09-Security Configuration Guide

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02-802.1X configuration
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Contents

802.1X overview·· 1

802.1X architecture· 1

Controlled/uncontrolled port and port authorization status· 1

802.1X-related protocols· 2

Packet formats· 2

EAP over RADIUS· 3

802.1X authentication initiation· 4

802.1X client as the initiator 4

Access device as the initiator 4

802.1X authentication procedures· 5

Comparing EAP relay and EAP termination· 5

EAP relay· 6

EAP termination· 7

Configuring 802.1X· 9

Access control methods· 9

802.1X VLAN manipulation· 9

Authorization VLAN· 9

Guest VLAN· 11

Auth-Fail VLAN· 12

Critical VLAN· 13

Using 802.1X authentication with other features· 15

ACL assignment 15

User profile assignment 16

EAD assistant 16

Redirect URL assignment 16

Configuration prerequisites· 17

802.1X configuration task list 17

Enabling 802.1X· 17

Enabling EAP relay or EAP termination· 18

Setting the port authorization state· 19

Specifying an access control method· 19

Setting the maximum number of concurrent 802.1X users on a port 19

Setting the maximum number of authentication request attempts· 20

Setting the 802.1X authentication timeout timers· 20

Sending 802.1X protocol packets out of a port without VLAN tags· 20

Configuring the online user handshake feature· 21

Configuration restrictions and guidelines· 21

Configuration procedure· 21

Configuring the authentication trigger feature· 22

Configuration restrictions and guidelines· 22

Configuration procedure· 22

Specifying a mandatory authentication domain on a port 23

Setting the quiet timer 23

Configuring 802.1X reauthentication· 23

Overview· 23

Configuration restrictions and guidelines· 24

Configuring 802.1X periodic reauthentication· 24

Configuring 802.1X manual reauthentication· 25

Enabling the keep-online feature· 25

Configuring 802.1X MAC address binding· 25

Configuring an 802.1X guest VLAN· 26

Configuration restrictions and guidelines· 26

Configuration prerequisites· 26

Configuration procedure· 27

Enabling 802.1X guest VLAN assignment delay· 27

Configuring an 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN· 28

Configuration restrictions and guidelines· 28

Configuration prerequisites· 28

Configuration procedure· 28

Configuring an 802.1X critical VLAN· 29

Configuration restrictions and guidelines· 29

Configuration prerequisites· 29

Configuring the 802.1X critical VLAN on a port 29

Sending EAP-Success packets to users in the 802.1X critical VLAN· 29

Enabling the 802.1X critical voice VLAN· 30

Configuration prerequisites· 30

Configuration procedure· 30

Specifying supported domain name delimiters· 31

Configuring the EAD assistant feature· 31

Displaying and maintaining 802.1X· 32

802.1X authentication configuration examples· 32

Basic 802.1X authentication configuration example· 32

802.1X guest VLAN and authorization VLAN configuration example· 34

802.1X with ACL assignment configuration example· 37

802.1X with EAD assistant configuration example· 38

Troubleshooting 802.1X· 41

EAD assistant URL redirection failure· 41

 


802.1X overview

802.1X is a port-based network access control protocol initially proposed for securing WLANs. The protocol has also been widely used on Ethernet networks for access control.

802.1X controls network access by authenticating the devices connected to 802.1X-enabled LAN ports.

802.1X architecture

802.1X operates in the client/server model. As shown in Figure 1, 802.1X authentication includes the following entities:

·           Client (supplicant)—A user terminal seeking access to the LAN. The terminal must have 802.1X software to authenticate to the access device.

·           Access device (authenticator)—Authenticates the client to control access to the LAN. In a typical 802.1X environment, the access device uses an authentication server to perform authentication.

·           Authentication server—Provides authentication services for the access device. The authentication server first authenticates 802.1X clients by using the data sent from the access device. Then, the server returns the authentication results to the access device to make access decisions. The authentication server is typically a RADIUS server. In a small LAN, you can use the access device as the authentication server.

Figure 1 802.1X architecture

 

Controlled/uncontrolled port and port authorization status

802.1X defines two logical ports for the network access port: controlled port and uncontrolled port. Any packet arriving at the network access port is visible to both logical ports.

·           Uncontrolled port—Is always open to receive and transmit authentication packets.

·           Controlled port—Filters packets depending on the port's state.

¡  Authorized stateThe controlled port is in authorized state when the client has passed authentication. The port allows traffic to pass through.

¡  Unauthorized state—The port is in unauthorized state when the client has failed authentication. The port controls traffic by using one of the following methods:

-       Performs bidirectional traffic control to deny traffic to and from the client.

-       Performs unidirectional traffic control to deny traffic from the client. The H3C devices support only unidirectional traffic control.

Figure 2 Authorization state of a controlled port

 

802.1X-related protocols

802.1X uses the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) to transport authentication information for the client, the access device, and the authentication server. EAP is an authentication framework that uses the client/server model. The framework supports a variety of authentication methods, including MD5-Challenge, EAP-Transport Layer Security (EAP-TLS), and Protected EAP (PEAP).

802.1X defines EAP over LAN (EAPOL) for passing EAP packets between the client and the access device over a wired or wireless LAN. Between the access device and the authentication server, 802.1X delivers authentication information by using one of the following methods:

·           Encapsulates EAP packets in RADIUS by using EAP over RADIUS (EAPOR), as described in "EAP relay."

·           Extracts authentication information from the EAP packets and encapsulates the information in standard RADIUS packets, as described in "EAP termination."

Packet formats

EAP packet format

Figure 3 shows the EAP packet format.

Figure 3 EAP packet format

 

·           CodeType of the EAP packet. Options include Request (1), Response (2), Success (3), or Failure (4).

·           IdentifierUsed for matching Responses with Requests.

·           LengthLength (in bytes) of the EAP packet. The EAP packet length is the sum of the Code, Identifier, Length, and Data fields.

·           DataContent of the EAP packet. This field appears only in a Request or Response EAP packet. The Data field contains the request type (or the response type) and the type data. Type 1 (Identify) and type 4 (MD5-challenge) are two examples for the type field.

EAPOL packet format

Figure 4 shows the EAPOL packet format.

Figure 4 EAPOL packet format

 

·           PAE Ethernet typeProtocol type. It takes the value 0x888E for EAPOL.

·           Protocol versionThe EAPOL protocol version used by the EAPOL packet sender.

·           TypeType of the EAPOL packet. Table 1 lists the types of EAPOL packets supported by H3C implementation of 802.1X.

Table 1 Types of EAPOL packets

Value

Type

Description

0x00

EAP-Packet

The client and the access device use EAP-Packets to transport authentication information.

0x01

EAPOL-Start

The client sends an EAPOL-Start message to initiate 802.1X authentication to the access device.

0x02

EAPOL-Logoff

The client sends an EAPOL-Logoff message to tell the access device that the client is logging off.

 

·           LengthData length in bytes, or length of the Packet body. If packet type is EAPOL-Start or EAPOL-Logoff, this field is set to 0, and no Packet body field follows.

·           Packet bodyContent of the packet. When the EAPOL packet type is EAP-Packet, the Packet body field contains an EAP packet.

EAP over RADIUS

RADIUS adds two attributes, EAP-Message and Message-Authenticator, for supporting EAP authentication. For the RADIUS packet format, see "Configuring AAA."

EAP-Message

RADIUS encapsulates EAP packets in the EAP-Message attribute, as shown in Figure 5. The Type field takes 79, and the Value field can be up to 253 bytes. If an EAP packet is longer than 253 bytes, RADIUS encapsulates it in multiple EAP-Message attributes.

Figure 5 EAP-Message attribute format

 

Message-Authenticator

RADIUS includes the Message-Authenticator attribute in all packets that have an EAP-Message attribute to check their integrity. The packet receiver drops the packet if the calculated packet integrity checksum is different from the Message-Authenticator attribute value. The Message-Authenticator prevents EAP authentication packets from being tampered with during EAP authentication.

Figure 6 Message-Authenticator attribute format

 

802.1X authentication initiation

Both the 802.1X client and the access device can initiate 802.1X authentication.

802.1X client as the initiator

The client sends an EAPOL-Start packet to the access device to initiate 802.1X authentication. The destination MAC address of the packet is the IEEE 802.1X specified multicast address 01-80-C2-00-00-03 or the broadcast MAC address. If any intermediate device between the client and the authentication server does not support the multicast address, you must use an 802.1X client that can send broadcast EAPOL-Start packets. For example, you can use the iNode 802.1X client.

Access device as the initiator

If the client cannot send EAPOL-Start packets, configure the access device to initiate authentication. One example is the 802.1X client available with Windows XP.

The access device supports the following modes:

·           Multicast trigger mode—The access device multicasts Identity EAP-Request packets to initiate 802.1X authentication at the identity request interval.

·           Unicast trigger mode—Upon receiving a frame from an unknown MAC address, the access device sends an Identity EAP-Request packet out of the receiving port to the MAC address. The device retransmits the packet if no response has been received within the identity request timeout interval. This process continues until the maximum number of request attempts set by using the dot1x retry command is reached.

The username request timeout timer sets both the identity request interval for the multicast trigger and the identity request timeout interval for the unicast trigger.

802.1X authentication procedures

802.1X authentication has two methods: EAP relay and EAP termination. You choose either mode depending on support of the RADIUS server for EAP packets and EAP authentication methods.

·           EAP relay mode.

EAP relay is defined in IEEE 802.1X. In this mode, the network device uses EAPOR packets to send authentication information to the RADIUS server, as shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7 EAP relay

 

In EAP relay mode, the client must use the same authentication method as the RADIUS server. On the access device, you only need to use the dot1x authentication-method eap command to enable EAP relay.

·           EAP termination mode.

As shown in Figure 8, the access device performs the following operations in EAP termination mode:

a.    Terminates the EAP packets received from the client.

b.    Encapsulates the client authentication information in standard RADIUS packets.

c.    Uses PAP or CHAP to authenticate to the RADIUS server.

Figure 8 EAP termination

 

Comparing EAP relay and EAP termination

Packet exchange method

Benefits

Limitations

EAP relay

·          Supports various EAP authentication methods.

·          The configuration and processing are simple on the access device.

The RADIUS server must support the EAP-Message and Message-Authenticator attributes, and the EAP authentication method used by the client.

EAP termination

Works with any RADIUS server that supports PAP or CHAP authentication.

·          Supports only the following EAP authentication methods:

¡  MD5-Challenge EAP authentication.

¡  The username and password EAP authentication initiated by an iNode 802.1X client.

·          The processing is complex on the access device.

 

EAP relay

Figure 9 shows the basic 802.1X authentication procedure in EAP relay mode, assuming that EAP-MD5 is used.

Figure 9 802.1X authentication procedure in EAP relay mode

 

The following steps describe the 802.1X authentication procedure:

1.      When a user launches the 802.1X client and enters a registered username and password, the 802.1X client sends an EAPOL-Start packet to the access device.

2.      The access device responds with an Identity EAP-Request packet to ask for the client username.

3.      In response to the Identity EAP-Request packet, the client sends the username in an Identity EAP-Response packet to the access device.

4.      The access device relays the Identity EAP-Response packet in a RADIUS Access-Request packet to the authentication server.

5.      The authentication server uses the identity information in the RADIUS Access-Request to search its user database. If a matching entry is found, the server uses a randomly generated challenge (EAP-Request/MD5 challenge) to encrypt the password in the entry. Then, the server sends the challenge in a RADIUS Access-Challenge packet to the access device.

6.      The access device transmits the EAP-Request/MD5 Challenge packet to the client.

7.      The client uses the received challenge to encrypt the password, and sends the encrypted password in an EAP-Response/MD5 Challenge packet to the access device.

8.      The access device relays the EAP-Response/MD5 Challenge packet in a RADIUS Access-Request packet to the authentication server.

9.      The authentication server compares the received encrypted password with the encrypted password it generated at step 5. If the two passwords are identical, the server considers the client valid and sends a RADIUS Access-Accept packet to the access device.

10.    Upon receiving the RADIUS Access-Accept packet, the access device performs the following operations:

a.    Sends an EAP-Success packet to the client.

b.    Sets the controlled port in authorized state.

The client can access the network.

11.    After the client comes online, the access device periodically sends handshake requests to check whether the client is still online. By default, if two consecutive handshake attempts fail, the device logs off the client.

12.    Upon receiving a handshake request, the client returns a response. If the client fails to return a response after a number of consecutive handshake attempts (two by default), the access device logs off the client. This handshake mechanism enables timely release of the network resources used by 802.1X users that have abnormally gone offline.

13.    The client can also send an EAPOL-Logoff packet to ask the access device for a logoff.

14.    In response to the EAPOL-Logoff packet, the access device changes the status of the controlled port from authorized to unauthorized. Then, the access device sends an EAP-Failure packet to the client.

EAP termination

Figure 10 shows the basic 802.1X authentication procedure in EAP termination mode, assuming that CHAP authentication is used.

Figure 10 802.1X authentication procedure in EAP termination mode

 

In EAP termination mode, the access device rather than the authentication server generates an MD5 challenge for password encryption. The access device then sends the MD5 challenge together with the username and encrypted password in a standard RADIUS packet to the RADIUS server.

 


Configuring 802.1X

This chapter describes how to configure 802.1X on an H3C device. You can also configure the port security feature to perform 802.1X. Port security combines and extends 802.1X and MAC authentication. It applies to a network that requires different authentication methods for different users on a port. For more information about the port security feature, see "Configuring port security."

Access control methods

H3C implements port-based access control as defined in the 802.1X protocol, and extends the protocol to support MAC-based access control.

·           Port-based access control—Once an 802.1X user passes authentication on a port, any subsequent user can access the network through the port without authentication. When the authenticated user logs off, all other users are logged off.

·           MAC-based access control—Each user is separately authenticated on a port. When a user logs off, no other online users are affected.

802.1X VLAN manipulation

Authorization VLAN

The device uses authorization VLANs to control the access of 802.1X users to authorized network resources. The authorization VLAN of an 802.1X user can be specified on the local device or be assigned by a remote server.

Supported VLAN types and forms

Support for VLAN types and forms depends on the authorization type.

·           Local VLAN authorization.

The authorization VLAN of an 802.1X user is in the form of VLAN ID that is specified in local user view or user group view on the device. The port through which the user accesses the device is assigned to the VLAN as an untagged member. For more information about local user configuration, see "Configuring AAA."

·           Remote VLAN authorization.

The authorization VLAN information of an 802.1X user is assigned by a remote server. The device resolves the VLAN information and selects a VLAN as the authorization VLAN for the user. The port through which the user accesses the device can be assigned to the VLAN as a tagged or untagged member.

The device can resolve server-assigned VLANs in the following forms:

¡  VLAN ID.

¡  VLAN name.

The VLAN name represents the VLAN description on the access device.

¡  Combination of VLAN IDs and VLAN names.

In the string, some VLANs are represented by their IDs, and some VLANs are represented by their names.

¡  VLAN group name.

For more information about VLAN groups, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

¡  VLAN ID with suffix.

The suffix can be t or u, which indicates whether the ports assigned to the VLAN are tagged members. For example, 2u indicates that the ports assigned to VLAN 2 are untagged members.

 

 

NOTE:

The access device converts VLAN names and VLAN group name into VLAN IDs before VLAN assignment.

 

Unsupported VLAN types

Do not specify the following types of VLANs for VLAN authorization:

·           VLANs that have not been created.

·           Dynamically-learned VLANs.

·           Reserved VLANs.

·           Private VLANs.

VLAN selection and assignment

If the server assigns a group of VLANs, the access device selects and assigns a VLAN according to the VLAN ID format. Table 2 describes the VLAN selection and assignment rules for a group of authorization VLANs.

Table 2 VLAN selection and assignment for a group of authorization VLANs

Types of authorized VLANs

VLAN selection and assignment rules

·          VLANs by IDs

·          VLANs by names

·          VLAN group name

The device selects a VLAN as the authorization VLAN for a user, depending on whether the port has other online users:

·          If the port does not have other online users, the device selects the VLAN with the lowest ID from the group of VLANs.

·          If the port has other online users, the device selects the VLAN by using the following process:

a.   The device selects the VLAN that has the fewest number of online users.

b.   If two VLANs have the same number of online 802.1X users, the device selects the VLAN with the lower ID.

The device follows the rules in Table 3 to handle VLAN assignment.

VLAN IDs with suffixes

1.      The device selects the leftmost VLAN ID without a suffix, or the leftmost VLAN ID suffixed by u as an untagged VLAN, whichever is more leftmost.

2.      The device assigns the untagged VLAN to the port as the PVID, and it assigns the remaining as tagged VLANs. If no untagged VLAN is assigned, the PVID of the port does not change. The port permits traffic from these tagged and untagged VLANs to pass through.

For example, the authentication server sends the string 1u 2t 3 to the access device for a user. The device assigns VLAN 1 as an untagged VLAN and other VLANs as tagged VLANs. VLAN 1 becomes the PVID.

 

 

NOTE:

Assign VLAN IDs with suffixes only to hybrid or trunk ports that perform port-based access control.

 

Table 3 describes how the access device handles VLANs (except for the VLANs specified with suffixes) on an 802.1X-enabled port.

Table 3 VLAN manipulation

Port access control method

VLAN manipulation

Port-based

The device assigns the port to the first authenticated user's authorization VLAN. All subsequent 802.1X users can access the VLAN without authentication.

If the port is assigned to the authorization VLAN as an untagged member, the authorization VLAN becomes the PVID. If the port is assigned to the authorization VLAN as a tagged member, the PVID of the port does not change.

MAC-based

·          For a hybrid port with MAC-based VLAN enabled, the device maps the MAC address of each user to its own authorization VLAN. The PVID of the port does not change.

·          For an access, trunk, or MAC-based VLAN-disabled hybrid port:

¡  If the port is assigned to the authorization VLAN as an untagged member, the device assigns the port to the first authenticated user's authorization VLAN. The authorization VLAN becomes the PVID. To ensure successful authentication of subsequent users, authorize the same VLAN to all 802.1X users on the port. If a different VLAN is authorized to a subsequent user, the user cannot pass the authentication.

¡  If the port is assigned to the authorization VLAN as a tagged member, the PVID of the port does not change. The device maps the MAC address of each user to its own authorization VLAN.

 

IMPORTANT

IMPORTANT:

An 802.1X-enabled access port can be assigned to an authorization VLAN only as an untagged VLAN member.

 

As a best practice, assign a hybrid port to a VLAN as an untagged member. After the assignment, do not reconfigure the port as a tagged member in the VLAN.

On a port enabled with periodic online user reauthentication, the MAC-based VLAN feature does not take effect on a user that has been online before this feature was enabled. The access device creates a MAC-to-VLAN mapping for the user when the following requirements are met:

·           The user passes reauthentication.

·           The authorization VLAN for the user is changed.

For more information about VLAN configuration and MAC-based VLANs, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

Guest VLAN

The 802.1X guest VLAN on a port accommodates users that have not performed 802.1X authentication. Users in the guest VLAN can access a limited set of network resources, such as a software server, to download antivirus software and system patches. Once a user in the guest VLAN passes 802.1X authentication, it is removed from the guest VLAN and can access authorized network resources.

The access device handles VLANs on an 802.1X-enabled port based on its 802.1X access control method.

·           On a port that performs port-based access control:

 

Authentication status

VLAN manipulation

A user accesses the 802.1X-enabled port when the port is in auto state.

The device assigns the 802.1X guest VLAN to the port as the PVID. All 802.1X users on this port can access only resources in the guest VLAN.

If no 802.1X guest VLAN is configured, the access device does not perform any VLAN operation.

A user in the 802.1X guest VLAN fails 802.1X authentication.

If an 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN (see "Auth-Fail VLAN") is available, the device assigns the Auth-Fail VLAN to the port as the PVID. All users on this port can access only resources in the Auth-Fail VLAN.

If no Auth-Fail VLAN is configured, the PVID on the port is still the 802.1X guest VLAN. All users on the port are in the guest VLAN.

A user in the 802.1X guest VLAN passes 802.1X authentication.

·          The device assigns the authorization VLAN of the user to the port as the PVID, and it removes the port from the 802.1X guest VLAN. After the user logs off, the initial PVID of the port is restored.

·          If the authentication server does not authorize a VLAN, the initial PVID applies. The user and all subsequent 802.1X users are assigned to the initial port VLAN. After the user logs off, the port VLAN remains unchanged.

NOTE:

The initial PVID of an 802.1X-enabled port refers to the PVID used by the port before the port is assigned to any 802.1X VLANs.

 

·           On a port that performs MAC-based access control:

 

Authentication status

VLAN manipulation

A user accesses the 802.1X-enabled port when the port is in auto state.

The device creates a mapping between the MAC address of the user and the 802.1X guest VLAN. The user can access only resources in the guest VLAN.

A user in the 802.1X guest VLAN fails 802.1X authentication.

If an 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN is available, the device remaps the MAC address of the user to the Auth-Fail VLAN. The user can access only resources in the Auth-Fail VLAN.

If no 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN is configured, the user is still in the 802.1X guest VLAN.

A user in the 802.1X guest VLAN passes 802.1X authentication.

The device remaps the MAC address of the user to the authorization VLAN.

If the authentication server does not authorize a VLAN, the device remaps the MAC address of the user to the initial PVID on the port.

 

For the 802.1X guest VLAN feature to take effect on a port that performs MAC-based access control, make sure the following requirements are met:

¡  The port is a hybrid port.

¡  MAC-based VLAN is enabled on the port.

The network device assigns a hybrid port to an 802.1X guest VLAN as an untagged member.

For more information about VLAN configuration and MAC-based VLANs, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

Auth-Fail VLAN

The 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN on a port accommodates users that have failed 802.1X authentication because of the failure to comply with the organization security strategy. For example, the VLAN accommodates users with wrong passwords entered. Users in the Auth-Fail VLAN can access a limited set of network resources, such as a software server, to download antivirus software and system patches.

The Auth-Fail VLAN does not accommodate 802.1X users that have failed authentication for authentication timeouts or network connection issues.

The access device handles VLANs on an 802.1X-enabled port based on its 802.1X access control method.

·           On a port that performs port-based access control:

 

Authentication status

VLAN manipulation

A user accesses the port and fails 802.1X authentication.

The device assigns the Auth-Fail VLAN to the port as the PVID. All 802.1X users on this port can access only resources in the Auth-Fail VLAN.

A user in the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN fails 802.1X authentication.

The Auth-Fail VLAN is still the PVID on the port, and all 802.1X users on this port are in this VLAN.

A user in the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN passes 802.1X authentication.

·          The device assigns the authorization VLAN of the user to the port as the PVID, and it removes the port from the Auth-Fail VLAN. After the user logs off, the guest VLAN is assigned to the port as the PVID. If no guest VLAN is configured, the initial PVID of the port is restored.

·          If the authentication server does not authorize a VLAN, the initial PVID of the port applies. The user and all subsequent 802.1X users are assigned to the initial PVID. After the user logs off, the PVID remains unchanged.

 

·           On a port that performs MAC-based access control:

 

Authentication status

VLAN manipulation

A user accesses the port and fails 802.1X authentication.

The device maps the MAC address of the user to the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN. The user can access only resources in the Auth-Fail VLAN.

A user in the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN fails 802.1X authentication.

The user is still in the Auth-Fail VLAN.

A user in the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN passes 802.1X authentication.

The device remaps the MAC address of the user to the authorization VLAN.

If the authentication server does not authorize a VLAN, the device remaps the MAC address of the user to the initial PVID on the port.

 

For the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN feature to take effect on a port that performs MAC-based access control, make sure the following requirements are met:

¡  The port is a hybrid port.

¡  MAC-based VLAN is enabled on the port.

The access device assigns a hybrid port to an 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN as an untagged member.

For more information about VLAN configuration and MAC-based VLANs, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

Critical VLAN

The 802.1X critical VLAN on a port accommodates 802.1X users that have failed authentication because none of the RADIUS servers in their ISP domain are reachable. Users in the critical VLAN can access a limited set of network resources depending on the configuration.

The critical VLAN feature takes effect when 802.1X authentication is performed only through RADIUS servers. If an 802.1X user fails local authentication after RADIUS authentication, the user is not assigned to the critical VLAN. For more information about RADIUS configuration, see "Configuring AAA."

The access device handles VLANs on an 802.1X-enabled port based on its 802.1X access control method.

·           On a port that performs port-based access control:

 

Authentication status

VLAN manipulation

A user accesses the port and fails 802.1X authentication because all the RADIUS servers are unreachable.

The device assigns the critical VLAN to the port as the PVID. The 802.1X user and all subsequent 802.1X users on this port can access only resources in the 802.1X critical VLAN.

A user in the 802.1X critical VLAN fails authentication because all the RADIUS servers are unreachable.

The critical VLAN is still the PVID of the port, and all 802.1X users on this port are in this VLAN.

A user in the 802.1X critical VLAN fails authentication for any reason other than unreachable servers.

If an 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN is configured, the PVID of the port changes to the Auth-Fail VLAN ID. All 802.1X users on this port are moved to the Auth-Fail VLAN.

If no 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN is configured, the initial PVID of the port is restored.

A user in the 802.1X critical VLAN passes 802.1X authentication.

·          The device assigns the authorization VLAN of the user to the port as the PVID, and it removes the port from the 802.1X critical VLAN. After the user logs off, the guest VLAN ID changes to the PVID. If no 802.1X guest VLAN is configured, the initial PVID of the port is restored.

·          If the authentication server (either the local access device or a RADIUS server) does not authorize a VLAN, the initial PVID of the port applies. The user and all subsequent 802.1X users are assigned to this port VLAN. After the user logs off, the PVID remains unchanged.

A user in the 802.1X guest VLAN fails authentication because all the RADIUS servers are unreachable.

The device assigns the 802.1X critical VLAN to the port as the PVID, and all 802.1X users on this port are in this VLAN.

A user in the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN fails authentication because all the RADIUS servers are unreachable.

The PVID of the port remains unchanged. All 802.1X users on this port can access only resources in the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN.

A user that has passed authentication fails reauthentication because all the RADIUS servers are unreachable, and the user is logged out of the device.

The device assigns the 802.1X critical VLAN to the port as the PVID.

 

·           On a port that performs MAC-based access control:

 

Authentication status

VLAN manipulation

A user accesses the port and fails 802.1X authentication because all the RADIUS servers are unreachable.

The device maps the MAC address of the user to the 802.1X critical VLAN. The user can access only resources in the 802.1X critical VLAN.

A user in the 802.1X critical VLAN fails authentication because all the RADIUS servers are unreachable.

The user is still in the critical VLAN.

A user in the 802.1X critical VLAN fails 802.1X authentication for any reason other than unreachable servers.

If an 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN is configured, the device remaps the MAC address of the user to the Auth-Fail VLAN ID.

If no 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN has been configured, the device remaps the MAC address of the user to the initial PVID.

A user in the 802.1X critical VLAN passes 802.1X authentication.

The device remaps the MAC address of the user to the authorization VLAN.

If the authentication server (either the local access device or a RADIUS server) does not authorize a VLAN to the user, the device remaps the MAC address of the user to the initial PVID on the port.

A user in the 802.1X guest VLAN fails authentication because all the RADIUS servers are unreachable.

The device remaps the MAC address of the user to the 802.1X critical VLAN. The user can access only resources in the 802.1X critical VLAN.

A user in the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN fails authentication because all the RADIUS servers are unreachable.

The user remains in the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN.

 

For the 802.1X critical VLAN feature to take effect on a port that performs MAC-based access control, make sure the following requirements are met:

¡  The port is a hybrid port.

¡  MAC-based VLAN is enabled on the port.

The network device assigns a hybrid port to an 802.1X critical VLAN as an untagged member.

For more information about VLAN configuration and MAC-based VLANs, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

When a reachable RADIUS server is detected, the device performs the following operations:

¡  If MAC-based access control is used, the device removes 802.1X users from the critical VLAN. The port sends unicast Identity EAP/Request packets to these users to trigger authentication.

¡  If port-based access control is used, the device removes the port from the critical VLAN. The port sends a multicast Identity EAP/Request to all 802.1X users on the port to trigger authentication.

Using 802.1X authentication with other features

ACL assignment

You can specify an ACL for an 802.1X user to control its access to network resources. After the user passes 802.1X authentication, the authentication server assigns the ACL to the access port to filter traffic from this user. The authentication server can be the local access device or a RADIUS server. In either case, you must configure the ACL on the access device.

To ensure a successful ACL assignment, make sure the ACL does not contain rules that match source MAC addresses.

To change the access control criteria for the user, you can use one of the following methods:

·           Modify ACL rules on the access device.

·           Specify another authorization ACL on the authentication server.

For more information about ACLs, see ACL and QoS Configuration Guide.

User profile assignment

You can specify a user profile for an 802.1X user to control the user's access to network resources. After the user passes 802.1X authentication, the authentication server assigns the user profile to the user for filtering traffic. The authentication server can be the local access device or a RADIUS server. In either case, you must configure the user profile on the access device.

To change the user's access permissions, you can use one of the following methods:

·           Modify the user profile configuration on the access device.

·           Specify another user profile for the user on the authentication server.

For more information about user profiles, see "Configuring user profiles."

EAD assistant

Endpoint Admission Defense (EAD) is an H3C integrated endpoint access control solution to improve the threat defensive capability of a network. The solution enables the security client, security policy server, access device, and third-party server to operate together. If a terminal device seeks to access an EAD network, it must have an EAD client, which performs 802.1X authentication.

EAD assistant enables the access device to redirect a user that is seeking to access the network to download and install an EAD client. This feature eliminates the administrative task to deploy EAD clients.

The EAD assistant feature is implemented by the following functionalities:

·           Free IP.

A free IP is a freely accessible network segment, which has a limited set of network resources such as software and DHCP servers. To ensure security strategy compliance, an unauthenticated user can access only this segment to perform operations. For example, the user can download EAD client from a software server or obtain a dynamic IP address from a DHCP server.

·           Redirect URL.

If an unauthenticated 802.1X user is using a Web browser to access the network, the EAD assistant feature redirects the user to a specific URL. For example, you can use this feature to redirect the user to the EAD client software download page.

The EAD assistant feature automatically creates an ACL-based EAD rule to open access to the redirect URL for each redirected user.

EAD rules are implemented by using ACL resources. When the EAD rule timer expires or the user passes authentication, the rule is removed. If users fail to download EAD client or fail to pass authentication before the timer expires, they must reconnect to the network to access the free IP.

Redirect URL assignment

The device supports the URL attribute assigned by a RADIUS server when the 802.1X-enabled port performs MAC-based access control and the port authorization state is auto. During authentication, an 802.1X user is redirected to the Web interface specified by the server-assigned URL attribute to perform Web authentication.

This feature must work with ACL assignment. The ACL must contain a rule that allows packets from and destined for the URL-specified server.

This feature is mutually exclusive with the EAD assistant feature.

Configuration prerequisites

Before you configure 802.1X, complete the following tasks:

·           Configure an ISP domain and AAA scheme (local or RADIUS authentication) for 802.1X users.

·           If RADIUS authentication is used, create user accounts on the RADIUS server.

·           If local authentication is used, create local user accounts on the access device and set the service type to lan-access.

For more information about RADIUS client configuration, see "Configuring AAA."

802.1X configuration task list

Tasks at a glance

(Required.) Enabling 802.1X

(Required.) Enabling EAP relay or EAP termination

(Optional.) Setting the port authorization state

(Optional.) Specifying an access control method

(Optional.) Setting the maximum number of concurrent 802.1X users on a port

(Optional.) Setting the maximum number of authentication request attempts

(Optional.) Setting the 802.1X authentication timeout timers

(Optional.) Sending 802.1X protocol packets out of a port without VLAN tags

(Optional.) Configuring the online user handshake feature

(Optional.) Configuring the authentication trigger feature

(Optional.) Specifying a mandatory authentication domain on a port

(Optional.) Setting the quiet timer

(Optional.) Configuring 802.1X reauthentication

(Optional.) Configuring 802.1X MAC address binding

(Optional.) Configuring an 802.1X guest VLAN

(Optional.) Enabling 802.1X guest VLAN assignment delay

(Optional.) Configuring an 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN

(Optional.) Configuring an 802.1X critical VLAN

(Optional.) Enabling the 802.1X critical voice VLAN

(Optional.) Specifying supported domain name delimiters

(Optional.) Configuring the EAD assistant feature

 

Enabling 802.1X

For 802.1X to take effect on a port, you must enable it both globally and on the port.

When you enable 802.1X, follow these guidelines:

·           If the PVID is a voice VLAN, the 802.1X feature cannot take effect on the port. For more information about voice VLANs, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

·           Do not enable 802.1X on a port that is in a link aggregation group.

To enable 802.1X:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enable 802.1X globally.

dot1x

By default, 802.1X is disabled globally.

3.      Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

4.      Enable 802.1X on a port.

dot1x

By default, 802.1X is disabled on a port.

 

Enabling EAP relay or EAP termination

When configuring EAP relay or EAP termination, consider the following factors:

·           Support of the RADIUS server for EAP packets.

·           Authentication methods supported by the 802.1X client and the RADIUS server.

You can use both EAP termination and EAP relay in any of the following situations:

·           The client is using only MD5-Challenge EAP authentication. If EAP termination is used, you must enable CHAP authentication on the access device.

·           The client is an iNode 802.1X client and initiates only the username and password EAP authentication. If EAP termination is used, you can enable either PAP or CHAP authentication on the access device. However, if the password is required to be transmitted in cipher text, you must use CHAP authentication on the access device.

To use EAP-TLS, PEAP, or any other EAP authentication methods, you must use EAP relay. When you make your decision, see "Comparing EAP relay and EAP termination" for help.

For more information about EAP relay and EAP termination, see "802.1X authentication procedures."

To configure EAP relay or EAP termination:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Configure EAP relay or EAP termination.

dot1x authentication-method { chap | eap | pap }

By default, the access device performs EAP termination and uses CHAP to communicate with the RADIUS server.

Specify the eap keyword to enable EAP relay.

Specify the chap or pap keyword to enable CHAP-enabled or PAP-enabled EAP termination.

 

 

NOTE:

If EAP relay mode is used, the user-name-format command configured in RADIUS scheme view does not take effect. The access device sends the authentication data from the client to the server without any modification.

 

Setting the port authorization state

The port authorization state determines whether the client is granted access to the network or not. You can control the authorization state of a port by using the dot1x port-control command and the following keywords:

·           authorized-force—Places the port in the authorized state, enabling users on the port to access the network without authentication.

·           unauthorized-force—Places the port in the unauthorized state, denying any access requests from users on the port.

·           auto—Places the port initially in unauthorized state to allow only EAPOL packets to pass. After a user passes authentication, sets the port in the authorized state to allow access to the network. You can use this option in most scenarios.

To set the authorization state of a port:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.      Set the port authorization state.

dot1x port-control { authorized-force | auto | unauthorized-force }

By default, the auto state applies.

 

Specifying an access control method

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.      Specify an access control method.

dot1x port-method { macbased | portbased }

By default, MAC-based access control applies.

 

Setting the maximum number of concurrent 802.1X users on a port

Perform this task to prevent the system resources from being overused.

To set the maximum number of concurrent 802.1X users on a port:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.      Set the maximum number of concurrent 802.1X users on a port.

dot1x max-user user-number

The default setting is 4294967295.

 

Setting the maximum number of authentication request attempts

The access device retransmits an authentication request if it does not receive any responses to the request from the client within a period of time. To set the time, use the dot1x timer tx-period tx-period-value command or the dot1x timer supp-timeout supp-timeout-value command. The access device stops retransmitting the request if it has made the maximum number of request transmission attempts but still receives no response.

To set the maximum number of authentication request attempts:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Set the maximum number of attempts for sending an authentication request.

dot1x retry max-retry-value

The default setting is 2.

 

Setting the 802.1X authentication timeout timers

The network device uses the following 802.1X authentication timeout timers:

·           Client timeout timerStarts when the access device sends an EAP-Request/MD5 Challenge packet to a client. If no response is received when this timer expires, the access device retransmits the request to the client.

·           Server timeout timer—Starts when the access device sends a RADIUS Access-Request packet to the authentication server. If no response is received when this timer expires, the access device retransmits the request to the server.

In most cases, the default settings are sufficient. You can edit the timers, depending on the network conditions.

·           In a low-speed network, increase the client timeout timer.

·           In a network with authentication servers of different performance, adjust the server timeout timer.

To set the 802.1X authentication timeout timers:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Set the client timeout timer.

dot1x timer supp-timeout supp-timeout-value

The default is 30 seconds.

3.      Set the server timeout timer.

dot1x timer server-timeout server-timeout-value

The default is 100 seconds.

 

Sending 802.1X protocol packets out of a port without VLAN tags

This feature enables the device to send 802.1X protocol packets out of an 802.1X-enabled port without VLAN tags. Use this feature to prevent terminal devices connected to the port from failing 802.1X authentication when the following conditions exist:

·           The port is configured as a tagged member of the port VLAN.

·           The terminal devices send 802.1X protocol packets without VLAN tags for authentication and cannot identify 802.1X protocol packets with VLAN tags.

In other situations, do not configure this feature.

This feature is supported only on Ethernet ports of which the link type is hybrid.

To enable the device to send 802.1X protocol packets out of a port without VLAN tags:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.      Enable the device to send 802.1X protocol packets out of the port without VLAN tags.

dot1x eapol untag

By default, whether the device sends 802.1X protocol packets out of a port with VLAN tags depends on the configuration in the VLAN module.

 

Configuring the online user handshake feature

The online user handshake feature checks the connectivity status of online 802.1X users. The access device sends handshake messages to online users at the interval specified by the dot1x timer handshake-period command. If the device does not receive any EAP-Response/Identity packets from an online user after it has made the maximum handshake attempts, the device sets the user to offline state. To set the maximum handshake attempts, use the dot1x retry command.

Typically, the device does not reply to 802.1X clients' EAP-Response/Identity packets with EAP-Success packets. Some 802.1X clients will go offline if they do not receive the EAP-Success packets for handshake. To avoid this issue, enable the online user handshake reply feature.

If iNode clients are deployed, you can also enable the online user handshake security feature to check authentication information in the handshake packets from clients. This feature can prevent 802.1X users that use illegal client software from bypassing iNode security check, such as dual network interface cards (NICs) detection. If a user fails the handshake security checking, the device sets the user to the offline state.

Configuration restrictions and guidelines

When you configure the online user handshake feature, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·           To use the online user handshake security feature, make sure the online user handshake feature is enabled.

·           The online user handshake security feature takes effect only on the network where the iNode client and IMC server are used.

·           If the network has 802.1X clients that cannot exchange handshake packets with the access device, disable the online user handshake feature. This operation prevents the 802.1X connections from being incorrectly torn down.

·           Enable the online user handshake reply feature only if 802.1X clients will go offline without receiving EAP-Success packets from the device.

Configuration procedure

To configure the online user handshake feature:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      (Optional.) Set the handshake timer.

dot1x timer handshake-period handshake-period-value

The default is 15 seconds.

3.      Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

4.      Enable the online handshake feature.

dot1x handshake

By default, the feature is enabled.

5.      (Optional.) Enable the online user handshake security feature.

dot1x handshake secure

By default, the feature is disabled.

6.      (Optional.) Enable the 802.1X online user handshake reply feature.

dot1x handshake reply enable

By default, the device does not reply to 802.1X clients' EAP-Response/Identity packets during the online handshake process.

 

Configuring the authentication trigger feature

The authentication trigger feature enables the access device to initiate 802.1X authentication when 802.1X clients cannot initiate authentication.

This feature provides the multicast trigger and unicast trigger (see 802.1X authentication initiation in "802.1X overview").

Configuration restrictions and guidelines

When you configure the authentication trigger feature, follow these guidelines:

·           Enable the multicast trigger on a port when the clients attached to the port cannot send EAPOL-Start packets to initiate 802.1X authentication.

·           Enable the unicast trigger on a port if only a few 802.1X clients are attached to the port and these clients cannot initiate authentication.

·           To avoid duplicate authentication packets, do not enable both triggers on a port.

Configuration procedure

To configure the authentication trigger feature on a port:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      (Optional.) Set the username request timeout timer.

dot1x timer tx-period tx-period-value

The default is 30 seconds.

3.      Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

4.      Enable an authentication trigger.

dot1x { multicast-trigger | unicast-trigger }

By default, the multicast trigger is enabled, and the unicast trigger is disabled.

 

Specifying a mandatory authentication domain on a port

You can place all 802.1X users in a mandatory authentication domain for authentication, authorization, and accounting on a port. No user can use an account in any other domain to access the network through the port. The implementation of a mandatory authentication domain enhances the flexibility of 802.1X access control deployment.

To specify a mandatory authentication domain for a port:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.      Specify a mandatory 802.1X authentication domain on the port.

dot1x mandatory-domain domain-name

By default, no mandatory 802.1X authentication domain is specified.

 

Setting the quiet timer

The quiet timer enables the access device to wait a period of time before it can process any authentication request from a client that has failed an 802.1X authentication.

You can edit the quiet timer, depending on the network conditions.

·           In a vulnerable network, set the quiet timer to a high value.

·           In a high-performance network with quick authentication response, set the quiet timer to a low value.

To set the quiet timer:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enable the quiet timer.

dot1x quiet-period

By default, the timer is disabled.

3.      (Optional.) Set the quiet timer.

dot1x timer quiet-period quiet-period-value

The default is 60 seconds.

 

Configuring 802.1X reauthentication

Overview

802.1X reauthentication tracks the connection status of online users and updates the authorization attributes assigned by the server. The attributes include the ACL, VLAN, and user profile-based QoS.

The following methods are available for 802.1X reauthentication:

·           Manual reauthentication—Allows you to manually reauthenticate all online 802.1X users on a port.

·           Periodic reauthentication—Reauthenticates online users at a user-configurable reauthentication interval.

By default, the device logs off online 802.1X users if no server is reachable for 802.1X reauthentication. The keep-online feature keeps authenticated 802.1X users online when no server is reachable for 802.1X reauthentication, either manually or periodically.

Configuration restrictions and guidelines

When you configure 802.1X reauthentication, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·           The server-assigned session timeout timer (Session-Timeout attribute) and termination action (Termination-Action attribute) together can affect the periodic online user reauthentication feature. To display the server-assigned Session-Timeout and Termination-Action attributes, use the display dot1x connection command (see Security Command Reference).

¡  If the termination action is Default (logoff), periodic online user reauthentication on the device takes effect only when the periodic reauthentication timer is shorter than the session timeout timer.

¡  If the termination action is Radius-request, the periodic online user reauthentication settings on the device do not take effect. The device reauthenticates the online 802.1X users after the session timeout timer expires.

Support for the server configuration and assignment of session timeout timer and termination action depends on the server model.

·           You can set the periodic reauthenticaiton timer either in system view or in interface view. A change to the periodic reauthentication timer applies to online users only after the old timer expires.

The device selects a periodic reauthentication timer for 802.1X reauthentication in the following order:

a.    Server-assigned reauthentication timer.

b.    Port-specific reauthentication timer.

c.    Global reauthentication timer.

d.    Default reauthentication timer.

·           The VLANs assigned to an online user before and after reauthentication can be the same or different.

Configuring 802.1X periodic reauthentication

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      (Optional.) Set the global periodic reauthentication timer.

dot1x timer reauth-period reauth-period-value

The default is 3600 seconds.

3.      Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

4.      Enable periodic online user reauthentication.

dot1x re-authenticate

By default, the feature is disabled.

5.      (Optional.) Set the periodic reauthentication timer.

dot1x timer reauth-period reauth-period-value

By default, no periodic reauthentication timer is set on a port. The port uses the global 802.1X periodic reauthentication timer.

 

Configuring 802.1X manual reauthentication

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.      Manually reauthenticate all online 802.1X users on the port.

dot1x re-authenticate manual

The device immediately reauthenticates all online 802.1X users on the port after you execute this command.

 

Enabling the keep-online feature

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.      Enable the keep-online feature for 802.1X users.

dot1x re-authenticate server-unreachable keep-online

By default, this feature is disabled. The device logs off online 802.1X users if no authentication server is reachable for 802.1X reauthentication, either manually or periodically.

Use the keep-online feature according to the actual network condition.

In a fast-recovery network, you can use the keep-online feature to prevent 802.1X users from coming online and going offline frequently.

 

Configuring 802.1X MAC address binding

This feature can automatically bind MAC addresses of authenticated 802.1X users to the users' access port and generate 802.1X MAC address binding entries. You can also use the dot1x mac-binding mac-address command to manually configure 802.1X MAC address binding entries.

802.1X MAC address binding entries never age out. They can survive a user logoff or a device reboot. If users in the 802.1X MAC address binding entries perform 802.1X authentication on another port, they cannot pass authentication.

After the number of 802.1X MAC address binding entries reaches the upper limit of concurrent 802.1X users (set by using the dot1x max-user command), the following restrictions exist:

·           Users not in the binding entries will fail authentication even after users in the binding entries go offline.

·           New 802.1X MAC address binding entries are not allowed.

When you configure the 802.1X MAC address binding feature on a port, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·           The 802.1X MAC address binding feature takes effect only when the port performs MAC-based access control.

·           Manually configured MAC address binding entries take effect only when the 802.1X MAC address binding feature takes effect.

·           To delete an 802.1X MAC address binding entry, you must use the undo dot1x mac-binding mac-address command. An 802.1X MAC address binding entry cannot be deleted when the user in the entry is online.

To configure the 802.1X MAC address binding feature on a port:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enter Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.      Enable the 802.1X MAC address binding feature.

dot1x mac-binding enable

By default, the feature is disabled.

4.      (Optional.) Manually configure 802.1X MAC address binding entries.

dot1x mac-binding mac-address

By default, no 802.1X MAC address binding entries are configured on a port.

 

Configuring an 802.1X guest VLAN

Configuration restrictions and guidelines

When you configure an 802.1X guest VLAN, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·           You can configure only one 802.1X guest VLAN on a port. The 802.1X guest VLANs on different ports can be different.

·           Assign different IDs to the voice VLAN, the port VLAN, and the 802.1X guest VLAN on a port. The assignment makes sure the port can correctly process incoming VLAN-tagged traffic.

·           When you configure multiple security features on a port, follow the guidelines in Table 4.

Table 4 Relationships of the 802.1X guest VLAN and other security features

Feature

Relationship description

Reference

802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN on a port that performs MAC-based access control

The 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN has a higher priority than the 802.1X guest VLAN.

See "802.1X VLAN manipulation."

Port intrusion protection actions on a port that performs MAC-based access control

The 802.1X guest VLAN feature has higher priority than the block MAC action.

The 802.1X guest VLAN feature has lower priority than the shutdown port action of the port intrusion protection feature.

See "Configuring port security."

 

Configuration prerequisites

Before you configure an 802.1X guest VLAN, complete the following tasks:

·           Create the VLAN to be specified as the 802.1X guest VLAN.

·           If the 802.1X-enabled port performs MAC-based access control, perform the following operations for the port:

¡  Configure the port as a hybrid port.

¡  Enable MAC-based VLAN on the port. For more information about the MAC-based VLAN feature, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

¡  Assign the port to the 802.1X guest VLAN as an untagged member.

Configuration procedure

To configure an 802.1X guest VLAN:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enter Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.      Configure the 802.1X guest VLAN on the port.

dot1x guest-vlan guest-vlan-id

By default, no 802.1X guest VLAN is configured on any port.

 

Enabling 802.1X guest VLAN assignment delay

This feature delays assigning an 802.1X-enabled port to the 802.1X guest VLAN when 802.1X authentication is triggered on the port.

This feature applies only to situations where 802.1X authentication is triggered by EAPOL-Start packets from 802.1X clients or packets from unknown MAC addresses.

To use this feature, the 802.1X-enabled port must perform MAC-based access control.

When 802.1X authentication is triggered on a port, the device performs the following operations:

1.      Sends a unicast EAP-Request/Identity packet to the MAC address that triggers the authentication.

2.      Retransmits the packet if no response is received within the username request timeout interval set by using the dot1x timer tx-period command.

3.      Assigns the port the 802.1X guest VLAN after the maximum number of request attempts set by using the dot1x retry command is reached.

To enable 802.1X guest VLAN assignment delay on a port:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.      Enable 802.1X guest VLAN assignment delay on the port.

dot1x guest-vlan-delay { eapol | new-mac }

By default, 802.1X guest VLAN assignment delay is disabled on a port.

For the dot1x guest-vlan-delay new-mac command to take effect on a port, the port must be configured with 802.1X unicast trigger.

 

Configuring an 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN

Configuration restrictions and guidelines

When you configure an 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·           Assign different IDs to the voice VLAN, the port VLAN, and the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN on a port. The assignment ensures that the port can correctly process VLAN-tagged incoming traffic.

·           You can configure only one 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN on a port. The 802.1X Auth-Fail VLANs on different ports can be different.

·           When you configure multiple security features on a port, follow the guidelines in Table 5.

Table 5 Relationships of the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN with other features

Feature

Relationship description

Reference

MAC authentication guest VLAN on a port that performs MAC-based access control

The 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN has a high priority.

See "Configuring MAC authentication."

Port intrusion protection actions on a port that performs MAC-based access control

The 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN feature has higher priority than the block MAC action.

The 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN feature has lower priority than the shutdown port action of the port intrusion protection feature.

See "Configuring port security."

 

Configuration prerequisites

Before you configure an 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN, complete the following tasks:

·           Create the VLAN to be specified as the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN.

·           If the 802.1X-enabled port performs MAC-based access control, perform the following operations for the port:

¡  Configure the port as a hybrid port.

¡  Enable MAC-based VLAN on the port. For more information about the MAC-based VLAN feature, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

¡  Assign the port to the Auth-Fail VLAN as an untagged member.

Configuration procedure

To configure an 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enter Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.      Configure the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN on the port.

dot1x auth-fail vlan authfail-vlan-id

By default, no 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN is configured.

 

Configuring an 802.1X critical VLAN

Configuration restrictions and guidelines

When you configure an 802.1X critical VLAN, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·           Assign different IDs to the voice VLAN, the PVID, and the 802.1X critical VLAN on a port. The assignment makes sure the port can correctly process VLAN-tagged incoming traffic.

·           You can configure only one 802.1X critical VLAN on a port. The 802.1X critical VLANs on different ports can be different.

Configuration prerequisites

Before you configure an 802.1X critical VLAN, complete the following tasks:

·           Create the VLAN to be specified as a critical VLAN.

·           If the 802.1X-enabled port performs MAC-based access control, perform the following operations for the port:

¡  Configure the port as a hybrid port.

¡  Enable MAC-based VLAN on the port. For more information about the MAC-based VLAN feature, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

¡  Assign the port to the 802.1X critical VLAN as an untagged member.

Configuring the 802.1X critical VLAN on a port

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enter Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.      Configure the 802.1X critical VLAN on the port.

dot1x critical vlan vlan-id

By default, no 802.1X critical VLAN is configured.

 

Sending EAP-Success packets to users in the 802.1X critical VLAN

Typically, the device sends EAP-Failure packets to 802.1X clients when the client users are assigned to the 802.1X critical VLAN. Some 802.1X clients, such as Windows built-in 802.1X clients, cannot respond to the EAP-Request/Identity packets of the device if they have received an EAP-Failure packet. As a result, reauthentication fails for these clients when an authentication server is reachable.

This feature enables the device to send EAP-Success packets instead of EAP-Failure packets to 802.1X clients when the client users are assigned to the 802.1X critical VLAN. This operation ensures that all 802.1X clients can perform reauthentication.

To configure the device to send an EAP-Success packet to an 802.1X client when its client user is assigned to the critical VLAN on the port:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enter Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.      Configure the device to send an EAP-Success packet to an 802.1X client when its client user is assigned to the critical VLAN on the port.

dot1x critical eapol

By default, the device sends an EAP-Failure packet to an 802.1X client when its client user is assigned to the critical VLAN on a port.

 

Enabling the 802.1X critical voice VLAN

This feature assigns the access port of a voice user to the 802.1X critical voice VLAN if the voice user fails authentication because all the RADIUS servers are unreachable. The feature does not take effect if the voice user has been in the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN.

The critical voice VLAN feature takes effect when 802.1X authentication is performed only through RADIUS servers.

When a reachable RADIUS server is detected, the device performs the following operations:

·           If MAC-based access control is used, the device removes 802.1X voice users from the critical voice VLAN. The port sends a unicast EAP-Request/Identity packet to each 802.1X voice user that was assigned to the critical voice VLAN to trigger authentication.

·           If port-based access control is used, the device removes the port from the critical voice VLAN. The port sends a multicast EAP-Request/Identity packet to all 802.1X voice users on the port to trigger authentication.

Configuration prerequisites

Before you enable the 802.1X critical voice VLAN on a port, complete the following tasks:

·           Enable LLDP both globally and on the port.

The device uses LLDP to identify voice users. For information about LLDP, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

·           Enable voice VLAN on the port.

Configuration procedure

To enable the 802.1X critical voice VLAN feature on a port:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.      Enable the 802.1X critical voice VLAN feature on a port.

dot1x critical-voice-vlan

By default, the 802.1X critical voice VLAN feature is disabled on a port.

 

Specifying supported domain name delimiters

By default, the access device supports the at sign (@) as the delimiter. You can also configure the access device to accommodate 802.1X users that use other domain name delimiters. The configurable delimiters include the at sign (@), backslash (\), dot (.), and forward slash (/).

Usernames that include domain names typically use the username+domain-delimiter+domain-name format (for example, 123@abc). However, if the domain delimiter is the backslash (\), usernames that include domain names use the domain-name\username format.

If an 802.1X username string contains multiple configured delimiters, the rightmost delimiter is the domain name delimiter. For example, if you configure the backslash (\), dot (.), and forward slash (/) as delimiters, the domain name delimiter for the username string 121.123/22\@abc is the backslash (\). The username is @abc and the domain name is 121.123/22.

If a username string contains none of the delimiters, the access device authenticates the user in the mandatory or default ISP domain.

To specify a set of domain name delimiters:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Specify a set of domain name delimiters for 802.1X users.

dot1x domain-delimiter string

By default, only the at sign (@) delimiter is supported.

 

 

NOTE:

If you configure the access device to send usernames with domain names to the RADIUS server, make sure the domain delimiter can be recognized by the RADIUS server. For username format configuration, see the user-name-format command in Security Command Reference.

Configuring the EAD assistant feature

When you configure the EAD assistant feature, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·           You must disable MAC authentication and port security globally before you enable the EAD assistant feature.

·           To make the EAD assistant feature take effect on an 802.1X-enabled port, you must set the port authorization mode to auto.

·           When global MAC authentication or port security is enabled, the free IP does not take effect.

·           If you use free IP, guest VLAN, and Auth-Fail VLAN features together, make sure the free IP segments are in both guest VLAN and Auth-Fail VLAN.

·           To allow a user to obtain a dynamic IP address before it passes 802.1X authentication, make sure the DHCP server is on the free IP segment.

·           The server that provides the redirect URL must be on the free IP accessible to unauthenticated users.

·           To avoid using up ACL resources when a large number of EAD users exist, you can shorten the EAD rule timer.

To configure the EAD assistant feature:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.      Enable EAD assistant.

dot1x ead-assistant enable

By default, this feature is disabled.

3.      Configure a free IP.

dot1x ead-assistant free-ip ip-address { mask-length | mask-address }

By default, no free IP is configured.

4.      (Optional.) Configure the redirect URL.

dot1x ead-assistant url url-string

By default, no redirect URL is configured.

Configure the redirect URL if users will use Web browsers to access the network.

5.      (Optional.) Set the EAD rule timer.

dot1x timer ead-timeout ead-timeout-value

The default setting is 30 minutes.

 

Displaying and maintaining 802.1X

Execute display commands in any view and reset commands in user view.

 

Task

Command

Display 802.1X session information, statistics, or configuration information of specified or all ports.

display dot1x [ sessions | statistics ] [ interface interface-type interface-number ]

Display online 802.1X user information.

display dot1x connection [ interface interface-type interface-number | slot slot-number | user-mac mac-address | user-name name-string ]

Clear 802.1X statistics.

reset dot1x statistics [ interface interface-type interface-number ]

Remove users from the 802.1X guest VLAN on a port.

reset dot1x guest-vlan interface interface-type interface-number [ mac-address mac-address ]

 

802.1X authentication configuration examples

Basic 802.1X authentication configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 11, the access device performs 802.1X authentication for users that connect to port Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/1. Implement MAC-based access control on the port, so the logoff of one user does not affect other online 802.1X users.

Use RADIUS servers to perform authentication, authorization, and accounting for the 802.1X users. If RADIUS authentication fails, perform local authentication on the access device.

Configure the host at 10.1.1.1/24 as the primary authentication and accounting servers, and the host at 10.1.1.2/24 as the secondary authentication and accounting servers. Assign all users to the ISP domain bbb.

Configure the shared key as name for packets between the access device and the authentication server. Configure the shared key as money for packets between the access device and the accounting server.

Figure 11 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

1.      Configure the 802.1X client. If an iNode client is used, do not select the Carry version info option in the client configuration. (Details not shown.)

2.      Configure the RADIUS servers and add user accounts for the 802.1X users. (Details not shown.)

For information about the RADIUS commands used on the access device in this example, see Security Command Reference.

3.      Assign an IP address for each interface on the access device. (Details not shown.)

4.      Configure user accounts for the 802.1X users on the access device:

# Add a local network access user with the username localuser, and password localpass in plaintext. (Make sure the username and password are the same as those configured on the RADIUS servers.)

<Device> system-view

[Device] local-user localuser class network

[Device-luser-network-localuser] password simple localpass

# Set the service type to lan-access.

[Device-luser-network-localuser] service-type lan-access

[Device-luser-network-localuser] quit

5.      Configure a RADIUS scheme:

# Create the RADIUS scheme radius1 and enter RADIUS scheme view.

[Device] radius scheme radius1

# Specify the IP addresses of the primary authentication and accounting RADIUS servers.

[Device-radius-radius1] primary authentication 10.1.1.1

[Device-radius-radius1] primary accounting 10.1.1.1

# Configure the IP addresses of the secondary authentication and accounting RADIUS servers.

[Device-radius-radius1] secondary authentication 10.1.1.2

[Device-radius-radius1] secondary accounting 10.1.1.2

# Specify the shared key between the access device and the authentication server.

[Device-radius-radius1] key authentication simple name

# Specify the shared key between the access device and the accounting server.

[Device-radius-radius1] key accounting simple money

# Exclude the ISP domain name from the usernames sent to the RADIUS servers.

[Device-radius-radius1] user-name-format without-domain

[Device-radius-radius1] quit

 

 

NOTE:

The access device must use the same username format as the RADIUS server. If the RADIUS server includes the ISP domain name in the username, so must the access device.

 

6.      Configure the ISP domain:

# Create the ISP domain bbb and enter ISP domain view.

[Device] domain bbb

# Apply the RADIUS scheme radius1 to the ISP domain, and specify local authentication as the secondary authentication method.

[Device-isp-bbb] authentication lan-access radius-scheme radius1 local

[Device-isp-bbb] authorization lan-access radius-scheme radius1 local

[Device-isp-bbb] accounting lan-access radius-scheme radius1 local

[Device-isp-bbb] quit

7.      Configure 802.1X:

# Enable 802.1X on Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/1.

[Device] interface ten-gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[Device-Ten-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] dot1x

# Enable MAC-based access control on the port. By default, the port uses MAC-based access control.

[Device-Ten-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] dot1x port-method macbased

# Specify ISP domain bbb as the mandatory domain.

[Device-Ten-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] dot1x mandatory-domain bbb

[Device-Ten-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit

# Enable 802.1X globally.

[Device] dot1x

Verifying the configuration

# Verify the 802.1X configuration on Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/1.

[Device] display dot1x interface ten-gigabitethernet 1/0/1

# Display the user connection information after an 802.1X user passes authentication.

[Device] display dot1x connection

802.1X guest VLAN and authorization VLAN configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 12, use RADIUS servers to perform authentication, authorization, and accounting for 802.1X users that connect to Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/2. Implement port-based access control on the port.

If no user performs 802.1X authentication on Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/2 within a period of time, the device adds Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/2 to the guest VLAN, VLAN 10. The host and the update server are both in VLAN 10, and the host can access the update server and download the 802.1X client software.

After the host passes 802.1X authentication, the access device assigns the host to VLAN 5 where Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/3 is. The host can access the Internet.

Figure 12 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

1.      Configure the 802.1X client. Make sure the 802.1X client can update its IP address after the access port is assigned to the guest VLAN or an authorization VLAN. (Details not shown.)

2.      Configure the RADIUS server to provide authentication, authorization, and accounting services. Configure user accounts and authorization VLAN (VLAN 5 in this example) for the users. (Details not shown.)

3.      Create VLANs, and assign ports to the VLANs on the access device.

<Device> system-view

[Device] vlan 1

[Device-vlan1] port ten-gigabitethernet 1/0/2

[Device-vlan1] quit

[Device] vlan 10

[Device-vlan10] port ten-gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[Device-vlan10] quit

[Device] vlan 2

[Device-vlan2] port ten-gigabitethernet 1/0/4

[Device-vlan2] quit

[Device] vlan 5

[Device-vlan5] port ten-gigabitethernet 1/0/3

[Device-vlan5] quit

4.      Configure a RADIUS scheme on the access device:

# Create RADIUS scheme 2000 and enter RADIUS scheme view.

[Device] radius scheme 2000

# Specify the server at 10.11.1.1 as the primary authentication server, and set the authentication port to 1812.

[Device-radius-2000] primary authentication 10.11.1.1 1812

# Specify the server at 10.11.1.1 as the primary accounting server, and set the accounting port to 1813.

[Device-radius-2000] primary accounting 10.11.1.1 1813

# Set the shared key to abc in plain text for secure communication between the authentication server and the device.

[Device-radius-2000] key authentication simple abc

# Set the shared key to abc in plain text for secure communication between the accounting server and the device.

[Device-radius-2000] key accounting simple abc

# Exclude the ISP domain name from the usernames sent to the RADIUS server.

[Device-radius-2000] user-name-format without-domain

[Device-radius-2000] quit

5.      Configure an ISP domain:

# Create ISP domain bbb and enter ISP domain view.

[Device] domain bbb

# Apply RADIUS scheme 2000 to the ISP domain for authentication, authorization, and accounting.

[Device-isp-bbb] authentication lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] authorization lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] accounting lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] quit

6.      Configure 802.1X on the access device:

# Enable 802.1X on port Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/2.

[Device] interface ten-gigabitethernet 1/0/2

[Device-Ten-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] dot1x

# Implement port-based access control on the port.

[Device-Ten-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] dot1x port-method portbased

# Set the port authorization mode to auto. By default, the port uses the auto mode.

[Device-Ten-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] dot1x port-control auto

# Set VLAN 10 as the 802.1X guest VLAN on port Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/2.

[Device-Ten-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] dot1x guest-vlan 10

[Device-Ten-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] quit

# Enable 802.1X globally.

[Device] dot1x

Verifying the configuration

# Verify the 802.1X guest VLAN configuration on Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/2.

[Device] display dot1x interface ten-gigabitethernet 1/0/2

# Verify that Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/2 is assigned to VLAN 10 when no user passes authentication on the port.

[Device] display vlan 10

# After a user passes authentication, display information on Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/2. Verify that Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/2 is assigned to VLAN 5.

[Device] display interface ten-gigabitethernet 1/0/2

802.1X with ACL assignment configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 13, the host that connects to Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 must pass 802.1X authentication to access the Internet.

Perform 802.1X authentication on Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/1. Use the RADIUS server at 10.1.1.1 as the authentication and authorization server, and the RADIUS server at 10.1.1.2 as the accounting server.

Configure ACL assignment on Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 to deny access of 802.1X users to the FTP server from 8:00 to 18:00 on weekdays.

Figure 13 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

1.      Configure the 802.1X client. Make sure the client is able to update its IP address after the access port is assigned to the 802.1X guest VLAN or an authorization VLAN. (Details not shown.)

2.      Configure the RADIUS servers to provide authentication, authorization, and accounting services. Add user accounts and specify the ACL (ACL 3000 in this example) for the users. (Details not shown.)

3.      Assign an IP address to each interface, as shown in Figure 13. (Details not shown.)

4.      Configure a RADIUS scheme:

# Create RADIUS scheme 2000 and enter RADIUS scheme view.

<Device> system-view

[Device] radius scheme 2000

# Specify the server at 10.1.1.1 as the primary authentication server, and set the authentication port to 1812.

[Device-radius-2000] primary authentication 10.1.1.1 1812

# Specify the server at 10.1.1.2 as the primary accounting server, and set the accounting port to 1813.

[Device-radius-2000] primary accounting 10.1.1.2 1813

# Set the shared key to abc in plain text for secure communication between the authentication server and the device.

[Device-radius-2000] key authentication simple abc

# Set the shared key to abc in plain text for secure communication between the accounting server and the device.

[Device-radius-2000] key accounting simple abc

# Exclude the ISP domain name from the usernames sent to the RADIUS server.

[Device-radius-2000] user-name-format without-domain

[Device-radius-2000] quit

5.      Configure an ISP domain:

# Create ISP domain bbb and enter ISP domain view.

[Device] domain bbb

# Apply RADIUS scheme 2000 to the ISP domain for authentication, authorization, and accounting.

[Device-isp-bbb] authentication lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] authorization lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] accounting lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] quit

6.      Configure a time range named ftp from 8:00 to 18:00 on weekdays.

[Device] time-range ftp 8:00 to 18:00 working-day

7.      Configure ACL 3000 to deny packets destined for the FTP server at 10.0.0.1 during the specified time range.

[Device] acl number 3000

[Device-acl-adv-3000] rule 0 deny ip destination 10.0.0.1 0 time-range ftp

[Device-acl-adv-3000] quit

8.      Configure 802.1X:

# Enable 802.1X globally.

[Device] dot1x

# Enable 802.1X on Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/1.

[Device] interface ten-gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[Device-Ten-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] dot1x

[Device-Ten-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit

Verifying the configuration

# Use the user account to pass authentication. (Details not shown.)

# Verify that the user cannot ping the FTP server at any time from 8:00 to 18:00 on any weekday.

C:\>ping 10.0.0.1

 

Pinging 10.0.0.1 with 32 bytes of data:

 

Request timed out.

Request timed out.

Request timed out.

Request timed out.

 

Ping statistics for 10.0.0.1:

    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 0, Lost = 4 (100% loss),

The output shows that ACL 3000 is active on the user, and the user cannot access the FTP server.

802.1X with EAD assistant configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 14:

·           The intranet 192.168.1.0/24 is attached to Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 of the access device.

·           The hosts use DHCP to obtain IP addresses.

·           A DHCP server and a Web server are deployed on the 192.168.2.0/24 subnet for users to obtain IP addresses and download client software.

Deploy an EAD solution for the intranet to meet the following requirements:

·           Allow unauthenticated users and users that have failed 802.1X authentication to access 192.168.2.0/24. The users can obtain IP addresses and download software.

·           If these users use a Web browser to access a network other than 192.168.2.0/24, redirect them to the Web server for 802.1X client downloading.

·           Allow authenticated 802.1X users to access the network.

Figure 14 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

1.      Make sure the DHCP server, the Web server, and the authentication servers have been configured correctly. (Details not shown.)

2.      Configure an IP address for each interface. (Details not shown.)

3.      Configure DHCP relay:

# Enable DHCP.

<Device> system-view

[Device] dhcp enable

# Enable the DHCP relay agent on VLAN-interface 2.

[Device] interface vlan-interface 2

[Device-Vlan-interface2] dhcp select relay

# Specify the DHCP server 192.168.2.2 on the relay agent interface VLAN-interface 2.

[Device-Vlan-interface2] dhcp relay server-address 192.168.2.2

[Device-Vlan-interface2] quit

4.      Configure a RADIUS scheme:

# Create RADIUS scheme 2000 and enter RADIUS scheme view.

[Device] radius scheme 2000

# Specify the server at 10.1.1.1 as the primary authentication server, and set the authentication port to 1812.

[Device-radius-2000] primary authentication 10.1.1.1 1812

# Specify the server at 10.1.1.2 as the primary accounting server, and set the accounting port to 1813.

[Device-radius-2000] primary accounting 10.1.1.2 1813

# Set the shared key to abc in plain text for secure communication between the authentication server and the device.

[Device-radius-2000] key authentication simple abc

# Set the shared key to abc in plain text for secure communication between the accounting server and the device.

[Device-radius-2000] key accounting simple abc

# Exclude the ISP domain name from the usernames sent to the RADIUS server.

[Device-radius-2000] user-name-format without-domain

[Device-radius-2000] quit

5.      Configure an ISP domain:

# Create ISP domain bbb and enter ISP domain view.

[Device] domain bbb

# Apply RADIUS scheme 2000 to the ISP domain for authentication, authorization, and accounting.

[Device-isp-bbb] authentication lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] authorization lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] accounting lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] quit

6.      Configure 802.1X:

# Configure the free IP.

[Device] dot1x ead-assistant free-ip 192.168.2.0 24

# Configure the redirect URL for client software download.

[Device] dot1x ead-assistant url http://192.168.2.3

# Enable the EAD assistant feature.

[Device] dot1x ead-assistant enable

# Enable 802.1X globally.

[Device] dot1x

# Enable 802.1X on Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/1.

[Device] interface ten-gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[Device-Ten-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] dot1x

[Device-Ten-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit

Verifying the configuration

# Verify the 802.1X configuration.

[Device] display dot1x

# Verify that you can ping an IP address on the free IP subnet from a host.

C:\>ping 192.168.2.3

 

Pinging 192.168.2.3 with 32 bytes of data:

 

Reply from 192.168.2.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128

Reply from 192.168.2.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128

Reply from 192.168.2.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128

Reply from 192.168.2.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128

 

Ping statistics for 192.168.2.3:

    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),

Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:

    Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms

The output shows that you can access the free IP subnet before passing 802.1X authentication.

# Verify that you are redirected to the Web server when you enter in your Web browser an IP address not on the free IP. (Details not shown.)

Troubleshooting 802.1X

EAD assistant URL redirection failure

Symptom

Unauthenticated users are not redirected to the specified redirect URL after they enter external website addresses in their Web browsers.

Analysis

Redirection will not happen for one of the following reasons:

·           The address is in the string format. The operating system of the host regards the string as a website name and tries to resolve the string. If the resolution fails, the operating system sends an ARP request, but the target address is not in the dotted decimal notation. The redirection feature does redirect this kind of ARP request.

·           The address is within a free IP segment. No redirection will take place, even if no host is present with the address.

·           The redirect URL is not in a free IP segment.

·           No server is using the redirect URL, or the server with the URL does not provide Web services.

Solution

To resolve the issue:

1.      Enter a dotted decimal IP address that is not in any free IP segments.

2.      Verify that the access device and the server are configured correctly.

3.      If the issue persists, contact H3C Support.