01-Fundamentals Configuration Guide

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07-Software upgrade configuration
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Upgrading software

About software upgrade

Software upgrade enables you to upgrade a software version, add new features, and fix software bugs. This chapter describes software types and release forms, compares software upgrade methods, and provides the procedures for upgrading software from the CLI.

Software types

The following software types are available:

·     BootWare image—Also called the Boot ROM image. This image contains a basic segment and an extended segment.

¡     The basic segment is the minimum code that bootstraps the system.

¡     The extended segment enables hardware initialization and provides system management menus. When the device cannot start up correctly, you can use the menus to load software and the startup configuration file or manage files.

Typically, the BootWare image is integrated into the Boot image to avoid software compatibility errors.

·     Comware image—Includes the following image subcategories:

¡     Boot image—A .bin file that contains the Linux operating system kernel. It provides process management, memory management, and file system management.

¡     System image—A .bin file that contains the Comware kernel and standard features, including device management, interface management, configuration management, and routing.

¡     Feature image—A .bin file that contains advanced or customized software features. You can purchase feature images as needed.

¡     Patch image—A .bin file that is irregularly released for fixing bugs without rebooting the device. A patch image does not add or remove features.

Patch images have the following types:

-     Incremental patch images—A new patch image can cover all, part, or none of the functions provided by an old patch image. A new patch image can coexist with an old patch image on the device only when the former covers none of the functions provided by the latter.

-     Non-incremental patch images—A new non-incremental patch image covers all functions provided by an old non-incremental patch image. Each boot, system, or feature image can have one non-incremental patch image, and these patch images can coexist on the device. The device uninstalls the old non-incremental patch image before installing a new non-incremental patch image.

An incremental patch image and a non-incremental patch image can coexist on the device.

Comware images that have been loaded are called current software images. Comware images specified to load at the next startup are called startup software images.

BootWare image, boot image, and system image are required for the device to operate.

You can install up to 32 .bin files on the device, including one boot image file, one system image file, and up to 30 feature and patch image files.

Software release forms

Software images are released in one of the following forms:

·     Separate .bin files. You must verify compatibility between software images.

·     As a whole in one .ipe package file. The images in an .ipe package file are compatible. The system decompresses the file automatically, loads the .bin images and sets them as startup software images.

 

 

NOTE:

Software image file names use the model-comware version-image type-release format. This document uses boot.bin and system.bin as boot and system image file names.

 

Upgrade methods

Upgrade method

Software types

Remarks

Upgrading from the CLI by using the boot loader method

·     BootWare image

·     Comware images

This method is disruptive. You must reboot the entire device to complete the upgrade.

Upgrading from the BootWare menu

·     BootWare image

·     Comware images

Use this method when the device cannot start up correctly.

To use this method, first connect to the console port and power cycle the device. Then, press Ctrl+B at prompt to access the BootWare menu.

For more information about upgrading software from the BootWare menu, see the release notes for the software version.

IMPORTANT IMPORTANT:

Use this method only when you do not have any other choice.

 

This chapter covers only upgrading software from the CLI by using the boot loader method.

Software image loading

Startup software images

To upgrade software, you must specify the upgrade files as the startup software images for the device to load at next startup. You can specify two lists of software images: one main and one backup. The device first loads the main startup software images. If the main startup software images are not available, the devices loads the backup startup software images.

Image loading process at startup

At startup, the device performs the following operations after loading and initializing BootWare:

1.     Loads main images.

2.     If any main image does not exist or is invalid, loads the backup images.

3.     If any backup image does not exist or is invalid, the device cannot start up.

Handling the emergency shell process or image loading failure

If the device fails to load the images, connect to the console port, power cycle the device, and use the BootWare menu to load new startup images.

Restrictions and guidelines: Software upgrade

As a best practice, store the startup images in a fixed storage medium. If you store the startup images in a hot swappable storage medium, do not remove the hot swappable storage medium during the startup process.

Upgrading device software by using the boot loader method

Restrictions and guidelines

When you upgrade software, you do not need to upgrade interface cards separately. The software images for interface cards are integrated in the software images for MPUs. The interface cards are upgraded automatically when you upgrade MPUs.

Software upgrade tasks at a glance

To upgrade software, perform one of the following tasks:

·     Upgrading the device

·     Synchronizing startup images from the active MPU to standby MPUs

Upgrading the device

1.     (Optional.) Preloading the BootWare image to BootWare

If a BootWare upgrade is required, you can perform this task to shorten the subsequent upgrade time. This task helps reduce upgrade problems caused by unexpected power failure. If you skip this task, the device upgrades the BootWare automatically when it upgrades the startup software images.

2.     Specifying startup images and completing the upgrade

Synchronizing startup images from the active MPU to standby MPUs

·     Enabling automatic software synchronization from the active MPU to the standby MPU

This feature enables a newly added MPU to synchronize the software images running on the active MPU. By default, this feature is enabled.

·     Synchronizing startup images from the active MPU to the standby MPU

Perform this task when the startup images on the standby MPU are not the same version as those on the active MPU.

Prerequisites

1.     Use the display version command to verify the current BootWare image version and startup software version.

2.     Use the release notes for the upgrade software version to evaluate the upgrade impact on your network and verify the following items:

¡     Software and hardware compatibility.

¡     Version and size of the upgrade software.

¡     Compatibility of the upgrade software with the current BootWare image and startup software image.

3.     Use the dir command to verify that all MPUs have sufficient storage space for the upgrade images. If the storage space is not sufficient, delete unused files by using the delete command. For more information, see "Managing file systems."

4.     Use FTP or TFTP to transfer the upgrade image file to the root directory of a file system. For more information about FTP and TFTP, see "Configuring FTP" or "Configuring TFTP." For more information about file systems, see "Managing file systems."

Preloading the BootWare image to BootWare

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     (Optional.) Enable BootWare image validity check.

bootrom-update security-check enable

By default, this feature is enabled.

This feature examines BootWare images for file type errors, file corruption, and hardware incompatibility. As a best practice, enable it to ensure a successful upgrade.

3.     Return to user view.

quit

4.     (Optional.) Back up the current BootWare image.

¡     Back up the image to the Backup area of BootWare:

bootrom backup slot slot-number-list

Use this command to back up the BootWare image for a future version rollback or image restoration.

5.     Load the upgrade BootWare image to the Normal area of BootWare.

bootrom update file file slot slot-number-list

Specify the downloaded software image file for the file argument.

The new BootWare image takes effect at a reboot.

Specifying startup images and completing the upgrade

Perform the following steps in user view:

1.     Specify main or backup startup images for all MPUs.

¡     Use an .ipe file:

boot-loader file ipe-filename [ patch filename&<1-30> ] all { backup | main }

¡     Use .bin files:

boot-loader file boot filename system filename [ feature filename&<1-30> ] [ patch filename&<1-30> ] { all | slot slot-number } { backup | main }

The command copies the specified startup images to the root directory of the default file system on each MPU.

As a best practice, specify the all keyword for the command. If you use the slot slot-number option to upgrade cards one by one, version inconsistencies occur among the cards during the upgrade.

2.     Save the running configuration.

save

This step ensures that any configuration you have made can survive a reboot.

3.     Reboot the device.

reboot

4.     (Optional.) Verify the software image settings.

display boot-loader [ slot slot-number ]

Verify that the current software images are the same as the startup software images.

Enabling automatic software synchronization from the active MPU to the standby MPU

About automatic software synchronization

This feature ensures version consistency between standby MPUs and the active MPU.

When the standby MPU starts up, this feature examines its startup software images for version inconsistency with the current software images on the active MPU. If the software versions are different, the standby MPU performs the following operations:

1.     Copies the current software images of the active MPU.

2.     Specifies the images as startup software images.

3.     Reboots with these images.

Restrictions and guidelines

For a successful synchronization in a multiuser environment, make sure no other users reboot or swap MPUs during the synchronization process.

To track the synchronization process, configure the information center to output synchronization status logs to configuration terminals. For more information, see Network Management and Monitoring Configuration Guide.

This feature is related to the startup software version check feature for the standby MPU.

·     Enabling both features ensures the standby MPU always runs the same software images as the active MPU. However, the standby MPU might fail to synchronize the software images of the active MPU if their software images have critical differences.

·     If you disable the startup software version check feature, the standby MPU can start up with a different software version than the active MPU. However, the device might not be able to operate correctly.

·     If you enable the startup software version check feature but disable automatic software synchronization, the standby MPU cannot start up in the case of a version inconsistency.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enable startup software version check for the standby MPU.

undo version check ignore

By default, startup software version check is enabled.

3.     Enable automatic software synchronization for the standby MPU.

version auto-update enable

By default, automatic software synchronization is enabled.

Synchronizing startup images from the active MPU to the standby MPU

About startup image synchronization

Perform this task when the startup images on the standby MPU are not the same version as those on the active MPU.

This task synchronizes startup images that are running on the active MPU to the standby MPU. If any of the startup images does not exist or is invalid, the synchronization fails.

The startup images synchronized to the standby MPU are set as main startup images, regardless of whether the source startup images are main or backup.

Restrictions and guidelines

If a patch installation has been performed on the active MPU, use the install commit command to update the set of main startup images on the active MPU before software synchronization. This command ensures startup image consistency between the active MPU and the standby MPU.

Procedure

Perform the following steps in user view:

1.     Synchronize startup images from the active MPU to the standby MPU.

boot-loader update { all | slot slot-number }

The command execution results are the same, regardless of whether you specify the all keyword or the slot slot-number option.

2.     Reboot the standby MPU.

reboot slot slot-number [ force ]

Installing or uninstalling features and patches

About installing or uninstalling features and patches

You can install a new feature or patch image, or upgrade an existing feature image.

The device requires a boot image and a system image to operate correctly. You can uninstall only feature and patch images.

Restrictions and guidelines

To ensure a successful image installation or upgrade, do not reboot the device during image installation or upgrade.

Prerequisites

Use FTP or TFTP commands to transfer the image file to the root directory of the default file system on the device.

For more information about FTP and TFTP, see "Configuring FTP" and "Configuring TFTP."

Installing or upgrading features

1.     Activate features.

install activate feature filename&<1-30> slot slot-number

2.     Commit the software changes.

install commit

For the image changes to take effect after a reboot, you must perform a commit operation.

Installing patches

1.     Activate patches.

install activate patch filename { all | slot slot-number }

You can specify only one patch image file for this command at a time. However, you can execute this command multiple times to install multiple patch image files.

The install activate patch filename all command installs the specified patch images on all hardware and the images can survive a reboot. You do not need to execute the install commit command for the installation.

2.     Commit the software changes.

install commit

Images run in memory immediately after they are activated. However, only patch images activated by using the install activate patch filename all command can survive a reboot. For other images to take effect after a reboot, you must execute this command to commit the software change.

Uninstalling features or patches

1.     Deactivate features or patches.

install deactivate feature filename&<1-30> slot slot-number

install deactivate patch filename { all | slot slot-number }

You can specify only one patch image file for this command at a time. However, you can execute this command multiple times to deactivate multiple patch image files.

Images deactivated by using the install deactivate patch filename all command do not run after a reboot. To prevent other deactivated images from running after a reboot, you must commit the software change by using the install commit command.

2.     Commit the software changes.

install commit

This step removes the image file from the startup image list but does not delete the image file from the default file system.

The device will not load features and patches from the image files at startup.

Restoring the BootWare image

About this task

Use this task to restore the BootWare image when the BootWare image in the Normal area is corrupted or a version rollback is required.

Restrictions and guidelines

Make sure you have used the bootrom backup command to back up the image to the BootWare Backup area.

Procedure

Perform the following steps in user view:

1.     Restore the BootWare image in the Normal area of BootWare.

bootrom restore slot slot-number-list

2.     Reboot the device.

reboot

At startup, the system runs the new BootWare image to complete the restoration.

Display and maintenance commands for software image settings

Execute display commands in any view.

 

Task

Command

Display current software images and startup software images.

display boot-loader [ slot slot-number ]

Software upgrade examples

Example: Upgrading device software

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 1, the device has two MPUs: one active MPU in slot 0 and one standby MPU in slot 1.

Use the file startup-a2105.ipe to upgrade software images for the device.

Figure 1 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

IMPORTANT

IMPORTANT:

By default, interfaces on the device are disabled (in ADM or Administratively Down state). To have an interface operate, you must use the undo shutdown command to enable that interface.

# Configure IP addresses and routes. Make sure the device and the TFTP server can reach each other. (Details not shown.)

# Configure TFTP settings on both the device and the TFTP server. (Details not shown.)

# Display information about the current software images.

<Sysname> display version

# Back up the current software images.

<Sysname> copy boot.bin boot_backup.bin

<Sysname> copy system.bin system_backup.bin

# Specify boot_backup.bin and system_backup.bin as the backup startup image files for both MPUs.

<Sysname> boot-loader file boot flash:/boot_backup.bin system flash:/system_backup.bin slot 0 backup

<Sysname> boot-loader file boot flash:/boot_backup.bin system flash:/system_backup.bin slot 1 backup

# Use TFTP to download the startup-a2105.ipe image file from the TFTP server to the root directory of the flash memory on the active MPU.

<Sysname> tftp 2.2.2.2 get startup-a2105.ipe

# Specify startup-a2105.ipe as the main startup image file for both MPUs.

<Sysname> boot-loader file flash:/startup-a2105.ipe slot 0 main

<Sysname> boot-loader file flash:/startup-a2105.ipe slot 1 main

# Verify the startup image settings.

<Sysname> display boot-loader

# Reboot the device to complete the upgrade.

<Sysname> reboot

# Verify that the device is running the correct software.

<Sysname> display version

 

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