KB/s   00:00

<SwitchA>

¡  Based on the 192-bit Suite B algorithms:

# Specify server384 as the PKI domain of the server's certificate.

[SwitchB] ssh server pki-domain server384

# Create an SSH user client002. Specify the publickey authentication method for the user and specify client384 as the PKI domain for verifying the client's certificate.

[Switch] ssh user client002 service-type scp authentication-type publickey assign pki-domain client384

# Establish an SCP connection to the SCP server at 192.168.0.1 based on the 192-bit Suite B algorithms.

<SwitchA> scp 192.168.0.1 get src.cfg suite-b 192-bit pki-domain client384 server-pki

-domain server384

Username: client002

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Connecting to 192.168.0.1 port 22.

src.cfg                                       100% 4814     4.7KB/s   00:00

<SwitchA>

NETCONF over SSH configuration example with password authentication

Unless otherwise noted, the switch in the configuration example is in non-FIPS mode.

When you configure NETCONF-over-SSH on a device that operates in FIPS mode, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·           The modulus length of the key pair must be 2048 bits.

·           When the device acts as a NETCONF-over-SSH server, only RSA and ECDSA key pairs are supported.

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 19:

·           The switch uses local password authentication.

·           The client's username and password are saved on the switch.

Establish a NETCONF-over-SSH connection between the host and the switch, so that you can log in to the switch to perform NETCONF operations.

Figure 19 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

# Generate RSA key pairs.

<Switch> system-view

[Switch] public-key local create rsa

The range of public key size is (512 ~ 2048).

If the key modulus is greater than 512, it will take a few minutes.

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Input the modulus length [default = 1024]:

Generating Keys...

........................++++++

...................++++++

..++++++++

............++++++++

Create the key pair successfully.

# Generate a DSA key pair.

[Switch] public-key local create dsa

The range of public key size is (512 ~ 2048).

If the key modulus is greater than 512, it will take a few minutes.

Press CTRL+C to abort.

Input the modulus length [default = 1024]:

Generating Keys...

.++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++*

........+......+.....+......................................+

...+.................+..........+...+.

Create the key pair successfully.

# Generate an ECDSA key pair.

[Switch] public-key local create ecdsa secp256r1                                   

Generating Keys...                                                             

.                                                                              

Create the key pair successfully.

# Enable NETCONF over SSH.

[Switch] netconf ssh server enable

# Configure an IP address for VLAN-interface 2. The client uses this address as the destination for NETCONF-over-SSH connection.

[Switch] interface vlan-interface 2

[Switch-Vlan-interface2] ip address 192.168.1.40 255.255.255.0

[Switch-Vlan-interface2] quit

# Set the authentication mode to AAA for the user lines.

[Switch] line vty 0 63

[Switch-line-vty0-63] authentication-mode scheme

[Switch-line-vty0-63] quit

# Create a local device management user client001.

[Switch] local-user client001 class manage

# Specify the plaintext password as aabbcc and the service type as ssh for the user.

[Switch-luser-manage-client001] password simple aabbcc

[Switch-luser-manage-client001] service-type ssh

# Assign the user role network-admin to the user.

[Switch-luser-manage-client001] authorization-attribute user-role network-admin

[Switch-luser-manage-client001] quit

# Configure an SSH user client001. Specify the service type as NETCONF and the authentication method as password for the user. By default, password authentication is used if no SSH user is created.

[Switch] ssh user client001 service-type netconf authentication-type password

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that you can perform NETCONF operations after logging in to the switch. (Details not shown.)