14-WLAN Configuration Guide (Fat AP)

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04-WLAN access configuration
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Contents

Configuring WLAN access· 1

About WLAN access· 1

WLAN access process· 1

Scanning· 1

Association· 3

Client access control 3

Whitelist- and blacklist-based access control 3

ACL-based access control 4

WLAN access tasks at a glance· 4

Specifying a region code· 5

Configuring wireless services· 5

Configuring a service template· 5

Configuring a description for a service template· 6

Setting an SSID·· 6

Setting the maximum number of associated clients for a service template· 6

Enabling a service template· 7

Binding a service template to a radio interface· 7

Specifying the method for APs to process traffic from unknown clients· 7

Configuring client management 8

Enabling quick association· 8

Specifying the Web server to which client information is reported· 8

Enabling generation of client logs in the specified format 8

Setting the idle period before client reauthentication· 9

Configuring client maintenance· 9

Setting the client idle timeout 9

Configuring client keepalive· 10

Performing a wireless link quality test 10

Setting the NAS ID·· 10

Configuring client association ratio optimization· 11

Configuring client access control 11

Adding a client to the whitelist 11

Adding a client to the static blacklist 11

Configuring the dynamic blacklist 12

Configuring ACL-based access control 12

Disabling an AP from responding to broadcast probe requests· 12

Enabling SNMP notifications for WLAN access· 13

Display and maintenance commands for WLAN access· 13

WLAN access configuration examples· 14

Example: Configuring WLAN access· 14

Example: Configuring whitelist-based access control 16

Example: Configuring static blacklist-based access control 16

 


Configuring WLAN access

About WLAN access

Wireless access is provided by APs deployed at the edge of a wired network. The APs connect to the uplink through wired connections and provide wireless access services to downlink clients.

 

 

NOTE:

The term "AP" in this document refers to MSR routers that offer WLAN services as fat APs. For more information, see "Compatibility of hardware and AP functionality."

WLAN access process

A wireless client can access a WLAN only when it completes the scanning, link layer authentication, association, and WLAN authentication processes.

For more information about data link layer authentication, see "Configuring WLAN security." For more information about WLAN authentication, see "Configuring WLAN authentication."

Figure 1 WLAN access process

 

Scanning

Active scanning

A wireless client periodically scans surrounding wireless networks by sending probe requests. It obtains network information from received probe responses. Based on whether a probe request carries an SSID, active scanning can be divided into the following types:

·     Active scanning of all wireless networks.

As shown in Figure 2, the client periodically sends a probe request on each of its supported channels to scan wireless networks. APs that receive the probe request send a probe response that carries the available wireless network information. The client associates with the optimal AP.

Figure 2 Scanning all wireless networks

 

·     Active scanning of a specific wireless network.

As shown in Figure 3, the client periodically sends a probe request carrying the specified SSID or the SSID of the wireless network it has been associated with. When an AP that can provide wireless services with the specified SSID receives the probe request, it sends a probe response.

Figure 3 Scanning a specific wireless network

 

Passive scanning

As shown in Figure 4, the clients periodically listen for beacon frames sent by APs on their supported channels to get information about surrounding wireless networks. Then the clients select an AP for association. Passive scanning is used when clients want to save power.

Figure 4 Passive scanning

 

Association

A client sends an association request to the associated AP after passing date link layer authentication. Upon receiving the request, the AP determines the capability supported by the wireless client and sends an association response to the client. Then the client is associated with the AP.

Client access control

The following client access control methods are available:

·     Whitelist- and blacklist-based access control—Uses the whitelist and blacklists to control client access.

·     ACL-based access control—Uses ACL rules bound to APs or service templates to control client access.

Whitelist- and blacklist-based access control

You can configure the whitelist or blacklists to filter frames from clients for client access control.

Whitelist-based access control

The whitelist contains the MAC addresses of all clients allowed to access the WLAN. Frames from clients not in the whitelist are discarded. This list is manually configured.

Blacklist-based access control

The following blacklists are available for access control:

·     Static blacklist—Contains the MAC addresses of clients forbidden to access the WLAN. This list is manually configured.

·     Dynamic blacklist—Contains the MAC addresses of clients forbidden to access the WLAN. An AP adds the MAC address of a client forbidden to access the WLAN to the list when WIPS is configured or when URL redirection is enabled for WLAN MAC authentication clients. The entries in the list are removed when the aging time expires. For more information about WIPS, see "Configuring WIPS." For more information about WLAN MAC authentication, see "Configuring WLAN authentication."

Working mechanism

When the AP receives an association request, the AP performs the following operations to determine whether to permit the client:

1.     Searches the whitelist:

¡     If the client MAC address does not match any entry in the whitelist, the client is rejected.

¡     If a match is found, the client is permitted.

2.     Searches the static and dynamic blacklists if no whitelist entries exist:

¡     If the client MAC address matches an entry in either blacklist, the client is rejected.

¡     If no match is found, or no blacklist entries exist, the client is permitted.

Figure 5 Whitelist- and blacklist-based access control

 

ACL-based access control

This feature controls client access by using ACL rules bound to an AP or a service template.

Upon receiving an association request from a client, the device performs the following actions:

·     Allows the client to access the WLAN if a match is found and the rule action is permit.

·     Denies the client's access to the WLAN if no match is found or the matched rule has a deny statement.

WLAN access tasks at a glance

To configure WLAN access, perform the following tasks:

1.     (Optional.) Specifying a region code

2.     Configuring wireless services

¡     Configuring a service template

¡     (Optional.) Configuring a description for a service template

¡     Setting an SSID

¡     (Optional.) Setting the maximum number of associated clients for a service template

¡     Enabling a service template

¡     Binding a service template to a radio interface

3.     (Optional.) Specifying the method for APs to process traffic from unknown clients

4.     (Optional.) Configuring client management

¡     Enabling quick association

¡     Specifying the Web server to which client information is reported

¡     Enabling generation of client logs in the specified format

¡     Setting the idle period before client reauthentication

5.     (Optional.) Configuring client maintenance

¡     Setting the client idle timeout

¡     Configuring client keepalive

¡     Performing a wireless link quality test

¡     Setting the NAS ID

¡     Configuring client association ratio optimization

6.     (Optional.) Configuring client access control

¡     Adding a client to the whitelist

¡     Adding a client to the static blacklist

¡     Configuring the dynamic blacklist

¡     Configuring ACL-based access control

7.     (Optional.) Disabling an AP from responding to broadcast probe requests

8.     (Optional.) Enabling SNMP notifications for WLAN access

Specifying a region code

About region codes

A region code determines characteristics such as available frequencies, available channels, and transmit power level. Set a valid region code before configuring an AP.

To prevent regulation violation caused by region code modification, lock the region code.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter global configuration view.

wlan global-configuration

3.     Specify a region code.

region-code code

By default, the region code is CN.

4.     (Optional.) Lock the region code.

region-code-lock enable

By default, the region code is not locked.

Configuring wireless services

Configuring a service template

About service templates

A service template defines a set of wireless service attributes, such as SSID and authentication method.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create a service template.

wlan service-template service-template-name

By default, no service template exists.

3.     (Optional.) Assign clients coming online through the service template to the specified VLAN.

vlan vlan-id

By default, clients are assigned VLAN 1 after coming online through a service template.

Configuring a description for a service template

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

3.     Configure a description for the service template.

description text

By default, no description is configured for a service template.

Setting an SSID

About SSIDs

APs advertise SSIDs in beacon frames. If the number of clients in a BSS exceeds the limit or the BSS is unavailable, you can enable SSID-hidden to prevent clients from discovering the BSS. When SSID-hidden is enabled, the BSS hides its SSID in beacon frames and does not respond to broadcast probe requests. A client must send probe requests with the specified SSID to access the WLAN. This feature can protect the WLAN from being attacked.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

3.     Set an SSID for the service template.

ssid ssid-name

By default, no SSID is set for a service template.

4.     (Optional.) Enable SSID-hidden in beacon frames.

beacon ssid-hide

By default, beacon frames carry SSIDs.

Setting the maximum number of associated clients for a service template

About setting the client quantity limit for a service template

Perform this task to limit the associated client quantity to avoid overload. With this feature configured, new clients cannot access the WLAN and the SSID is hidden when the maximum number is reached.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

3.     Set the maximum number of associated clients for the service template.

client max-count max-number

By default, the number of associated clients for a service template is not limited.

Enabling a service template

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

3.     Enable the service template.

service-template enable

By default, a service template is disabled.

Binding a service template to a radio interface

Restrictions and guidelines

You can bind a maximum of 16 service templates to a radio interface.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter WLAN-Radio interface view.

interface wlan-radio interface-number

3.     Bind a service template to the radio interface.

service-template service-template-name

By default, no service template is bound to a radio interface.

Specifying the method for APs to process traffic from unknown clients

About unknown client traffic processing

Perform this task to configure APs using the specified service template to drop data packets from unknown clients and deauthenticate these clients or to drop the packets only.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

3.     Specify the method for APs to process traffic from unknown clients.

unknown-client [ deauthenticate | drop ]

By default, APs drop packets from unknown clients and deauthenticate these clients.

Configuring client management

Enabling quick association

About quick association

Enabling band navigation might affect client association efficiency. For delay-sensitive services or in an environment where band navigation is not needed, you can enable quick association for a service template.

Quick association disables band navigation on clients associated with the service template. The device will not perform band navigation even if the feature is enabled in the WLAN.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

3.     Enable quick association.

quick-association enable

By default, quick association is disabled.

Specifying the Web server to which client information is reported

About the Web server for client information reporting

Perform this task to enable the device to report client information, such as client MAC address, associated AP, and association time, to the specified Web server through HTTP. The Web server accepts client information only when the server's host name, port number, and path are specified.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Specify the host name and port number of the Web server.

wlan web-server host host-name port port-number

By default, the host name and port number of the Web server are not specified.

3.     Specify the path of the Web server.

wlan web-server api-path path

By default, the path of the Web server is not specified.

4.     (Optional.) Set the maximum number of client entries that can be reported at a time.

wlan web-server max-client-entry number

By default, a maximum of ten client entries can be reported at a time.

Enabling generation of client logs in the specified format

About client log formats

The device supports client logs in the following formats:

·     H3C—Logs AP name, radio ID, client MAC address, SSID, BSSID, and client online status. By default, the device generates client logs only in H3C format.

·     Normal—Logs AP MAC address, AP name, client IP address, client MAC address, SSID, and BSSID.

·     Sangfor—Logs AP MAC address, client IP address, and client MAC address.

This feature enables the device to generate client logs in normal or sangfor format and send the logs to the information center. Log destinations are determined by the information center settings. For more information about the information center, see Network Management and Monitoring Configuration Guide.

This feature does not affect generation of client logs in the H3C format.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enable the device to generate client logs in the specified format.

customlog format wlan { normal | sangfor }

By default, the device generates client logs only in the H3C format.

Setting the idle period before client reauthentication

About the idle period before client reauthentication

When URL redirection for WLAN MAC authentication is enabled, an AP redirects clients whose information is not recorded on the RADIUS server to the specified URL for Web authentication. Clients passing Web authentication are logged off and must perform MAC reauthentication to come online. However, MAC reauthentication fails if the IP addresses assigned to the clients have not expired.

Perform this task to add these clients to the dynamic blacklist for the specified idle period after they pass Web authentication to reduce reauthentication failures.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Set the idle period before client reauthentication.

wlan client reauthentication-period [ period-value ]

By default, the idle period is not configured.

Configuring client maintenance

Setting the client idle timeout

About the client idle timeout

If an online client does not send any frames to the associated AP before the client idle timeout timer expires, the AP logs off the client.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Set the client idle timeout.

wlan client idle-timeout timeout

By default, the client idle timeout is 3600 seconds.

Configuring client keepalive

About client keepalive

This feature enables an AP to send keepalive packets to clients at the specified interval to determine whether the clients are online. If the AP does not receive any replies from a client within three keepalive intervals, it logs off the client.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enable client keepalive.

wlan client keep-alive enable

By default, client keepalive is disabled.

3.     Set the client keepalive interval.

wlan client keep-alive interval interval

By default, the client keepalive interval is 300 seconds.

Performing a wireless link quality test

About wireless link quality tests

This feature enables an AP to test the quality of the link to a wireless client. The AP sends empty data frames to the client at each supported rate. Then it calculates link quality information such as RSSI, packet retransmissions, and RTT based on the responses from the client.

The timeout for a wireless link quality test is 10 seconds. If the wireless link test is not completed before the timeout expires, test results cannot be obtained.

Procedure

To perform a wireless link quality test, execute the wlan link-test mac-address command in user view.

Setting the NAS ID

About NAS IDs

A network access server identifier (NAS ID) identifies the network access server of a client and differentiates the source of client traffic.

Restrictions and guidelines

If you specify a NAS ID when binding a service template to a radio, the radio uses the NAS ID specified for the service template.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter global configuration view.

wlan global-configuration

3.     Set the NAS ID.

nas-id nas-id

By default, no NAS ID is set.

Configuring client association ratio optimization

About client association ratio optimization

This feature enables the device to recalculate the client association success ratio, association congestion ratio, and abnormal disassociation ratio by using the specified index to get smaller ratio values.

The client association success ratio is the number of successful client associations divided by the total number of client association attempts. The client association congestion ratio is the number of failed client associations caused by AP overloading divided by the total number of client association attempts. The client abnormal disassociation ratio is the number of abnormal disassociations divided by the sum of successful associations and online clients.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter global configuration view.

wlan association optimization value

By default, the index is 0. The device does not optimize client association ratios.

Configuring client access control

Adding a client to the whitelist

Restrictions and guidelines

When you add the first client to the whitelist, the system asks you whether to disconnect all online clients. Enter Y at the prompt to configure the whitelist.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Add a client to the whitelist.

wlan whitelist mac-address mac-address

Adding a client to the static blacklist

Restrictions and guidelines

You cannot add a client to both the whitelist and the static blacklist.

If the whitelist and blacklists are configured, only the whitelist takes effect.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Add a client to the static blacklist.

wlan static-blacklist mac-address mac-address

Configuring the dynamic blacklist

About the dynamic blacklist

The AP adds the MAC address of a client forbidden to access the WLAN to the list when WIPS is configured or when URL redirection is enabled for WLAN MAC authentication clients.

Entries in the dynamic blacklist are removed when the aging timer expires.

Restrictions and guidelines

The configured aging timer takes effect only on entries newly added to the dynamic blacklist.

If the whitelist and blacklists are configured, only the whitelist takes effect.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Set the aging timer for dynamic blacklist entries.

wlan dynamic-blacklist lifetime lifetime

By default, the aging timer is 300 seconds.

The aging timer for dynamic blacklist entries takes effect only on rogue client entries.

Configuring ACL-based access control

Restrictions and guidelines

The ACL-based access control configuration takes precedence over the whitelist and blacklist configuration. As a best practice, do not configure both ACL-based access control and whitelist- and blacklist-based access control on the same device.

If the specified ACL contains a deny statement, configure a permit statement for the ACL to permit all clients. If you do not do so, no clients can come online.

This feature supports only Layer 2 ACLs and can only use source MAC address as the match criterion. If you specify an ACL of another type, the configuration does not take effect.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter service template view.

wlan service-template service-template-name

3.     Specify an ACL.

access-control acl acl-number

By default, no ACL is specified.

Disabling an AP from responding to broadcast probe requests

About broadcast probe request responses

Broadcast probe requests do not carry any SSIDs. Upon receiving a broadcast probe request, an AP responds with a probe response that carries service information for the AP.

This feature enables clients that send unicast probe requests to the AP to associate with the AP more easily.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Disable the AP from responding to broadcast probe requests.

undo wlan broadcast-probe reply

By default, an AP responds to broadcast probe requests.

Enabling SNMP notifications for WLAN access

About SNMP notifications

To report critical WLAN access events to an NMS, enable SNMP notifications for WLAN access. For WLAN access event notifications to be sent correctly, you must also configure SNMP as described in Network Management and Monitoring Configuration Guide.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Choose the options to configure as needed:

¡     Enable SNMP notifications for client access.

snmp-agent trap enable wlan client

¡     Enable SNMP notifications for client audit.

snmp-agent trap enable wlan client-audit

By default, SNMP notifications are disabled.

Display and maintenance commands for WLAN access

Execute display commands in any view and the reset command in user view.

 

Task

Command

Display WLAN radio interface information.

display interface wlan-radio [ interface-number ] [ brief ]

Display the number of online clients at the 2.4 GHz band and the 5 GHz band.

display wlan ap all client-number

Display the number of online clients and channel information for each radio.

display wlan ap all radio client-number

Display blacklist entries.

display wlan blacklist { dynamic | static }

Display basic service set (BSS) information.

display wlan bss { all | bssid bssid } [ verbose ]

Display client information.

display wlan client [ interface wlan-radio interface-number | mac-address mac-address | service-template service-template-name | vlan vlan-id ] [ verbose ]

Display information about client IPv6 addresses.

display wlan client ipv6

Display client online duration.

display wlan client online-duration [ verbose ]

Display client status information.

display wlan client status [ mac-address mac-address ] [ verbose ]

Display service template information.

display wlan service-template [ service-template-name ] [ verbose ]

Display client statistics.

display wlan statistics client [ mac-address mac-address ]

Display client connection history.

display wlan statistics service-template service-template-name connect-history

Display service template statistics.

display wlan statistics service-template service-template-name

Display whitelist entries.

display wlan whitelist

Log off the specified client or all clients.

reset wlan client { all | mac-address mac-address }

Remove the specified client or all clients from the dynamic blacklist.

reset wlan dynamic-blacklist [ mac-address mac-address ]

Clear client statistics.

reset wlan statistics client { all | mac-address mac-address }

Clear service template statistics.

reset wlan statistics service-template service-template-name

 

WLAN access configuration examples

Example: Configuring WLAN access

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 6, the switch acts as the DHCP server to assign IP addresses to the AP and the client. The AP provides wireless services with SSID trade-off.

Figure 6 Network diagram

 

Procedure

# Create service template service1, set the SSID to trade-off, and enable the service template.

<AP> system-view

[AP] wlan service-template service1

[AP-wlan-st-service1] ssid trade-off

[AP-wlan-st-service1] service-template enable

[AP-wlan-st-service1] quit

# Bind service template service1 to WLAN-Radio 0/0.

[AP] interface wlan-radio 0/0

[AP-WLAN-Radio0/0] undo shutdown

[AP-WLAN-Radio0/0] service-template service1

[AP-WLAN-Radio0/0] quit

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that the SSID is trade-off, and the service template is enabled.

[AP] display wlan service-template verbose

Service template name          : service1

Description                    : Not configured

SSID                           : trade-off

SSID-hide                      : Disabled

User-isolation                 : Disabled

Service template status        : Enabled

Maximum clients per BSS        : Not configured

Frame format                   : Dot3

Seamless roam status           : Disabled

Seamless roam RSSI threshold   : 50

Seamless roam RSSI gap         : 20

VLAN ID                        : 3

AKM mode                       : Not configured

Security IE                    : Not configured

Cipher suite                   : Not configured

TKIP countermeasure time       : 0 sec

PTK life time                  : 43200 sec

PTK rekey                      : Enabled

GTK rekey                      : Enabled

GTK rekey method               : Time-based

GTK rekey time                 : 86400 sec

GTK rekey client-offline       : Disabled

User authentication mode       : Bypass

Intrusion protection           : Disabled

Intrusion protection mode      : Temporary-block

Temporary block time           : 180 sec

Temporary service stop time    : 20 sec

Fail VLAN ID                   : Not configured

Critical VLAN ID               : Not configured

802.1X handshake               : Disabled

802.1X handshake secure        : Disabled

802.1X domain                  : my-domain

MAC-auth domain                : Not configured

Max 802.1X users per BSS       : 4096

Max MAC-auth users per BSS     : 4096

802.1X re-authenticate         : Disabled

Authorization fail mode        : Online

Accounting fail mode           : Online

Authorization                  : Permitted

Key derivation                 : SHA1

PMF status                     : Disabled

Hotspot policy number          : Not configured

Forwarding policy status       : Disabled

Forwarding policy name         : Not configured

Forwarder                      : AP

FT status                      : Disabled

QoS trust                      : Port

QoS priority                   : 0

# Associate the client with the fat AP. (Details not shown.)

# Verify that the client can access the WLAN.

[AP] display wlan client service-template service1

Total number of clients: 1

 

MAC address     Username    AP name   RID   IP address      IPv6 address   VLAN

0023-8933-223b  N/A         fatap     1     3.0.0.3                        3

Example: Configuring whitelist-based access control

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 7, configure the whitelist to permit only the client whose MAC address is 0000-000f-1211 to access the WLAN.

Figure 7 Network diagram

 

Procedure

# Add MAC address 0000-000f-1211 to the whitelist.

<AP> system-view

[AP] wlan whitelist mac-address 0000-000f-1211

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that MAC address 0000-000f-1211 is in the whitelist.

<AP> display wlan whitelist

Total number of clients: 1

 MAC addresses:

  0000-000f-1211

Example: Configuring static blacklist-based access control

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 8, configure the static blacklist to forbid the client whose MAC address is 0000-000f-1211 to access the WLAN.

Figure 8 Network diagram

 

Procedure

# Add MAC address 0000-000f-1211 to the static blacklist.

<AP> system-view

[AP] wlan static-blacklist mac-address 0000-000f-1211

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that MAC address 0000-000f-1211 is in the static blacklist.

<AP> display wlan blacklist static

Total number of clients: 1

 MAC addresses:

  0000-000f-1211