04-Layer 3—IP Services Configuration Guide

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Contents

Configuring ARP·· 1

Overview·· 1

ARP message format 1

ARP operating mechanism·· 1

ARP table· 2

Configuring a static ARP entry· 3

Configuring a multiport ARP entry· 4

Setting the maximum number of dynamic ARP entries for a device· 4

Setting the maximum number of dynamic ARP entries for an interface· 5

Setting the aging timer for dynamic ARP entries· 5

Enabling dynamic ARP entry check· 6

Synchronizing ARP entries· 6

Configuring a customer-side port 6

Enabling ARP logging· 7

Displaying and maintaining ARP·· 7

Configuration examples· 8

Long static ARP entry configuration example· 8

Short static ARP entry configuration example· 9

Multiport ARP entry configuration example· 10

Configuring gratuitous ARP·· 12

Overview·· 12

Gratuitous ARP packet learning· 12

Periodic sending of gratuitous ARP packets· 12

Configuration procedure· 13

Enabling IP conflict notification·· 13

Configuring proxy ARP·· 14

Enabling common proxy ARP·· 14

Enabling local proxy ARP·· 14

Displaying proxy ARP·· 14

Common proxy ARP configuration example· 15

Network requirements· 15

Configuration procedure· 15

Verifying the configuration·· 16

Configuring ARP snooping· 17

Configuration procedure· 17

Displaying and maintaining ARP snooping· 17

Configuring ARP fast-reply· 18

Overview·· 18

Configuration procedure· 18

ARP fast-reply configuration example· 18

Network requirements· 18

Configuration procedure· 19

Configuring IP addressing· 20

Overview·· 20

IP address classes· 20

Special IP addresses· 21

Subnetting and masking· 21

Assigning an IP address to an interface· 21

Configuration guidelines· 22

Configuration procedure· 22

Displaying and maintaining IP addressing· 23

IP address configuration example· 23

Network requirements· 23

Configuration procedure· 23

Verifying the configuration·· 24

DHCP overview·· 25

DHCP address allocation·· 25

Allocation mechanisms· 25

IP address allocation process· 26

IP address lease extension·· 26

DHCP message format 27

DHCP options· 28

Common DHCP options· 28

Custom DHCP options· 28

Protocols and standards· 30

Configuring the DHCP server 31

Overview·· 31

DHCP address pool 31

IP address allocation sequence· 33

DHCP server configuration task list 33

Configuring an address pool on the DHCP server 34

Configuration task list 34

Creating a DHCP address pool 34

Specifying IP address ranges for a DHCP address pool 34

Specifying gateways for DHCP clients· 37

Specifying a domain name suffix for DHCP clients· 38

Specifying DNS servers for DHCP clients· 38

Specifying WINS servers and NetBIOS node type for DHCP clients· 39

Specifying BIMS server for DHCP clients· 39

Specifying the configuration file for DHCP client auto-configuration·· 40

Specifying a server for DHCP clients· 40

Customizing DHCP options· 41

Enabling DHCP·· 42

Enabling the DHCP server on an interface· 43

Applying an address pool on an interface· 43

Configuring a DHCP policy for dynamic address assignment 43

Configuring IP address conflict detection·· 44

Enabling handling of Option 82· 45

Configuring DHCP server compatibility· 45

Configuring the DHCP server to broadcast all responses· 45

Setting the DSCP value for DHCP packets sent by the DHCP server 46

Applying a DHCP address pool to a VPN instance· 46

Displaying and maintaining the DHCP server 47

DHCP server configuration examples· 47

Dynamic IP address assignment configuration example· 47

DHCP user class configuration example· 49

Primary and secondary subnets configuration example· 51

DHCP option customization configuration example· 52

Troubleshooting DHCP server configuration·· 54

Symptom·· 54

Analysis· 54

Solution·· 54

Configuring the DHCP relay agent 55

Overview·· 55

Operation·· 55

DHCP relay agent support for Option 82· 56

DHCP relay agent configuration task list 56

Enabling DHCP·· 57

Enabling the DHCP relay agent on an interface· 57

Specifying DHCP servers on a relay agent 57

Configuring the DHCP relay agent security features· 58

Enabling the DHCP relay agent to record relay entries· 58

Enabling periodic refresh of dynamic relay entries· 58

Enabling DHCP starvation attack protection·· 59

Configuring the DHCP relay agent to release an IP address· 60

Configuring Option 82· 60

Setting the DSCP value for DHCP packets sent by the DHCP relay agent 61

Configuring a DHCP address pool on the DHCP relay agent 61

Configuring the DHCP smart relay feature· 62

Displaying and maintaining the DHCP relay agent 63

DHCP relay agent configuration examples· 63

DHCP relay agent configuration example· 63

Option 82 configuration example· 64

Troubleshooting DHCP relay agent configuration·· 65

Symptom·· 65

Analysis· 65

Solution·· 65

Configuring the DHCP client 66

Enabling the DHCP client on an interface· 66

Configuring a DHCP client ID for an interface· 66

Enabling duplicated address detection·· 67

Setting the DSCP value for DHCP packets sent by the DHCP client 67

Displaying and maintaining the DHCP client 67

DHCP client configuration example· 68

Network requirements· 68

Configuration procedure· 68

Verifying the configuration·· 69

Configuring DHCP snooping· 71

Overview·· 71

Application of trusted and untrusted ports· 71

DHCP snooping support for Option 82· 72

DHCP snooping configuration task list 73

Configuring basic DHCP snooping· 73

Configuring Option 82· 74

Configuring DHCP snooping entry auto backup· 75

Enabling DHCP starvation attack protection·· 76

Enabling DHCP-REQUEST attack protection·· 76

Setting the maximum number of DHCP snooping entries· 77

Configuring DHCP packet rate limit 77

Displaying and maintaining DHCP snooping· 77

DHCP snooping configuration examples· 78

Basic DHCP snooping configuration example· 78

Option 82 configuration example· 79

Configuring DNS·· 81

Overview·· 81

Static domain name resolution·· 81

Dynamic domain name resolution·· 81

DNS configuration task list 82

Configuring the IPv4 DNS client 82

Configuring static domain name resolution·· 82

Configuring dynamic domain name resolution·· 83

Configuring the IPv6 DNS client 84

Configuring static domain name resolution·· 84

Configuring dynamic domain name resolution·· 84

Specifying the source interface for DNS packets· 85

Configuring the DNS trusted interface· 86

Setting the DSCP value for outgoing DNS packets· 86

Displaying and maintaining DNS·· 86

IPv4 DNS configuration examples· 87

Static domain name resolution configuration example· 87

Dynamic domain name resolution configuration example· 88

IPv6 DNS configuration examples· 91

Static domain name resolution configuration example· 91

Dynamic domain name resolution configuration example· 91

Troubleshooting IPv4 DNS configuration·· 94

Symptom·· 94

Solution·· 94

Troubleshooting IPv6 DNS configuration·· 94

Symptom·· 94

Solution·· 94

Configuring IP forwarding basic settings· 96

FIB table· 96

Saving the IP forwarding entries to a file· 96

Displaying FIB table entries· 97

Configuring load sharing· 98

Configuring per-flow load sharing· 98

Enabling local-first load sharing· 98

Displaying the load sharing path selected for a flow·· 99

Load sharing configuration example· 99

Network requirements· 99

Configuration procedure· 99

Verifying the configuration·· 100

Configuring IRDP·· 101

Overview·· 101

IRDP operation·· 101

Basic concepts· 101

Protocols and standards· 102

Configuration procedure· 102

IRDP configuration example· 103

Network requirements· 103

Configuration procedure· 103

Verifying the configuration·· 104

Optimizing IP performance· 105

Enabling an interface to forward directed broadcasts destined for the directly connected network· 105

Configuration procedure· 105

Configuration example· 105

Setting the interface MTU for IPv4 packets· 106

Setting TCP MSS for an interface· 106

Enabling SYN Cookie· 107

Setting the TCP buffer size· 107

Setting TCP timers· 108

Enabling sending ICMP error messages· 108

Disabling forwarding ICMP fragments· 110

Configuring rate limit for ICMP error messages· 110

Specifying the source address for ICMP packets· 110

Displaying and maintaining IP performance optimization·· 111

Configuring UDP helper 113

Overview·· 113

Configuration restrictions and guidelines· 113

Configuring UDP helper to convert broadcast to unicast 113

Configuring UDP helper to convert broadcast to multicast 114

Displaying and maintaining UDP helper 114

UDP helper configuration examples· 115

Configuring UDP helper to convert broadcast to unicast 115

Configuring UDP helper to convert broadcast to multicast 116

Configuring basic IPv6 settings· 118

Overview·· 118

IPv6 features· 118

IPv6 addresses· 119

IPv6 ND protocol 121

IPv6 path MTU discovery· 123

IPv6 transition technologies· 124

Dual stack· 124

Tunneling· 124

6PE·· 125

Protocols and standards· 125

IPv6 basics configuration task list 125

Assigning IPv6 addresses to interfaces· 126

Configuring an IPv6 global unicast address· 126

Configuring an IPv6 link-local address· 129

Configuring an IPv6 anycast address· 130

Configuring IPv6 ND·· 130

Configuring a static neighbor entry· 130

Setting the maximum number of dynamic neighbor entries· 131

Setting the aging timer for ND entries in stale state· 131

Minimizing link-local ND entries· 131

Setting the hop limit 132

Configuring parameters for RA messages· 132

Setting the maximum number of attempts to send an NS message for DAD·· 134

Enabling ND proxy· 134

Configuring a customer-side port 136

Configuring path MTU discovery· 136

Setting the interface MTU for IPv6 packets· 136

Setting a static path MTU for an IPv6 address· 137

Setting the aging time for dynamic path MTUs· 137

Controlling sending ICMPv6 messages· 137

Configuring the rate limit for ICMPv6 error messages· 137

Enabling replying to multicast echo requests· 138

Enabling sending ICMPv6 destination unreachable messages· 138

Enabling sending ICMPv6 time exceeded messages· 139

Enabling sending ICMPv6 redirect messages· 139

Specifying the source address for ICMPv6 packets· 140

Enabling IPv6 local fragment reassembly· 140

Enabling a device to discard IPv6 packets that contain extension headers· 140

Displaying and maintaining IPv6 basics· 141

Basic IPv6 configuration example· 143

Network requirements· 143

Configuration procedure· 143

Verifying the configuration·· 144

Troubleshooting IPv6 basics configuration·· 147

Symptom·· 147

Solution·· 147

DHCPv6 overview·· 148

DHCPv6 address/prefix assignment 148

Rapid assignment involving two messages· 148

Assignment involving four messages· 148

Address/prefix lease renewal 149

Stateless DHCPv6· 150

Protocols and standards· 150

Configuring the DHCPv6 server 151

Overview·· 151

IPv6 address assignment 151

IPv6 prefix assignment 151

Concepts· 152

DHCPv6 address pool 152

IPv6 address/prefix allocation sequence· 153

Configuration task list 154

Configuring IPv6 prefix assignment 154

Configuration guidelines· 154

Configuration procedure· 154

Configuring IPv6 address assignment 155

Configuration guidelines· 156

Configuration procedure· 156

Configuring network parameters assignment 157

Configuring the DHCPv6 server on an interface· 157

Configuration guidelines· 158

Configuration procedure· 158

Setting the DSCP value for DHCPv6 packets sent by the DHCPv6 server 158

Enabling the DHCPv6 server to advertise IPv6 prefixes· 159

Displaying and maintaining the DHCPv6 server 159

DHCPv6 server configuration examples· 160

Dynamic IPv6 prefix assignment configuration example· 160

Dynamic IPv6 address assignment configuration example· 162

Configuring the DHCPv6 relay agent 165

Overview·· 165

DHCPv6 relay agent configuration task list 166

Enabling the DHCPv6 relay agent on an interface· 166

Specifying DHCPv6 servers on the relay agent 166

Setting the DSCP value for DHCPv6 packets sent by the DHCPv6 relay agent 167

Specifying a padding mode for the Interface-ID option·· 167

Configuring a DHCPv6 address pool on the DHCPv6 relay agent 168

Enabling the DHCPv6 relay agent to advertise IPv6 prefixes· 168

Displaying and maintaining the DHCPv6 relay agent 169

DHCPv6 relay agent configuration example· 169

Network requirements· 169

Configuration procedure· 170

Verifying the configuration·· 170

Configuring the DHCPv6 client 172

Overview·· 172

DHCPv6 client configuration task list 172

Configuring IPv6 address acquisition·· 172

Configuring IPv6 prefix acquisition·· 173

Configuring stateless DHCPv6· 173

Setting the DSCP value for DHCPv6 packets sent by the DHCPv6 client 173

Displaying and maintaining DHCPv6 client 174

DHCPv6 client configuration examples· 174

IPv6 address acquisition configuration example· 174

IPv6 prefix acquisition configuration example· 176

Stateless DHCPv6 configuration example· 177

Configuring tunneling· 180

Overview·· 180

Configuring a tunnel interface· 180

Displaying and maintaining tunneling configuration·· 182

Troubleshooting tunneling configuration·· 182

Symptom·· 182

Analysis· 182

Solution·· 182

IPv6 over IPv4 tunneling· 184

Overview·· 184

Configuring an IPv6 over IPv4 tunnel 184

Configuration example· 185

IPv4 over IPv4 tunneling· 189

Overview·· 189

Configuring an IPv4 over IPv4 tunnel 189

Configuration example· 190

Configuring GRE·· 194

Overview·· 194

GRE encapsulation format 194

GRE tunnel operating principle· 194

GRE application scenarios· 195

Protocols and standards· 196

Configuring a GRE/IPv4 tunnel 196

Configuration guidelines· 196

Configuration procedure· 197

Displaying and maintaining GRE·· 198

GRE configuration examples· 199

Configuring an IPv4 over IPv4 GRE tunnel 199

Troubleshooting GRE·· 201

Symptom·· 202

Analysis· 202

Solution·· 202

Index· 203

 


Configuring ARP

Overview

ARP resolves IP addresses into MAC addresses on Ethernet networks.

ARP message format

ARP uses two types of messages: ARP request and ARP reply. Figure 1 shows the format of ARP request/reply messages. Numbers in the figure refer to field lengths.

Figure 1 ARP message format

 

·          Hardware type—Hardware address type. The value 1 represents Ethernet.

·          Protocol type—Type of the protocol address to be mapped. The hexadecimal value 0x0800 represents IP.

·          Hardware address length and protocol address length—Length, in bytes, of a hardware address and a protocol address. For an Ethernet address, the value of the hardware address length field is 6. For an IPv4 address, the value of the protocol address length field is 4.

·          OP—Operation code, which describes the type of ARP message. The value 1 represents an ARP request, and the value 2 represents an ARP reply.

·          Sender hardware address—Hardware address of the device sending the message.

·          Sender protocol address—Protocol address of the device sending the message.

·          Target hardware address—Hardware address of the device to which the message is being sent.

·          Target protocol address—Protocol address of the device to which the message is being sent.

ARP operating mechanism

As shown in Figure 2, Host A and Host B are on the same subnet. Host A sends a packet to Host B as follows:

1.        Host A looks through the ARP table for an ARP entry for Host B. If one entry is found, Host A uses the MAC address in the entry to encapsulate the IP packet into a data link layer frame. Then Host A sends the frame to Host B.

2.        If Host A finds no entry for Host B, Host A buffers the packet and broadcasts an ARP request. The payload of the ARP request contains the following information:

?  Sender IP address and sender MAC address—Host A's IP address and MAC address.

?  Target IP address—Host B's IP address.

?  Target MAC address—An all-zero MAC address.

All hosts on this subnet can receive the broadcast request, but only the requested host (Host B) processes the request.

3.        Host B compares its own IP address with the target IP address in the ARP request. If they are the same, Host B operates as follows:

a.    Adds the sender IP address and sender MAC address into its ARP table.

b.    Encapsulates its MAC address into an ARP reply.

c.    Unicasts the ARP reply to Host A.

4.        After receiving the ARP reply, Host A operates as follows:

a.    Adds the MAC address of Host B into its ARP table.

b.    Encapsulates the MAC address into the packet and sends the packet to Host B.

Figure 2 ARP address resolution process

 

If Host A and Host B are on different subnets, Host A sends a packet to Host B as follows:

5.        Host A broadcasts an ARP request where the target IP address is the IP address of the gateway.

6.        The gateway responds with its MAC address in an ARP reply to Host A.

7.        Host A uses the gateway's MAC address to encapsulate the packet, and then sends the packet to the gateway.

8.        If the gateway has an ARP entry for Host B, it forwards the packet to Host B directly. If not, the gateway broadcasts an ARP request, in which the target IP address is the IP address of Host B.

9.        After the gateway gets the MAC address of Host B, it sends the packet to Host B.

ARP table

An ARP table stores dynamic, static, OpenFlow, and Rule ARP entries.

Dynamic ARP entry

ARP automatically creates and updates dynamic entries. A dynamic ARP entry is removed when its aging timer expires or the output interface goes down. In addition, a dynamic ARP entry can be overwritten by a static ARP entry.

Static ARP entry

A static ARP entry is manually configured and maintained. It does not age out and cannot be overwritten by any dynamic ARP entry.

Static ARP entries protect communication between devices because attack packets cannot modify the IP-to-MAC mapping in a static ARP entry.

The device supports the following types of static ARP entries:

·          Long static ARP entry—It contains the IP address, MAC address, and one of the following combinations:

?  VLAN and output interface.

?  Input and output interfaces.

A long static ARP entry is directly used for forwarding packets.

·          Short static ARP entry—It contains only the IP address and MAC address.

?  If the output interface is a Layer 3 Ethernet interface, the short ARP entry can be directly used to forward packets.

?  If the output interface is a VLAN interface, the device sends an ARP request whose target IP address is the IP address in the short entry. If the sender IP and MAC addresses in the received ARP reply match the short static ARP entry, the device performs the following operations:

-      Adds the interface that received the ARP reply to the short static ARP entry.

-      Uses the resolved short static ARP entry to forward IP packets.

·          Multiport ARP entry—It contains the IP address, MAC address, and VLAN.

The device can use a multiport ARP entry that has the same MAC address and VLAN as a multicast or multiport unicast MAC address entry for packet forwarding. A multiport ARP entry is manually configured. It does not age out and cannot be overwritten by any dynamic ARP entry. For more information about multicast MAC, see IP Multicast Configuration Guide.

To communicate with a host by using a fixed IP-to-MAC mapping, configure a short static ARP entry on the device. To communicate with a host by using a fixed IP-to-MAC mapping through an interface in a VLAN, configure a long static ARP entry on the device.

OpenFlow ARP entry

ARP creates OpenFlow ARP entries by learning from the OpenFlow module. An OpenFlow ARP entry does not age out, and it cannot be updated. An OpenFlow ARP entry can be used directly to forward packets. For more information about OpenFlow, see OpenFlow Configuration Guide.

Rule ARP entry

ARP creates Rule ARP entries by learning from the VXLAN and OVSDB modules. A Rule ARP entry does not age out, and it cannot be updated. It can be overwritten by a static ARP entry. A Rule ARP entry can be used directly to forward packets.

For more information about VXLAN and OVSDB, see VXLAN Configuration Guide.

Configuring a static ARP entry

Static ARP entries are effective when the device functions correctly.

A resolved short static ARP entry becomes unresolved upon certain events, for example, when the resolved output interface goes down, or the corresponding VLAN or VLAN interface is deleted.

Long static ARP entries can be effective or ineffective. Ineffective long static ARP entries cannot be used for packet forwarding. A long static ARP entry is ineffective when any of the following conditions exists:

·          The corresponding VLAN interface or output interface is down.

·          The IP address in the entry conflicts with a local IP address.

·          No local interface has an IP address in the same subnet as the IP address in the ARP entry.

A long static ARP entry in a VLAN is deleted if the VLAN or VLAN interface is deleted.

To configure a static ARP entry:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Configure a static ARP entry.

·         Configure a long static ARP entry:
arp static ip-address mac-address [ vlan-id interface-type interface-number | interface-type interface-number interface-type interface-number vsi vsi-name ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

·         Configure a short static ARP entry:
arp static ip-address mac-address [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

By default, no static ARP entries exist.

 

Configuring a multiport ARP entry

A multiport ARP entry contains an IP address, MAC address, and VLAN ID. For a multiport ARP entry to be effective for packet forwarding, make sure the following conditions are met:

·          A multicast or multiport unicast MAC address entry is configured to specify multiple output interfaces. The MAC address entry must have the same MAC address and VLAN ID as the multiport ARP entry.

·          The IP address in the multiport ARP entry must reside on the same subnet as the VLAN interface of the specified VLAN.

A multiport ARP entry can overwrite a dynamic, short static or long static ARP entry. Conversely, a short static or long static ARP entry can overwrite a multiport ARP entry.

To configure a multiport ARP entry:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Configure a multicast or multiport unicast MAC address entry.

·         Configure a multiport unicast MAC address entry:
mac-address multiport mac-address interface interface-list vlan vlan-id

·         Configure a multicast MAC address entry:
mac-address multicast mac-address interface interface-list vlan vlan-id

By default, no multicast or multiport unicast MAC address entries exist.

For more information about the mac-address multiport command, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Command Reference. For more information about the mac-address multicast command, see IP Multicast Command Reference.

3.       Configure a multiport ARP entry.

arp multiport ip-address mac-address vlan-id [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

By default, no multiport ARP entries exist.

 

Setting the maximum number of dynamic ARP entries for a device

A device can dynamically learn ARP entries. To prevent a device from holding too many ARP entries, you can set the maximum number of dynamic ARP entries that the device can learn. When the maximum number is reached, the device stops learning ARP entries.

If you set a value lower than the number of existing dynamic ARP entries, the device does not remove the existing entries unless they are aged out.

To set the maximum number of dynamic ARP entries for a device:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Set the maximum number of dynamic ARP entries for the device.

In standalone mode:
arp max-learning-number max-number slot slot-number

In IRF mode:
arp max-learning-number max-number chassis chassis-number slot slot-number

By default, a device can learn a maximum of 1048576 dynamic ARP entries.

To disable the device from learning dynamic ARP entries, set the number to 0.

 

Setting the maximum number of dynamic ARP entries for an interface

An interface can dynamically learn ARP entries. To prevent an interface from holding too many ARP entries, you can set the maximum number of dynamic ARP entries that the interface can learn. When the maximum number is reached, the interface stops learning ARP entries.

You can set limits for both a Layer 2 interface and the VLAN interface for a permitted VLAN on the Layer 2 interface. The Layer 2 interface learns an ARP entry only when neither limit is reached.

The total number of dynamic ARP entries that all interfaces learn will not be larger than the maximum number of dynamic ARP entries set for the device.

To set the maximum number of dynamic ARP entries for an interface:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.       Set the maximum number of dynamic ARP entries for the interface.

arp max-learning-num max-number

By default, an interface can learn a maximum of 1048576 dynamic ARP entries.

To disable the interface from learning dynamic ARP entries, set the number to 0.

 

Setting the aging timer for dynamic ARP entries

Each dynamic ARP entry in the ARP table has a limited lifetime, called an aging timer. The aging timer of a dynamic ARP entry is reset each time the dynamic ARP entry is updated. A dynamic ARP entry that is not updated before its aging timer expires is deleted from the ARP table.

To set the aging timer for dynamic ARP entries:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Set the aging timer for dynamic ARP entries.

arp timer aging aging-time

The default setting is 20 minutes.

 

Enabling dynamic ARP entry check

The dynamic ARP entry check feature disables the device from supporting dynamic ARP entries that contain multicast MAC addresses. The device cannot learn dynamic ARP entries containing multicast MAC addresses. You cannot manually add static ARP entries containing multicast MAC addresses.

When dynamic ARP entry check is disabled, ARP entries containing multicast MAC addresses are supported. The device can learn dynamic ARP entries containing multicast MAC addresses obtained from the ARP packets sourced from a unicast MAC address. You can also manually add static ARP entries containing multicast MAC addresses.

To enable dynamic ARP entry check:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enable dynamic ARP entry check.

arp check enable

By default, dynamic ARP entry check is enabled.

 

Synchronizing ARP entries

This task ensures that all cards on the device have the same ARP entries.

To synchronize ARP entries across all cards in a timely manner, you can schedule the device to automatically execute the arp smooth command. For information about scheduling a task, see Fundamentals Configuration Guide.

To synchronize ARP entries from the active MPU to all other cards:

 

Task

Command

Synchronize ARP entries from the active MPU to all other cards.

arp smooth

 

Configuring a customer-side port

By default, the device associates an ARP entry with routing information when the device learns an ARP entry. The ARP entry provides the next hop information for routing. To save hardware resources, you can use this command to specify a port that connects a user terminal as a customer-side port. The device will not associate the routing information with the learned ARP entries.

To configure a customer-side port:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.       Configure the VLAN interface as a customer-side port.

arp mode uni

By default, a port operates as a network-side port.

 

Enabling ARP logging

This feature enables a device to log ARP events when ARP cannot resolve IP addresses correctly. The device can log the following ARP events:

·          On a proxy ARP-disabled interface, the target IP address of a received ARP packet is not one of the following IP addresses:

?  The IP address of the receiving interface.

?  The virtual IP address of the VRRP group.

·          The sender IP address of a received ARP reply conflicts with one of the following IP addresses:

?  The IP address of the receiving interface.

?  The virtual IP address of the VRRP group.

The device sends ARP log messages to the information center. You can use the info-center source command to specify the log output rules for the information center. For more information about information center, see Network Management and Monitoring Configuration Guide.

To enable the ARP logging feature:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enable the ARP logging feature.

arp check log enable

By default, ARP logging is disabled.

 

Displaying and maintaining ARP

IMPORTANT

IMPORTANT:

Clearing ARP entries from the ARP table might cause communication failures. Make sure the entries to be cleared do not affect current communications.

 

Execute display commands in any view and reset commands in user view.

 

Task

Command

(In standalone mode.) Display ARP entries.

display arp [ [ all | dynamic | multiport | static ] [ slot slot-number ] | vlan vlan-id | interface interface-type interface-number ] [ count | verbose ]

(In IRF mode.) Display ARP entries.

display arp [ [ all | dynamic | multiport | static ] [ chassis chassis-number slot slot-number ] | vlan vlan-id | interface interface-type interface-number ] [ count | verbose ]

(In standalone mode.) Display the ARP entry for an IP address.

display arp ip-address [ slot slot-number ] [ verbose ]

(In IRF mode.) Display the ARP entry for an IP address.

display arp ip-address [ chassis chassis-number slot slot-number ] [ verbose ]

Display the maximum number of ARP entries that a device supports.

display arp entry-limit

Display the ARP entries for a VPN instance.

display arp vpn-instance vpn-instance-name [ count ]

Display the aging timer of dynamic ARP entries.

display arp timer aging

(In standalone mode.) Clear ARP entries from the ARP table.

reset arp { all | dynamic | interface interface-type interface-number | multiport | slot slot-number | static }

(In IRF mode.) Clear ARP entries from the ARP table.

reset arp { all | chassis chassis-number slot slot-number | dynamic | interface interface-type interface-number | multiport | static }

 

Configuration examples

Long static ARP entry configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 3, hosts are connected to Device B. Device B is connected to Device A through interface HundredGigE 1/0/1 in VLAN 10.

To ensure secure communications between Device A and Device B, configure a long static ARP entry for Device A on Device B.

Figure 3 Network diagram

Configuration procedure

# Create VLAN 10.

<DeviceB> system-view

[DeviceB] vlan 10

[DeviceB-vlan10] quit

# Add interface HundredGigE 1/0/1 to VLAN 10.

[DeviceB] interface hundredgige 1/0/1

[DeviceB-HundredGigE1/0/1] port access vlan 10

[DeviceB-HundredGigE1/0/1] quit

# Create VLAN-interface 10 and configure its IP address.

[DeviceB] interface vlan-interface 10

[DeviceB-vlan-interface10] ip address 192.168.1.2 8

[DeviceB-vlan-interface10] quit

# Configure a long static ARP entry that has IP address 192.168.1.1, MAC address 00e0-fc01-0000, and output interface HundredGigE 1/0/1 in VLAN 10.

[DeviceB] arp static 192.168.1.1 00e0-fc01-0000 10 hundredgige 1/0/1

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that Device B has a long static ARP entry for Device A.

[DeviceB] display arp static

  Type: S-Static   D-Dynamic   O-Openflow   R-Rule   M-Multiport  I-Invalid

IP address       MAC address     VID     Interface/Link ID      Aging Type

192.168.1.1      00e0-fc01-0000  10      HGE1/0/1               N/A   S

Short static ARP entry configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 4, hosts are connected to Device B. Device B is connected to Device A through interface HundredGigE 1/0/2.

To ensure secure communications between Device A and Device B, configure a short static ARP entry for Device A on Device B.

Figure 4 Network diagram

Configuration procedure

# Configure an IP address for HundredGigE 1/0/2.

<DeviceB> system-view

[DeviceB] interface hundredgige 1/0/2

[DeviceB-HundredGigE1/0/2] ip address 192.168.1.2/24

[DeviceB-HundredGigE1/0/2] quit

# Configure a short static ARP entry that has IP address 192.168.1.1 and MAC address 00e0-fc01-001f.

[DeviceB] arp static 192.168.1.1 00e0-fc01-001f

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that Device B has a short static ARP entry for Device A

[DeviceB] display arp static

  Type: S-Static   D-Dynamic   O-Openflow   R-Rule   M-Multiport  I-Invalid

IP address       MAC address     VID     Interface/Link ID      Aging Type

192.168.1.1      00e0-fc01-001f  N/A     N/A                    N/A   S

Multiport ARP entry configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 5, a device connects to three servers through interfaces HundredGigE 1/0/1, HundredGigE 1/0/2, and HundredGigE 1/0/3 in VLAN 10. The servers share the IP address 192.168.1.1/24 and MAC address 00e0-fc01-0000.

Configure a multiport ARP entry so that the device sends IP packets with the destination IP address 192.168.1.1 to the three servers.

Figure 5 Network diagram

Configuration procedure

# Create VLAN 10.

<Device> system-view

[Device] vlan 10

[Device-vlan10] quit

# Add HundredGigE 1/0/1, HundredGigE 1/0/2, and HundredGigE 1/0/3 to VLAN 10.

[Device] interface hundredgige 1/0/1

[Device-HundredGigE1/0/1] port access vlan 10

[Device-HundredGigE1/0/1] quit

[Device] interface hundredgige 1/0/2

[Device-HundredGigE1/0/2] port access vlan 10

[Device-HundredGigE1/0/2] quit

[Device] interface hundredgige 1/0/3

[Device-HundredGigE1/0/3] port access vlan 10

[Device-HundredGigE1/0/3] quit

# Create VLAN-interface 10 and specify its IP address.

[Device] interface vlan-interface 10

[Device-vlan-interface10] ip address 192.168.1.2 24

[Device-vlan-interface10] quit

# Configure a multiport unicast MAC address entry that has MAC address 00e0-fc01-0000, and output interfaces HundredGigE 1/0/1, HundredGigE 1/0/2, and HundredGigE 1/0/3 in VLAN 10.

[Device] mac-address multiport 00e0-fc01-0000 interface hundredgige 1/0/1 to hundredgige 1/0/3 vlan 10

# Configure a multiport ARP entry with IP address 192.168.1.1 and MAC address 00e0-fc01-0000.

[Device] arp multiport 192.168.1.1 00e0-fc01-0000 10

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that the device has a multiport ARP entry with IP address 192.168.1.1 and MAC address 00e0-fc01-0000.

[Device] display arp

  Type: S-Static   D-Dynamic   O-Openflow   R-Rule   M-Multiport  I-Invalid

IP address       MAC address     VID     Interface/Link ID      Aging Type

192.168.1.1      00e0-fc01-0000  10      N/A                    N/A   M


Configuring gratuitous ARP

Overview

In a gratuitous ARP packet, the sender IP address and the target IP address are the IP address of the sending device.

A device sends a gratuitous ARP packet for either of the following purposes:

·          Determine whether its IP address is already used by another device. If the IP address is already used, the device is informed of the conflict by an ARP reply.

·          Inform other devices of a MAC address change.

Gratuitous ARP packet learning

This feature enables a device to create or update ARP entries by using the sender IP and MAC addresses in received gratuitous ARP packets.

When this feature is disabled, the device uses received gratuitous ARP packets to update existing ARP entries only. ARP entries are not created based on the received gratuitous ARP packets, which saves ARP table space.

Periodic sending of gratuitous ARP packets

Enabling periodic sending of gratuitous ARP packets helps downstream devices update ARP entries or MAC entries in a timely manner.

This feature can implement the following functions:

·          Prevent gateway spoofing.

Gateway spoofing occurs when an attacker uses the gateway address to send gratuitous ARP packets to the hosts on a network. The traffic destined for the gateway from the hosts is sent to the attacker instead. As a result, the hosts cannot access the external network.

To prevent such gateway spoofing attacks, you can enable the gateway to send gratuitous ARP packets at intervals. Gratuitous ARP packets contain the primary IP address and manually configured secondary IP addresses of the gateway, so hosts can learn correct gateway information.

·          Prevent ARP entries from aging out.

If network traffic is heavy or if the host CPU usage is high, received ARP packets can be discarded or are not promptly processed. Eventually, the dynamic ARP entries on the receiving host age out. The traffic between the host and the corresponding devices is interrupted until the host re-creates the ARP entries.

To prevent this problem, you can enable the gateway to send gratuitous ARP packets periodically. Gratuitous ARP packets contain the primary IP address and manually configured secondary IP addresses of the gateway, so the receiving hosts can update ARP entries in a timely manner.

·          Prevent the virtual IP address of a VRRP group from being used by a host.

The master router of a VRRP group can periodically send gratuitous ARP packets to the hosts on the local network. The hosts can then update local ARP entries and avoid using the virtual IP address of the VRRP group. The sender MAC address in the gratuitous ARP packet is the virtual MAC address of the virtual router. For more information about VRRP, see High Availability Configuration Guide.

Configuration procedure

When you configure gratuitous ARP, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·          You can enable periodic sending of gratuitous ARP packets on a maximum of 1024 interfaces.

·          Periodic sending of gratuitous ARP packets takes effect on an interface only when the following conditions are met:

?  The data link layer state of the interface is up.

?  The interface has an IP address.

·          If you change the sending interval for gratuitous ARP packets, the configuration takes effect at the next sending interval.

·          The sending interval for gratuitous ARP packets might be much longer than the specified sending interval in any of the following circumstances:

?  This feature is enabled on multiple interfaces.

?  Each interface is configured with multiple secondary IP addresses.

?  A small sending interval is configured when the previous two conditions exist.

To configure gratuitous ARP:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enable learning of gratuitous ARP packets.

gratuitous-arp-learning enable

By default, learning of gratuitous ARP packets is enabled.

3.       Enable the device to send gratuitous ARP packets upon receiving ARP requests whose sender IP address belongs to a different subnet.

gratuitous-arp-sending enable

By default, a device does not send gratuitous ARP packets upon receiving ARP requests whose sender IP address belongs to a different subnet.

4.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

5.       Enable periodic sending of gratuitous ARP packets.

arp send-gratuitous-arp [ interval interval ]

By default, periodic sending of gratuitous ARP packets is disabled.

 

Enabling IP conflict notification

By default, if the sender IP address of an ARP packet is being used by the receiving device, the receiving device sends a gratuitous ARP request. It also displays an error message after it receives an ARP reply about the conflict.

You can use this command to enable the device to display error messages before sending a gratuitous ARP reply or request for conflict confirmation.

To enable IP conflict notification:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enable IP conflict notification.

arp ip-conflict log prompt

By default, IP conflict notification is disabled.

 


Configuring proxy ARP

Proxy ARP enables a device on one network to answer ARP requests for an IP address on another network. With proxy ARP, hosts on different broadcast domains can communicate with each other as they would on the same broadcast domain.

Proxy ARP includes common proxy ARP and local proxy ARP.

·          Common proxy ARP—Allows communication between hosts that connect to different Layer 3 interfaces and reside in different broadcast domains.

·          Local proxy ARP—Allows communication between hosts that connect to the same Layer 3 interface and reside in different broadcast domains.

Enabling common proxy ARP

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

The following interface types are supported:

·         VLAN interface.

·         Layer 3 Ethernet interface.

·         Layer 3 Ethernet subinterface.

·         Layer 3 aggregate interface.

·         Layer 3 aggregate subinterface.

3.       Enable common proxy ARP.

proxy-arp enable

By default, common proxy ARP is disabled.

 

Enabling local proxy ARP

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

The following interface types are supported:

·         VLAN interface.

·         Layer 3 Ethernet interface.

·         Layer 3 Ethernet subinterface.

·         Layer 3 aggregate interface.

·         Layer 3 aggregate subinterface.

3.       Enable local proxy ARP.

local-proxy-arp enable [ ip-range start-ip-address to end-ip-address ]

By default, local proxy ARP is disabled.

 

Displaying proxy ARP

Execute display commands in any view.

 

Task

Command

Display common proxy ARP status.

display proxy-arp [ interface interface-type interface-number ]

Display local proxy ARP status.

display local-proxy-arp [ interface interface-type interface-number ]

 

Common proxy ARP configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 6, Host A and Host D have the same IP prefix and mask, but they are located on different subnets separated by the switch. Host A belongs to VLAN 1, and Host D belongs to VLAN 2. No default gateway is configured on Host A and Host D.

Configure common proxy ARP on the switch to enable communication between the two hosts.

Figure 6 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

# Create VLAN 2.

<Switch> system-view

[Switch] vlan 2

[Switch-vlan2] quit

# Configure the IP address of VLAN-interface 1.

[Switch] interface vlan-interface 1

[Switch-Vlan-interface1] ip address 192.168.10.99 255.255.255.0

# Enable common proxy ARP on VLAN-interface 1.

[Switch-Vlan-interface1] proxy-arp enable

[Switch-Vlan-interface1] quit

# Configure the IP address of VLAN-interface 2.

[Switch] interface vlan-interface 2

[Switch-Vlan-interface2] ip address 192.168.20.99 255.255.255.0

# Enable common proxy ARP on VLAN-interface 2.

[Switch-Vlan-interface2] proxy-arp enable

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that Host A and Host D can ping each other.


Configuring ARP snooping

ARP snooping is used in Layer 2 switching networks. It creates ARP snooping entries by using information in ARP packets. ARP fast-reply can use the ARP snooping entries.

If you enable ARP snooping for a VLAN, ARP packets received in the VLAN are redirected to the CPU. The CPU uses the sender IP and MAC addresses of the ARP packets, and receiving VLAN and port to create ARP snooping entries.

The aging timer and valid period of an ARP snooping entry are 25 minutes and 15 minutes. If an ARP snooping entry is not updated in 12 minutes, the device sends an ARP request. The ARP request uses the IP address of the entry as the target IP address. If an ARP snooping entry is not updated in 15 minutes, it becomes invalid and cannot be used. After that, if an ARP packet matching the entry is received, the entry becomes valid, and its aging timer restarts. If the aging timer of an ARP snooping entry expires, the entry is removed.

An attack occurs if an ARP packet has the same sender IP address as a valid ARP snooping entry but a different sender MAC address. The ARP snooping entry becomes invalid, and it is removed in 1 minute.

Configuration procedure

To enable ARP snooping for a VLAN:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enter VLAN view.

vlan vlan-id

N/A

3.       Enable ARP snooping

arp snooping enable

By default, ARP snooping is disabled.

 

Displaying and maintaining ARP snooping

Execute display commands in any view and reset commands in user view.

 

Task

Command

(In standalone mode.) Display ARP snooping entries.

display arp snooping [ vlan vlan-id ] [ slot slot-number ] [ count ]

display arp snooping ip ip-address [ slot slot-number ]

(In IRF mode.) Display ARP snooping entries.

display arp snooping [ vlan vlan-id ] [ chassis chassis-number slot slot-number ] [ count ]

display arp snooping ip ip-address [ chassis chassis-number slot slot-number ]

Remove ARP snooping entries.

reset arp snooping [ ip ip-address | vlan vlan-id ]

 


Configuring ARP fast-reply

Overview

ARP fast-reply enables a device to directly answer ARP requests according to DHCP snooping entries or ARP snooping entries. ARP fast-reply functions in a VLAN. For information about DHCP snooping, see "Configuring DHCP snooping."

If the target IP address of a received ARP request is the IP address of the VLAN interface, the device delivers the request to the ARP module. If not, the device takes the following steps to process the packet:

1.        Search the DHCP snooping table for a match by using the target IP address.

2.        If a match is found, whether the device returns a reply depends on the interface in the matching entry.

?  If the interface is the Ethernet interface that received the ARP request, the device does not return any reply.

?  If the interface is an Ethernet interface other than the receiving interface, the device returns a reply according to the matching entry.

3.        If no matching DHCP snooping entry is found and ARP snooping is enabled, the device searches the ARP snooping table.

?  If the interface in the matching entry is the Ethernet interface that received the ARP request, the device does not return any reply.

?  If the interface is an Ethernet interface other than the receiving interface, the device returns a reply according to the ARP snooping entry.

4.        If no match is found in both tables, the ARP request is forwarded to other interfaces except the receiving interface in the VLAN, or delivered to other modules.

Configuration procedure

To improve the availability of ARP fast-reply, enable ARP snooping at the same time.

To configure ARP fast-reply:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enter VLAN view.

vlan vlan-id

N/A

3.       Enable ARP fast-reply.

arp fast-reply enable

By default, ARP fast-reply is disabled.

 

ARP fast-reply configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 7, all clients are in VLAN 2, and access the network through the switch. They have obtained IP addresses through DHCP.

Enable ARP snooping and ARP fast-reply for VLAN 2. The switch directly returns an ARP reply without broadcasting received ARP requests in the VLAN.

Figure 7 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

# Enable ARP snooping for VLAN 2 on the switch.

<Switch> system-view

[Switch] vlan 2

[Switch-vlan2] arp snooping enable

# Enable ARP fast-reply for VLAN 2 on the switch.

[Switch-vlan2] arp fast-reply enable

[Switch-vlan2] quit

 


Configuring IP addressing

The IP addresses in this chapter refer to IPv4 addresses unless otherwise specified.

This chapter describes IP addressing basics and manual IP address assignment for interfaces. Dynamic IP address assignment (DHCP) is beyond the scope of this chapter.

Overview

This section describes the IP addressing basics.

IP addressing uses a 32-bit address to identify each host on an IPv4 network. To make addresses easier to read, they are written in dotted decimal notation, each address being four octets in length. For example, address 00001010000000010000000100000001 in binary is written as 10.1.1.1.

IP address classes

Each IP address breaks down into the following sections:

·          Net ID—Identifies a network. The first several bits of a net ID, known as the class field or class bits, identify the class of the IP address.

·          Host ID—Identifies a host on a network.

IP addresses are divided into five classes, as shown in Figure 8. The shaded areas represent the address class. The first three classes are most commonly used.

Figure 8 IP address classes

 

Table 1 IP address classes and ranges

Class

Address range

Remarks

A

0.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255

The IP address 0.0.0.0 is used by a host at startup for temporary communication. This address is never a valid destination address.

Addresses starting with 127 are reserved for loopback test. Packets destined to these addresses are processed locally as input packets rather than sent to the link.

B

128.0.0.0 to 191.255.255.255

N/A

C

192.0.0.0 to 223.255.255.255

N/A

D

224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255

Multicast addresses.

E

240.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255

Reserved for future use, except for the broadcast address 255.255.255.255.

 

Special IP addresses

The following IP addresses are for special use and cannot be used as host IP addresses:

·          IP address with an all-zero net ID—Identifies a host on the local network. For example, IP address 0.0.0.16 indicates the host with a host ID of 16 on the local network.

·          IP address with an all-zero host ID—Identifies a network.

·          IP address with an all-one host ID—Identifies a directed broadcast address. For example, a packet with the destination address of 192.168.1.255 will be broadcast to all the hosts on the network 192.168.1.0.

Subnetting and masking

Subnetting divides a network into smaller networks called subnets by using some bits of the host ID to create a subnet ID.

Masking identifies the boundary between the host ID and the combination of net ID and subnet ID.

Each subnet mask comprises 32 bits that correspond to the bits in an IP address. In a subnet mask, consecutive ones represent the net ID and subnet ID, and consecutive zeros represent the host ID.

Before being subnetted, Class A, B, and C networks use these default masks (also called natural masks): 255.0.0.0, 255.255.0.0, and 255.255.255.0, respectively.

Figure 9 Subnetting a Class B network

 

Subnetting increases the number of addresses that cannot be assigned to hosts. Therefore, using subnets means accommodating fewer hosts.

For example, a Class B network without subnetting can accommodate 1022 more hosts than the same network subnetted into 512 subnets.

·          Without subnetting—65534 (216 – 2) hosts. (The two deducted addresses are the broadcast address, which has an all-one host ID, and the network address, which has an all-zero host ID.)

·          With subnetting—Using the first nine bits of the host-id for subnetting provides 512 (29) subnets. However, only seven bits remain available for the host ID. This allows 126 (27 – 2) hosts in each subnet, a total of 64512 (512 × 126) hosts.

Assigning an IP address to an interface

An interface must have an IP address to communicate with other hosts. You can either manually assign an IP address to an interface, or configure the interface to obtain an IP address through DHCP. If you change the way an interface obtains an IP address, the new IP address will overwrite the previous address.

An interface can have one primary address and multiple secondary addresses.

Typically, you need to configure a primary IP address for an interface. If the interface connects to multiple subnets, configure primary and secondary IP addresses on the interface so the subnets can communicate with each other through the interface.

In an IRF fabric, you can assign an IP address to the management Ethernet port of each member in the management Ethernet port view of the master. Only the IP address assigned to the management Ethernet port of the master takes effect. After an IRF fabric split, the IP addresses assigned to the management Ethernet ports of the new masters (original subordinates) take effect. Then you can use these IP addresses to log in to the new masters for troubleshooting.

 

 

NOTE:

After an IRF split, the routing information on the original master might not be updated immediately. As a result, the management Ethernet port of the original master cannot be pinged from the master (original subordinate) in another IRF fabric. To resolve the problem, wait until route synchronization between the devices is completed or enable NSR for the routing protocol. For information about NSR, see Layer 3—IP Routing Configuration Guide.

 

Configuration guidelines

Follow these guidelines when you assign an IP address to an interface:

·          An interface can have only one primary IP address. A newly configured primary IP address overwrites the previous one.

·          You cannot assign secondary IP addresses to an interface that obtains an IP address through DHCP.

·          The primary and secondary IP addresses assigned to the interface can be located on the same network segment. Different interfaces on your device must reside on different network segments.

·          The following commands are mutually exclusive. You can configure only one of these commands on the management Ethernet port of the IRF master.

?  The ip address command with the irf-member member-id option that specifies the master.

?  The ip address command that does not contain the irf-member member-id option.

?  The mad ip address command.

?  The ip address dhcp-alloc command.

·          Exclude the management Ethernet port of the master from being shut down if MAD is enabled in the IRF fabric. The port can be kept in up state when the MAD status transits to Recovery.

Configuration procedure

To assign an IP address to an interface:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.       Assign an IP address to the interface.

In standalone mode:
ip address ip-address { mask | mask-length } [ sub ]

In IRF mode:
ip address ip-address { mask-length | mask } [ irf-member member-id | sub ]

By default, no IP address is assigned to the interface.

To assign an IP address to the management Ethernet port of an IRF member device, enter the master's management Ethernet port view and specify the irf-member member-id option.

 

Displaying and maintaining IP addressing

Execute display commands in any view.

 

Task

Command

Display IP configuration and statistics for the specified or all Layer 3 interfaces.

display ip interface [ interface-type interface-number ]

Display brief IP configuration for Layer 3 interfaces.

display ip interface [ interface-type [ interface-number ] ] brief [ description ]

 

IP address configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 10, a port in VLAN 1 on a switch is connected to a LAN comprising two segments: 172.16.1.0/24 and 172.16.2.0/24.

To enable the hosts on the two network segments to communicate with the external network through the switch, and to enable the hosts on the LAN to communicate with each other:

·          Assign a primary IP address and a secondary IP address to VLAN-interface 1 on the switch.

·          Set the primary IP address of the switch as the gateway address of the PCs on subnet 172.16.1.0/24, and set the secondary IP address of the switch as the gateway address of the PCs on subnet 172.16.2.0/24.

Figure 10 Network diagram

Configuration procedure

# Assign a primary IP address and a secondary IP address to VLAN-interface 1.

<Switch> system-view

[Switch] interface vlan-interface 1

[Switch-Vlan-interface1] ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0

[Switch-Vlan-interface1] ip address 172.16.2.1 255.255.255.0 sub

# Set the gateway address to 172.16.1.1 on the PCs attached to subnet 172.16.1.0/24, and to 172.16.2.1 on the PCs attached to subnet 172.16.2.0/24.

Verifying the configuration

# Verify the connectivity between a host on subnet 172.16.1.0/24 and the switch.

<Switch> ping 172.16.1.2

Ping 172.16.1.2 (172.16.1.2): 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break

56 bytes from 172.16.1.2: icmp_seq=0 ttl=128 time=7.000 ms

56 bytes from 172.16.1.2: icmp_seq=1 ttl=128 time=2.000 ms

56 bytes from 172.16.1.2: icmp_seq=2 ttl=128 time=1.000 ms

56 bytes from 172.16.1.2: icmp_seq=3 ttl=128 time=1.000 ms

56 bytes from 172.16.1.2: icmp_seq=4 ttl=128 time=2.000 ms

 

--- Ping statistics for 172.16.1.2 ---

5 packet(s) transmitted, 5 packet(s) received, 0.0% packet loss

round-trip min/avg/max/std-dev = 1.000/2.600/7.000/2.245 ms

# Verify the connectivity between a host on subnet 172.16.2.0/24 and the switch.

<Switch> ping 172.16.2.2

Ping 172.16.2.2 (172.16.2.2): 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break

56 bytes from 172.16.2.2: icmp_seq=0 ttl=128 time=2.000 ms

56 bytes from 172.16.2.2: icmp_seq=1 ttl=128 time=7.000 ms

56 bytes from 172.16.2.2: icmp_seq=2 ttl=128 time=1.000 ms

56 bytes from 172.16.2.2: icmp_seq=3 ttl=128 time=2.000 ms

56 bytes from 172.16.2.2: icmp_seq=4 ttl=128 time=1.000 ms

 

--- Ping statistics for 172.16.2.2 ---

5 packet(s) transmitted, 5 packet(s) received, 0.0% packet loss

round-trip min/avg/max/std-dev = 1.000/2.600/7.000/2.245 ms

# Verify the connectivity between a host on subnet 172.16.1.0/24 and a host on subnet 172.16.2.0/24. The ping operation succeeds.

 


DHCP overview

The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) provides a framework to assign configuration information to network devices.

Figure 11 shows a typical DHCP application scenario where the DHCP clients and the DHCP server reside on the same subnet. The DHCP clients can also obtain configuration parameters from a DHCP server on another subnet through a DHCP relay agent. For more information about the DHCP relay agent, see "Configuring the DHCP relay agent."

Figure 11 A typical DHCP application

 

DHCP address allocation

Allocation mechanisms

DHCP supports the following allocation mechanisms:

·          Static allocation—The network administrator assigns an IP address to a client, such as a WWW server, and DHCP conveys the assigned address to the client.

·          Automatic allocation—DHCP assigns a permanent IP address to a client.

·          Dynamic allocation—DHCP assigns an IP address to a client for a limited period of time, which is called a lease. Most DHCP clients obtain their addresses in this way.

IP address allocation process

Figure 12 IP address allocation process

 

As shown in Figure 12, a DHCP server assigns an IP address to a DHCP client in the following process:

1.        The client broadcasts a DHCP-DISCOVER message to locate a DHCP server.

2.        Each DHCP server offers configuration parameters such as an IP address to the client in a DHCP-OFFER message. The sending mode of the DHCP-OFFER is determined by the flag field in the DHCP-DISCOVER message. For more information, see "DHCP message format."

3.        If the client receives multiple offers, it accepts the first received offer, and broadcasts it in a DHCP-REQUEST message to formally request the IP address. (IP addresses offered by other DHCP servers can be assigned to other clients.)

4.        All DHCP servers receive the DHCP-REQUEST message. However, only the server selected by the client does one of the following operations:

?  Returns a DHCP-ACK message to confirm that the IP address has been allocated to the client.

?  Returns a DHCP-NAK message to deny the IP address allocation.

After receiving the DHCP-ACK message, the client verifies the following details before using the assigned IP address:

·          The assigned IP address is not in use. To verify this, the client broadcasts a gratuitous ARP packet. The assigned IP address is not in use if no response is received within the specified time.

·          The assigned IP address is not on the same subnet as any IP address in use on the client.

Otherwise, the client sends a DHCP-DECLINE message to the server to request an IP address again.

IP address lease extension

A dynamically assigned IP address has a lease. When the lease expires, the IP address is reclaimed by the DHCP server. To continue using the IP address, the client must extend the lease duration.

When about half of the lease duration elapses, the DHCP client unicasts a DHCP-REQUEST to the DHCP server to extend the lease. Depending on the availability of the IP address, the DHCP server returns one of the following messages:

·          A DHCP-ACK unicast confirming that the client's lease duration has been extended.

·          A DHCP-NAK unicast denying the request.

If the client receives no reply, it broadcasts another DHCP-REQUEST message for lease extension when about seven-eighths of the lease duration elapses. Again, depending on the availability of the IP address, the DHCP server returns either a DHCP-ACK unicast or a DHCP-NAK unicast.

DHCP message format

Figure 13 shows the DHCP message format. DHCP uses some of the fields in significantly different ways. The numbers in parentheses indicate the size of each field in bytes.

Figure 13 DHCP message format

 

·          op—Message type defined in options field. 1 = REQUEST, 2 = REPLY

·          htype, hlen—Hardware address type and length of the DHCP client.

·          hops—Number of relay agents a request message traveled.

·          xid—Transaction ID, a random number chosen by the client to identify an IP address allocation.

·          secs—Filled in by the client, the number of seconds elapsed since the client began address acquisition or renewal process. This field is reserved and set to 0.

·          flags—The leftmost bit is defined as the BROADCAST (B) flag. If this flag is set to 0, the DHCP server sent a reply back by unicast. If this flag is set to 1, the DHCP server sent a reply back by broadcast. The remaining bits of the flags field are reserved for future use.

·          ciaddr—Client IP address if the client has an IP address that is valid and usable. Otherwise, set to zero. (The client does not use this field to request an IP address to lease.)

·          yiaddr—Your IP address. It is an IP address assigned by the DHCP server to the DHCP client.

·          siaddr—Server IP address, from which the client obtained configuration parameters.

·          giaddr—Gateway IP address. It is the IP address of the first relay agent to which a request message travels.

·          chaddr—Client hardware address.

·          sname—Server host name, from which the client obtained configuration parameters.

·          file—Boot file (also called system software image) name and path information, defined by the server to the client.

·          options—Optional parameters field that is variable in length. Optional parameters include the message type, lease duration, subnet mask, domain name server IP address, and WINS IP address.

DHCP options

DHCP extends the message format as an extension to BOOTP for compatibility. DHCP uses the options field to carry information for dynamic address allocation and provide additional configuration information for clients.

Figure 14 DHCP option format

 

Common DHCP options

The following are common DHCP options:

·          Option 3—Router option. It specifies the gateway address.

·          Option 6—DNS server option. It specifies the DNS server's IP address.

·          Option 33—Static route option. It specifies a list of classful static routes (the destination addresses in these static routes are classful) that a client should add into its routing table. If both Option 33 and Option 121 exist, Option 33 is ignored.

·          Option 51—IP address lease option.

·          Option 53—DHCP message type option. It identifies the type of the DHCP message.

·          Option 55—Parameter request list option. It is used by a DHCP client to request specified configuration parameters. The option includes values that correspond to the parameters requested by the client.

·          Option 60—Vendor class identifier option. A DHCP client uses this option to identify its vendor. A DHCP server uses this option to distinguish DHCP clients, and assigns IP addresses to them.

·          Option 66—TFTP server name option. It specifies a TFTP server to be assigned to the client.

·          Option 67—Boot file name option. It specifies the boot file name to be assigned to the client.

·          Option 121—Classless route option. It specifies a list of classless static routes (the destination addresses in these static routes are classless) that a client should add into its routing table. If both Option 33 and Option 121 exist, Option 33 is ignored.

·          Option 150—TFTP server IP address option. It specifies the TFTP server IP address to be assigned to the client.

For more information about DHCP options, see RFC 2132 and RFC 3442.

Custom DHCP options

Some options, such as Option 43, Option 82, and Option 184, have no standard definitions in RFC 2132.

Vendor-specific option (Option 43)

DHCP servers and clients use Option 43 to exchange vendor-specific configuration information.

The DHCP client can obtain the following information through Option 43:

·          ACS parameters, including the ACS URL, username, and password.

·          Service provider identifier, which is acquired by the CPE from the DHCP server and sent to the ACS for selecting vender-specific configurations and parameters.

·          PXE server address, which is used to obtain the boot file or other control information from the PXE server.

1.        Format of Option 43:

Figure 15 Option 43 format

 

Network configuration parameters are carried in different sub-options of Option 43 as shown in Figure 15.

?  Sub-option type—The field value can be 0x01 (ACS parameter sub-option), 0x02 (service provider identifier sub-option), or 0x80 (PXE server address sub-option).

?  Sub-option length—Excludes the sub-option type and sub-option length fields.

?  Sub-option value—The value format varies by sub-option.

2.        Sub-option value field formats:

?  ACS parameter sub-option value field—Includes the ACS URL, username, and password separated by spaces (hexadecimal number 20) as shown in Figure 16.

Figure 16 ACS parameter sub-option value field

 

?  Service provider identifier sub-option value field—Includes the service provider identifier.

?  PXE server address sub-option value field—Includes the PXE server type that can only be 0, the server number that indicates the number of PXE servers contained in the sub-option, and server IP addresses, as shown in Figure 17.

Figure 17 PXE server address sub-option value field

 

Relay agent option (Option 82)

Option 82 is the relay agent option. It records the location information about the DHCP client. When a DHCP relay agent or DHCP snooping device receives a client's request, it adds Option 82 to the request and sends it to the server.

The administrator can use Option 82 to locate the DHCP client and further implement security control and accounting. The DHCP server can use Option 82 to provide individual configuration policies for the clients.

Option 82 can include a maximum of 255 sub-options and must include a minimum of one sub-option. Option 82 supports the following sub-options: sub-option 1 (Circuit ID), sub-option 2 (Remote ID), and sub-option 5 (Link Selection). Option 82 has no standard definition. Its padding formats vary by vendor.

·          Circuit ID has the following padding modes:

?  String padding mode—Includes a character string specified by the user.

?  Normal padding mode—Includes the VLAN ID and interface number of the interface that receives the client's request.

?  Verbose padding mode—Includes the access node identifier specified by the user, and the VLAN ID, interface number and interface type of the interface that receives the client's request.

·          Remote ID has the following padding modes:

?  String padding mode—Includes a character string specified by the user.

?  Normal padding mode—Includes the MAC address of the DHCP relay agent interface or the MAC address of the DHCP snooping device that receives the client's request.

?  Sysname padding mode—Includes the device name of the device. To set the device name for the device, use the sysname command in system view.

·          The Link Selection sub-option carries the IP address in the giaddr field or the IP address of a relay interface. If you use the dhcp relay source-address { ip-address | interface interface-type interface-number } command, you must enable the DHCP relay agent to support Option 82. This sub-option will then be included in Option 82.

Option 184

Option 184 is a reserved option. You can define the parameters in the option as needed. The device supports Option 184 carrying voice related parameters, so a DHCP client with voice functions can get voice parameters from the DHCP server.

Option 184 has the following sub-options:

·          Sub-option 1—Specifies the IP address of the primary network calling processor. The primary processor acts as the network calling control source and provides program download services. For Option 184, you must define sub-option 1 to make other sub-options take effect.

·          Sub-option 2—Specifies the IP address of the backup network calling processor. DHCP clients contact the backup processor when the primary one is unreachable.

·          Sub-option 3—Specifies the voice VLAN ID and the result whether the DHCP client takes this VLAN as the voice VLAN.

·          Sub-option 4—Specifies the failover route that includes the IP address and the number of the target user. A SIP VoIP user uses this IP address and number to directly establish a connection to the target SIP user when both the primary and backup calling processors are unreachable.

Protocols and standards

·          RFC 2131, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

·          RFC 2132, DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor Extensions

·          RFC 1542, Clarifications and Extensions for the Bootstrap Protocol

·          RFC 3046, DHCP Relay Agent Information Option

·          RFC 3442, The Classless Static Route Option for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) version 4


Configuring the DHCP server

Overview

The DHCP server is well suited to networks where:

·          Manual configuration and centralized management are difficult to implement.

·          IP addresses are limited. For example, an ISP limits the number of concurrent online users, and users must acquire IP addresses dynamically.

·          Most hosts do not need fixed IP addresses.

An MCE acting as the DHCP server can assign IP addresses not only to clients on public networks, but also to clients on private networks. The IP address ranges of public and private networks or those of private networks on the DHCP server cannot overlap. For more information about MCE, see MPLS Configuration Guide.

DHCP address pool

Each DHCP address pool has a group of assignable IP addresses and network configuration parameters. The DHCP server selects IP addresses and other parameters from the address pool and assigns them to the DHCP clients.

Address assignment mechanisms

Configure the following address assignment mechanisms as needed:

·          Static address allocation—Manually bind the MAC address or ID of a client to an IP address in a DHCP address pool. When the client requests an IP address, the DHCP server assigns the IP address in the static binding to the client.

·          Dynamic address allocation—Specify IP address ranges in a DHCP address pool. Upon receiving a DHCP request, the DHCP server dynamically selects an IP address from the matching IP address range in the address pool.

You can specify IP address ranges in an address pool by using either of the following methods:

·          Method 1—Specify a primary subnet in an address pool and divide the subnet into multiple address ranges. These address ranges include a common IP address range and IP address ranges for DHCP user classes.

Upon receiving a DHCP request, the DHCP server finds a user class matching the client and selects an IP address in the address range of the user class for the client. A user class can include multiple matching rules, and a client matches the user class as long as it matches any of the rules. In address pool view, you can specify different address ranges for different user classes.

The DHCP server selects an IP address for a client by performing the following steps:

a.    DHCP server compares the client against DHCP user classes in the order they are configured.

b.    If the client matches a user class, the DHCP server selects an IP address from the address range of the user class.

c.    If the matching user class has no assignable addresses, the DHCP server compares the client against the next user class. If all the matching user classes have no assignable addresses, the DHCP server selects an IP address from the common address range.

d.    If the DHCP client does not match any DHCP user class, the DHCP server selects an address in the IP address range specified by the address range command. If the address range has no assignable IP addresses or it is not configured, the address allocation fails.

 

 

NOTE:

All address ranges must belong to the primary subnet. If an address range does not reside on the primary subnet, DHCP cannot assign the addresses in the address range.

 

·          Method 2—Specify a primary subnet and multiple secondary subnets in an address pool.

The DHCP server selects an IP address from the primary subnet first. If there is no assignable IP address on the primary subnet, the DHCP server selects an IP address from secondary subnets in the order they are configured.

Principles for selecting an address pool

The DHCP server observes the following principles to select an address pool for a client:

1.        If there is an address pool where an IP address is statically bound to the MAC address or ID of the client, the DHCP server selects this address pool and assigns the statically bound IP address and other configuration parameters to the client.

2.        If the receiving interface has an address pool applied, the DHCP server selects an IP address and other configuration parameters from this address pool.

3.        If no static address pool is configured and no address pool is applied to the receiving interface, the DHCP server selects an address pool depending on the client location.

?  Client on the same subnet as the server—The DHCP server compares the IP address of the receiving interface with the primary subnets of all address pools.

-      If a match is found, the server selects the address pool with the longest-matching primary subnet.

-      If no match is found, the DHCP server compares the IP address with the secondary subnets of all address pools. The server selects the address pool with the longest-matching secondary subnet.

?  Client on a different subnet than the server—The DHCP server compares the IP address in the giaddr field of the DHCP request with the primary subnets of all address pools.

-      If a match is found, the server selects the address pool with the longest-matching primary subnet.

-      If no match is found, the DHCP server compares the IP address with the secondary subnets of all address pools. The server selects the address pool with the longest-matching secondary subnet.

For example, two address pools 1.1.1.0/24 and 1.1.1.0/25 are configured but not applied to any DHCP server's interfaces.

·          If the IP address of the receiving interface is 1.1.1.1/25, the DHCP server selects the address pool 1.1.1.0/25. If the address pool has no available IP addresses, the DHCP server will not select the other pool and the address allocation will fail.

·          If the IP address of the receiving interface is 1.1.1.130/25, the DHCP server selects the address pool 1.1.1.0/24.

To ensure correct address allocation, keep the IP addresses used for dynamic allocation on one of the subnets:

·          Clients on the same subnet as the server—Subnet where the DHCP server receiving interface resides.

·          Clients on a different subnet than the serverSubnet where the first DHCP relay interface that faces the clients resides.

 

 

NOTE:

As a best practice, configure a minimum of one matching primary subnet in your network. Otherwise, the DHCP server selects only the first matching secondary subnet for address allocation. If the network has more DHCP clients than the assignable IP addresses in the secondary subnet, not all DHCP clients can obtain IP addresses.

 

IP address allocation sequence

The DHCP server selects an IP address for a client in the following sequence:

1.        IP address statically bound to the client's MAC address or ID.

2.        IP address that was ever assigned to the client.

3.        IP address designated by the Option 50 field in the DHCP-DISCOVER message sent by the client.

Option 50 is the Requested IP Address option. The client uses this option to specify the wanted IP address in a DHCP-DISCOVER message. The content of Option 50 is user defined.

4.        First assignable IP address found in the way discussed in "DHCP address pool."

5.        IP address that was a conflict or passed its lease duration. If no IP address is assignable, the server does not respond.

 

 

NOTE:

·      If a client moves to another subnet, the DHCP server selects an IP address in the address pool matching the new subnet. It does not assign the IP address that was once assigned to the client.

·      Conflicted IP addresses can be assigned to other DHCP clients only after the addresses are in conflict for an hour.

 

DHCP server configuration task list

Tasks at a glance

(Required.) Configuring an address pool on the DHCP server

(Required.) Enabling DHCP

(Required.) Enabling the DHCP server on an interface

(Optional.) Applying an address pool on an interface

(Optional.) Configuring a DHCP policy for dynamic address assignment

(Optional.) Configuring IP address conflict detection

(Optional.) Enabling handling of Option 82

(Optional.) Configuring DHCP server compatibility

(Optional.) Setting the DSCP value for DHCP packets sent by the DHCP server

(Optional.) Applying a DHCP address pool to a VPN instance

 

Configuring an address pool on the DHCP server

Configuration task list

Tasks at a glance

(Required.) Creating a DHCP address pool

Perform one or more of the following tasks:

·         Specifying IP address ranges for a DHCP address pool

·         Specifying gateways for DHCP clients

·         Specifying a domain name suffix for DHCP clients

·         Specifying DNS servers for DHCP clients

·         Specifying WINS servers and NetBIOS node type for DHCP clients

·         Specifying BIMS server for DHCP clients

·         Specifying the configuration file for DHCP client auto-configuration

·         Specifying a server for DHCP clients

·         Customizing DHCP options

 

Creating a DHCP address pool

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Create a DHCP address pool and enter its view.

dhcp server ip-pool pool-name

By default, no DHCP address pool exists.

 

Specifying IP address ranges for a DHCP address pool

You can configure both static and dynamic address allocation mechanisms in a DHCP address pool. For dynamic address allocation, you can specify either a primary subnet with multiple address ranges or a primary subnet with multiple secondary subnets for a DHCP address pool. You cannot configure both.

Specifying a primary subnet and multiple address ranges for a DHCP address pool

Some scenarios need to classify DHCP clients on the same subnet into different address groups. To meet this need, you can configure DHCP user classes and specify different address ranges for the classes. The clients matching a user class can then get the IP addresses of an address range. In addition, you can specify a common address range for the clients that do not match any user class. If no common address range is specified, such clients fail to obtain IP addresses.

If there is no need to classify clients, you do not need to configure DHCP user classes or their address ranges.

Follow these guidelines when you specify a primary subnet and multiple address ranges for a DHCP address pool:

·          If you use the network or address range command multiple times for the same address pool, the most recent configuration takes effect.

·          IP addresses specified by the forbidden-ip command are not assignable in the current address pool, but are assignable in other address pools. IP addresses specified by the dhcp server forbidden-ip command are not assignable in any address pool.

·          You can use class range to modify an existing address range, and the new address range can include IP addresses that are being used by clients. Upon receiving a lease extension request for such an IP address, the DHCP server allocates a new IP address to the requesting client. But the original lease continues aging in the address pool, and will be released when the lease duration is reached. To release such lease without waiting for its timeout, execute the reset dhcp server ip-in-use command.

To specify a primary subnet and multiple address ranges for a DHCP address pool:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Create a DHCP user class and enter DHCP user class view.

dhcp class class-name

Required for client classification.

By default, no DHCP user class exists.

3.       Configure a match rule for the DHCP user class.

if-match rule rule-number { hardware-address hardware-address mask hardware-address-mask | option option-code [ ascii ascii-string [ offset offset | partial ] | hex hex-string [ mask mask | offset offset length length | partial ] ] | relay-agent gateway-address }

Required for client classification.

By default, no match rule is configured for a DHCP user class.

4.       Return to system view.

quit

N/A

5.       Create a DHCP address pool and enter its view.

dhcp server ip-pool pool-name

By default, no DHCP address pool exists.

6.       Specify the primary subnet for the address pool.

network network-address [ mask-length | mask mask ]

By default, no primary subnet is specified.

7.       (Optional.) Specify the common address range.

address range start-ip-address [ end-ip-address ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

By default, no IP address range is specified.

8.       (Optional.) Specify an IP address range for a DHCP user class.

class class-name range start-ip-address end-ip-address

By default, no IP address range is specified for a user class.

The DHCP user class must already exist.

To specify address ranges for multiple DHCP user classes, repeat this step.

9.       (Optional.) Set the address lease duration.

expired { day day [ hour hour [ minute minute [ second second ] ] ] | unlimited }

The default setting is 1 day.

10.     (Optional.) Exclude the specified IP addresses in the address pool from dynamic allocation.

forbidden-ip ip-address&<1-8>

By default, all the IP addresses in the DHCP address pool are assignable.

To exclude multiple address ranges from dynamic allocation, repeat this step.

11.     Return to system view.

quit

N/A

12.     (Optional.) Exclude the specified IP addresses from automatic allocation globally.

dhcp server forbidden-ip start-ip-address [ end-ip-address ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

By default, except for the IP address of the DHCP server interface, all IP addresses in address pools are assignable.

To exclude multiple IP address ranges, repeat this step.

 

Specifying a primary subnet and multiple secondary subnets for a DHCP address pool

If an address pool has a primary subnet and multiple secondary subnets, the server assigns IP addresses on a secondary subnet when the primary subnet has no assignable IP addresses.

Follow these guidelines when you specify a primary subnet and secondary subnets for a DHCP address pool:

·          You can specify only one primary subnet in each address pool. If you use the network command multiple times, the most recent configuration takes effect.

·          You can specify a maximum of 32 secondary subnets in each address pool.

·          IP addresses specified by the forbidden-ip command are not assignable in the current address pool, but are assignable in other address pools. IP addresses specified by the dhcp server forbidden-ip command are not assignable in any address pool.

To specify a primary subnet and secondary subnets for a DHCP address pool:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Create a DHCP address pool and enter its view.

dhcp server ip-pool pool-name

By default, no DHCP address pool exists.

3.       Specify the primary subnet.

network network-address [ mask-length | mask mask ]

By default, no primary subnet is specified.

4.       (Optional.) Specify a secondary subnet.

network network-address [ mask-length | mask mask ] secondary

By default, no secondary subnet is specified.

5.       (Optional.) Return to address pool view.

quit

N/A

6.       (Optional.) Set the address lease duration.

expired { day day [ hour hour [ minute minute [ second second ] ] ] | unlimited }

The default setting is 1 day.

7.       (Optional.) Exclude the specified IP addresses from dynamic allocation.

forbidden-ip ip-address&<1-8>

By default, all the IP addresses in the DHCP address pool can be dynamically allocated.

To exclude multiple address ranges from the address pool, repeat this step.

8.       Return to system view.

quit

N/A

9.       (Optional.) Exclude the specified IP addresses from dynamic allocation globally.

dhcp server forbidden-ip start-ip-address [ end-ip-address ]

Except for the IP address of the DHCP server interface, IP addresses in all address pools are assignable by default.

To exclude multiple address ranges globally, repeat this step.

 

Configuring a static binding in a DHCP address pool

Some DHCP clients, such as a WWW server, need fixed IP addresses. To provide a fixed IP address for a client, you can statically bind the MAC address or ID of the client to an IP address in a DHCP address pool. When the client requests an IP address, the DHCP server assigns the IP address in the static binding to the client.

Follow these guidelines when you configure a static binding:

·          One IP address can be bound to only one client MAC or client ID. You cannot modify bindings that have been created. To change the binding for a DHCP client, you must delete the existing binding first.

·          The IP address of a static binding cannot be the address of the DHCP server interface. Otherwise, an IP address conflict occurs and the bound client cannot obtain an IP address correctly.

·          Multiple interfaces on the same device might all use DHCP to request a static IP address. In this case, use client IDs rather than the device's MAC address to identify the interfaces. Otherwise, IP address allocation will fail.

To configure a static binding:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Create a DHCP address pool and enter its view.

dhcp server ip-pool pool-name

By default, no DHCP address pool exists.

3.       Configure a static binding.

static-bind ip-address ip-address [ mask-length | mask mask ] { client-identifier client-identifier | hardware-address hardware-address [ ethernet | token-ring ] }

By default, no static binding is configured.

To add more static bindings, repeat this step.

4.       (Optional.) Set the lease duration for the IP address.

expired { day day [ hour hour [ minute minute [ second second ] ] ] | unlimited }

The default setting is 1 day.

 

Specifying gateways for DHCP clients

DHCP clients send packets destined for other networks to a gateway. The DHCP server can assign the gateway address to the DHCP clients.

You can specify gateway addresses in each address pool on the DHCP server. A maximum of 64 gateways can be specified in DHCP address pool view or secondary subnet view.

The DHCP server assigns gateway addresses to clients on a secondary subnet in the following ways:

·          If gateways are specified in both address pool view and secondary subnet view, DHCP assigns those specified in the secondary subnet view.

·          If gateways are specified in address pool view but not in secondary subnet view, DHCP assigns those specified in address pool view.

To configure gateways in the DHCP address pool:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Create a DHCP address pool and enter its view.

dhcp server ip-pool pool-name

By default, no DHCP address pool exists.

3.       Specify gateways.

gateway-list ip-address&<1-64>

By default, no gateway is specified.

4.       (Optional.) Enter secondary subnet view

network network-address [ mask-length | mask mask ] secondary

N/A

5.       (Optional.) Specify gateways.

gateway-list ip-address&<1-64>

By default, no gateway is specified.

 

Specifying a domain name suffix for DHCP clients

You can specify a domain name suffix in a DHCP address pool on the DHCP server. With this suffix assigned, the client only needs to input part of a domain name, and the system adds the domain name suffix for name resolution. For more information about DNS, see "Configuring DNS."

To configure a domain name suffix in the DHCP address pool:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Create a DHCP address pool and enter its view.

dhcp server ip-pool pool-name

By default, no DHCP address pool exists.

3.       Specify a domain name suffix.

domain-name domain-name

By default, no domain name is specified.

 

Specifying DNS servers for DHCP clients

To access hosts on the Internet through domain names, a DHCP client must contact a DNS server to resolve names. You can specify up to eight DNS servers in a DHCP address pool.

To specify DNS servers in a DHCP address pool:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Create a DHCP address pool and enter its view.

dhcp server ip-pool pool-name

By default, no DHCP address pool exists.

3.       Specify DNS servers.

dns-list ip-address&<1-8>

By default, no DNS server is specified.

 

Specifying WINS servers and NetBIOS node type for DHCP clients

A Microsoft DHCP client using NetBIOS protocol must contact a WINS server for name resolution. You can specify up to eight WINS servers for such clients in a DHCP address pool.

In addition, you must specify a NetBIOS node type for the clients to approach name resolution. There are four NetBIOS node types:

·          b (broadcast)-node—A b-node client sends the destination name in a broadcast message. The destination returns its IP address to the client after receiving the message.

·          p (peer-to-peer)-node—A p-node client sends the destination name in a unicast message to the WINS server. The WINS server returns the destination IP address.

·          m (mixed)-node—An m-node client broadcasts the destination name. If it receives no response, it unicasts the destination name to the WINS server to get the destination IP address.

·          h (hybrid)-node—An h-node client unicasts the destination name to the WINS server. If it receives no response, it broadcasts the destination name to get the destination IP address.

To configure WINS servers and NetBIOS node type in a DHCP address pool:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Create a DHCP address pool and enter its view.

dhcp server ip-pool pool-name

By default, no DHCP address pool exists.

3.       Specify WINS servers.

nbns-list ip-address&<1-8>

This step is optional for b-node.

By default, no WINS server is specified.

4.       Specify the NetBIOS node type.

netbios-type { b-node | h-node | m-node | p-node }

By default, no NetBIOS node type is specified.

 

Specifying BIMS server for DHCP clients

Perform this task to provide the BIMS server IP address, port number, and shared key for the clients. The DHCP clients contact the BIMS server to get configuration files and perform software upgrade and backup.

To configure the BIMS server IP address, port number, and shared key in the DHCP address pool:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Create a DHCP address pool and enter its view.

dhcp server ip-pool pool-name

By default, no DHCP address pool exists.

3.       Specify the BIMS server IP address, port number, and shared key.

bims-server ip ip-address [ port port-number ] sharekey { cipher | simple } string

By default, no BIMS server information is specified.

 

Specifying the configuration file for DHCP client auto-configuration

Auto-configuration enables a device to obtain a set of configuration settings automatically from servers when the device starts up without a configuration file. It requires the cooperation of the DHCP server, HTTP server, DNS server, and TFTP server. For more information about auto-configuration, see Fundamentals Configuration Guide.

Follow these guidelines to specify the parameters on the DHCP server for configuration file acquisition:

·          If the configuration file is on a TFTP server, specify the IP address or name of the TFTP server, and the configuration file name.

·          If the configuration file is on an HTTP server, specify the configuration file URL.

The DHCP client uses the obtained parameters to contact the TFTP server or the HTTP server to get the configuration file.

To specify the configuration file name in a DHCP address pool:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Create a DHCP address pool and enter its view.

dhcp server ip-pool pool-name

By default, no DHCP address pool exists.

3.       Specify the IP address or the name of a TFTP server.

·         Specify the IP address of the TFTP server:
tftp-server ip-address
ip-address

·         Specify the name of the TFTP server:
tftp-server domain-name
domain-name

You can specify both the IP address and name of the TFTP server.

By default, no TFTP server is specified.

4.       Specify the configuration file name.

bootfile-name bootfile-name

By default, no configuration file name is specified.

 

To specify the configuration file URL in a DHCP address pool:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Create a DHCP address pool and enter its view.

dhcp server ip-pool pool-name

By default, no DHCP address pool exists.

3.       Specify the URL of the configuration file.

bootfile-name url

By default, no configuration file URL is specified.

 

Specifying a server for DHCP clients

Some DHCP clients need to obtain configuration information from a server, such as a TFTP server. You can specify the IP address of that server. The DHCP server sends the server's IP address to DHCP clients along with other configuration information.

To specify the IP address of a server:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Create a DHCP address pool and enter its view.

dhcp server ip-pool pool-name

By default, no DHCP address pool exists.

3.       Specify the IP address of a server.

next-server ip-address

By default, no server is specified.

 

Customizing DHCP options

IMPORTANT

IMPORTANT:

Use caution when customizing DHCP options because the configuration might affect DHCP operation.

 

You can customize options for the following purposes:

·          Add newly released options.

·          Add options for which the vendor defines the contents, for example, Option 43.

·          Add options for which the CLI does not provide a dedicated configuration command. For example, you can use the option 4 ip-address 1.1.1.1 command to define the time server address 1.1.1.1 for DHCP clients.

·          Add all option values if the actual requirement exceeds the limit for a dedicated option configuration command. For example, the dns-list command can specify up to eight DNS servers. To specify more than eight DNS servers, you must use the option 6 command to define all DNS servers.

To customize a DHCP option in a DHCP address pool:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Create a DHCP address pool and enter its view.

dhcp server ip-pool pool-name

By default, no DHCP address pool exists.

3.       Customize a DHCP option.

option code { ascii ascii-string | hex hex-string | ip-address ip-address&<1-8> }

By default, no DHCP option is customized in a DHCP address pool.

DHCP options specified in DHCP option groups take precedence over those specified in DHCP address pools.

 

To customize a DHCP option in a DHCP option group:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Create a DHCP user class and enter DHCP user class view.

dhcp class class-name

By default, no DHCP user class exists.

3.       Configure a match rule for the DHCP user class.

if-match rule rule-number { hardware-address hardware-address mask hardware-address-mask | option option-code [ ascii ascii-string [ offset offset | partial ] | hex hex-string [ mask mask | offset offset length length | partial ] ] | relay-agent gateway-address }

By default, no match rule is configured for a DHCP user class.

4.       Return to system view.

quit

N/A

5.       Create a DHCP option group and enter DHCP option group view.

dhcp option group option-group-number

By default, no DHCP option group exists.

6.       Customize a DHCP option.

option code { ascii ascii-string | hex hex-string | ip-address ip-address&<1-8> }

By default, no DHCP option is customized in a DHCP option group.

DHCP options specified in DHCP option groups take precedence over those specified in DHCP address pools.

7.       Create a DHCP address pool and enter DHCP address pool view.

dhcp server ip-pool pool-name

By default, no DHCP address pool exists.

8.       Specify the DHCP option group for the DHCP user class.

class class-name option group option-group-number

By default, no DHCP option group is specified for a DHCP user class.

 

Table 2 Common DHCP options

Option

Option name

Corresponding command

Recommended option command parameters

3

Router Option

gateway-list

ip-address

6

Domain Name Server Option

dns-list

ip-address

15

Domain Name

domain-name

ascii

44

NetBIOS over TCP/IP Name Server Option

nbns-list

ip-address

46

NetBIOS over TCP/IP Node Type Option

netbios-type

hex

66

TFTP server name

tftp-server

ascii

67

Boot file name

bootfile-name

ascii

43

Vendor Specific Information

N/A

hex

 

Enabling DHCP

You must enable DHCP to validate other DHCP configurations.

To enable DHCP:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enable DHCP.

dhcp enable

By default, DHCP is disabled.

 

Enabling the DHCP server on an interface

Perform this task to enable the DHCP server on an interface. Upon receiving a DHCP request on the interface, the DHCP server assigns the client an IP address and other configuration parameters from a DHCP address pool.

To enable the DHCP server on an interface:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.       Enable the DHCP server on the interface.

dhcp select server

By default, the DHCP server on the interface is enabled.

 

Applying an address pool on an interface

Perform this task to apply a DHCP address pool on an interface.

Upon receiving a DHCP request from the interface, the DHCP server performs address allocation in the following ways:

·          If a static binding is found for the client, the server assigns the static IP address and configuration parameters from the address pool that contains the static binding.

·          If no static binding is found for the client, the server uses the address pool applied to the interface for address and configuration parameter allocation.

To apply an address pool on an interface:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.       Apply an address pool on the interface.

dhcp server apply ip-pool pool-name

By default, no address pool is applied on an interface.

If the applied address pool does not exist, the DHCP server fails to perform dynamic address allocation.

 

Configuring a DHCP policy for dynamic address assignment

In a DHCP policy, each DHCP user class has a bound DHCP address pool. Clients matching different user classes obtain IP addresses and other parameters from different address pools. The DHCP policy must be applied to the interface that acts as the DHCP server. When receiving a DHCP request, the DHCP server compares the packet against the user classes in the order that they are configured.

·          If a match is found and the bound address pool has assignable IP addresses, the server assigns an IP address and other parameters from the address pool. If the address pool does not have assignable IP addresses, the address assignment fails.

·          If no match is found, the server assigns an IP address and other parameters from the default DHCP address pool. If no default address pool is specified or the default address pool does not have assignable IP addresses, the address assignment fails.

For successful address assignment, make sure the applied DHCP policy and the bound address pools exist.

To configure a DHCP policy for dynamic address assignment:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Create a DHCP user class and enter DHCP user class view.

dhcp class class-name

By default, no DHCP user class exists.

3.       Configure a match rule for the DHCP user class.

if-match rule rule-number { hardware-address hardware-address mask hardware-address-mask | option option-code [ ascii ascii-string [ offset offset | partial ] | hex hex-string [ mask mask | offset offset length length | partial ] ] | relay-agent gateway-address }

By default, no match rule is configured for a DHCP user class.

4.       Return to system view.

quit

N/A

5.       Create a DHCP policy and enter DHCP policy view.

dhcp policy policy-name

By default, no DHCP policy exists.

6.       Specify a DHCP address pool for a DHCP user class.

class class-name ip-pool pool-name

By default, no address pool is specified for a user class.

7.       Specify the default DHCP address pool.

default ip-pool pool-name

By default, no default address pool is specified.

8.       Return to system view.

quit

N/A

9.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

10.     Apply the DHCP policy to the interface.

dhcp apply-policy policy-name

By default, no DHCP policy is applied to an interface.

 

Configuring IP address conflict detection

Before assigning an IP address, the DHCP server pings that IP address.

·          If the server receives a response within the specified period, it selects and pings another IP address.

·          If it receives no response, the server continues to ping the IP address until a specific number of ping packets are sent. If still no response is received, the server assigns the IP address to the requesting client. The DHCP client uses gratuitous ARP to perform IP address conflict detection.

To configure IP address conflict detection:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       (Optional.) Set the maximum number of ping packets to be sent for conflict detection.

dhcp server ping packets number

The default setting is one.

The value 0 disables IP address conflict detection.

3.       (Optional.) Set the ping timeout time.

dhcp server ping timeout milliseconds

The default setting is 500 ms.

The value 0 disables IP address conflict detection.

 

Enabling handling of Option 82

Perform this task to enable the DHCP server to handle Option 82. Upon receiving a DHCP request that contains Option 82, the DHCP server adds Option 82 into the DHCP response.

If you disable the DHCP to handle Option 82, it does not add Option 82 into the response message.

You must enable handling of Option 82 on both the DHCP server and the DHCP relay agent to ensure correct processing for Option 82. For information about enabling handling of Option 82 on the DHCP relay agent, see "Configuring Option 82."

To enable the DHCP server to handle Option 82:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enable the server to handle Option 82.

dhcp server relay information enable

By default, handling of Option 82 is enabled.

 

Configuring DHCP server compatibility

Perform this task to enable the DHCP server to support DHCP clients that are incompliant with RFC.

Configuring the DHCP server to broadcast all responses

By default, the DHCP server broadcasts a response only when the broadcast flag in the DHCP request is set to 1. You can configure the DHCP server to ignore the broadcast flag and always broadcast a response. This feature is useful when some clients set the broadcast flag to 0 but do not accept unicast responses.

The DHCP server always unicasts a response in the following situations, regardless of whether this feature is configured or not:

·          The DHCP request is from a DHCP client that has an IP address (the ciaddr field is not 0).

·          The DHCP request is forwarded by a DHCP relay agent from a DHCP client (the giaddr field is not 0).

To configure the DHCP server to broadcast all responses:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enable the DHCP server to broadcast all responses.

dhcp server always-broadcast

By default, the DHCP server reads the broadcast flag to decide whether to broadcast or unicast a response.

 

Setting the DSCP value for DHCP packets sent by the DHCP server

The DSCP value of a packet specifies the priority level of the packet and affects the transmission priority of the packet.

To set the DSCP value for DHCP packets sent by the DHCP server:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Set the DSCP value for DHCP packets sent by the DHCP server.

dhcp dscp dscp-value

By default, the DSCP value in DHCP packets sent by the DHCP server is 56.

 

Applying a DHCP address pool to a VPN instance

If a DHCP address pool is applied to a VPN instance, the DHCP server assigns IP addresses in this address pool to clients in the VPN instance. Addresses in this address pool will not be assigned to clients on the public network.

The DHCP server can obtain the VPN instance to which a DHCP client belongs from the following information:

·          The client's VPN information stored in authentication modules.

·          The VPN information of the DHCP server's interface that receives DHCP packets from the client.

The VPN information from authentication modules takes priority over the VPN information of the receiving interface.

To apply a DHCP address pool to a VPN instance:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Create a DHCP address pool and enter its view.

dhcp server ip-pool pool-name

By default, no DHCP address pool exists.

3.       Apply the address pool to a VPN instance.

vpn-instance vpn-instance-name

By default, the address pool is not applied to any VPN instance.

 

Displaying and maintaining the DHCP server

IMPORTANT

IMPORTANT:

A restart of the DHCP server or execution of the reset dhcp server ip-in-use command deletes all lease information. The DHCP server denies any DHCP request for lease extension, and the client must request an IP address again.

 

Execute display commands in any view and reset commands in user view.

 

Task

Command

Display information about IP address conflicts.

display dhcp server conflict [ ip ip-address ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

Display information about lease-expired IP addresses.

display dhcp server expired [ [ ip ip-address ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] | pool pool-name ]

Display information about assignable IP addresses.

display dhcp server free-ip [ pool pool-name | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

Display information about assigned IP addresses.

display dhcp server ip-in-use [ [ ip ip-address ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] | pool pool-name ]

Display DHCP server statistics.

display dhcp server statistics [ pool pool-name | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

Display information about DHCP address pools.

display dhcp server pool [ pool-name | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

Clear information about IP address conflicts.

reset dhcp server conflict [ ip ip-address ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

Clear information about lease-expired IP addresses.

reset dhcp server expired [ [ ip ip-address ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] | pool pool-name ]

Clear information about assigned IP addresses.

reset dhcp server ip-in-use [ [ ip ip-address ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] | pool pool-name ]

Clear DHCP server statistics.

reset dhcp server statistics [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

 

DHCP server configuration examples

DHCP networking includes the following types:

·          The DHCP server and clients reside on the same subnet and exchange messages directly.

·          The DHCP server and clients are not on the same subnet and they communicate with each other through a DHCP relay agent.

The DHCP server configuration for the two types is identical.

Dynamic IP address assignment configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 18, the DHCP server (Switch A) assigns IP addresses to clients on subnet 10.1.1.0/24, which is subnetted into 10.1.1.0/25 and 10.1.1.128/25.

Configure DHCP server on Switch A to implement the following assignment scheme.

Table 3 Assignment scheme

DHCP clients

IP address

Lease

Other configuration parameters

Clients connected to VLAN-interface 10

IP addresses on subnet 10.1.1.0/25

10 days and 12 hours

·         Gateway: 10.1.1.126/25

·         DNS server: 10.1.1.2/25

·         Domain name: aabbcc.com

·         WINS server: 10.1.1.4/25

Clients connected to VLAN-interface 20

IP addresses on subnet 10.1.1.128/25

Five days

·         Gateway: 10.1.1.254/25

·         DNS server: 10.1.1.2/25

·         Domain name: aabbcc.com

 

Figure 18 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

1.        Specify IP addresses for the VLAN interfaces. (Details not shown.)

2.        Configure the DHCP server:

# Enable DHCP.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] dhcp enable

# Enable the DHCP server on VLAN-interface 10 and VLAN-interface 20.

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 10

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface10] dhcp select server

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface10] quit

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 20

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface20] dhcp select server

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface20] quit

# Exclude the DNS server address, WINS server address, and gateway addresses from dynamic allocation.

[SwitchA] dhcp server forbidden-ip 10.1.1.2

[SwitchA] dhcp server forbidden-ip 10.1.1.4

[SwitchA] dhcp server forbidden-ip 10.1.1.126

[SwitchA] dhcp server forbidden-ip 10.1.1.254

# Configure DHCP address pool 1 to assign IP addresses and other configuration parameters to clients on subnet 10.1.1.0/25.

[SwitchA] dhcp server ip-pool 1

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-1] network 10.1.1.0 mask 255.255.255.128

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-1] expired day 10 hour 12

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-1] domain-name aabbcc.com

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-1] dns-list 10.1.1.2

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-1] gateway-list 10.1.1.126

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-1] nbns-list 10.1.1.4

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-1] quit

# Configure DHCP address pool 2 to assign IP addresses and other configuration parameters to clients on subnet 10.1.1.128/25.

[SwitchA] dhcp server ip-pool 2

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-2] network 10.1.1.128 mask 255.255.255.128

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-2] expired day 5

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-2] domain-name aabbcc.com

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-2] dns-list 10.1.1.2

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-2] gateway-list 10.1.1.254

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-2] quit

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that clients on subnets 10.1.1.0/25 and 10.1.1.128/25 can obtain correct IP addresses and all other network parameters from Switch A. (Details not shown.)

# On the DHCP server, display the IP addresses assigned to the clients.

[SwitchA] display dhcp server ip-in-use

IP address       Client identifier/    Lease expiration      Type

                 Hardware address

10.1.1.3         0031-3865-392e-6262-  Jan 14 22:25:03 2015  Auto(C)

                 3363-2e30-3230-352d-

                 4745-302f-30

10.1.1.5         0031-fe65-4203-7e02-  Jan 14 22:25:03 2015  Auto(C)

                 3063-5b30-3230-4702-

                 620e-712f-5e

10.1.1.130       3030-3030-2e30-3030-  Jan 9 10:45:11 2015   Auto(C)

                 662e-3030-3033-2d45-

                 7568-6572-1e

10.1.1.131       3030-0020-fe02-3020-  Jan 9 10:45:11 2015   Auto(C)

                 7052-0201-2013-1e02

                 0201-9068-23

10.1.1.132       2020-1220-1102-3021-  Jan 9 10:45:11 2015   Auto(C)

                 7e52-0211-2025-3402

                 0201-9068-9a

10.1.1.133       2021-d012-0202-4221-  Jan 9 10:45:11 2015   Auto(C)

                 8852-0203-2022-55e0

                 3921-0104-31

DHCP user class configuration example

Network requirement

As shown in Figure 19, the DHCP relay agent (Switch A) forwards DHCP packets between DHCP clients and the DHCP server (Switch B). Enable switch A to support Option 82 so that switch A can add Option 82 in the DHCP requests sent by the DHCP clients.

Configure the address allocation scheme as follows:

 

Assign IP addresses

To clients

10.10.1.2 to 10.10.1.10

The DHCP request contains Option 82.

10.10.1.11 to 10.10.1.26

The hardware address in the request is six bytes long and begins with aabb-aabb-aab.

 

For clients on subnet 10.10.1.0/24, the DNS server address is 10.10.1.20/24 and the gateway address is 10.10.1.254/24.

Figure 19 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

1.        Specify IP addresses for interfaces on the DHCP server and the DHCP relay agent. (Details not shown.)

2.        Configure DHCP services:

# Enable DHCP and configure the DHCP server to handle Option 82.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] dhcp enable

[SwitchB] dhcp server relay information enable

# Enable DHCP server on VLAN-interface10.

[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 10

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface10] dhcp select server

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface10] quit

# Create DHCP user class tt and configure a match rule to match client requests with Option 82.

[SwitchB] dhcp class tt

[SwitchB-dhcp-class-tt] if-match rule 1 option 82

[SwitchB-dhcp-class-tt] quit

# Create DHCP user class ss and configure a match rule to match DHCP requests in which the hardware address is six bytes long and begins with aabb-aabb-aab.

[SwitchB] dhcp class ss

[SwitchB-dhcp-class-ss] if-match rule 1 hardware-address aabb-aabb-aab0 mask ffff-ffff-fff0

[SwitchB-dhcp-class-ss] quit

# Create DHCP address pool aa.

[SwitchB] dhcp server ip-pool aa

# Specify the subnet for dynamic allocation.

[SwitchB-dhcp-pool-aa] network 10.10.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0

# Specify the address range for dynamic allocation.

[SwitchB-dhcp-pool-aa] address range 10.10.1.2 10.10.1.100

# Specify the address range for user class tt.

[SwitchB-dhcp-pool-aa] class tt range 10.10.1.2 10.10.1.10

# Specify the address range for user class ss.

[SwitchB-dhcp-pool-aa] class ss range 10.10.1.11 10.10.1.26

# Specify the gateway address and the DNS server address.

[SwitchB-dhcp-pool-aa] gateway-list 10.10.1.254

[SwitchB-dhcp-pool-aa] dns-list 10.10.1.20

[SwitchB-dhcp-pool-aa] quit

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that clients matching the user classes can obtain IP addresses in the specified ranges and all other configuration parameters from the DHCP server. (Details not shown.)

# Display the IP address assigned by the DHCP server.

[SwitchB] display dhcp server ip-in-use

IP address       Client identifier/    Lease expiration      Type

                 Hardware address

10.10.1.2        0031-3865-392e-6262-  Jan 14 22:25:03 2015  Auto(C)

                 3363-2e30-3230-352d-

                 4745-302f-30

10.10.1.11       aabb-aabb-aab1        Jan 14 22:25:03 2015  Auto(C)

Primary and secondary subnets configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 20, the DHCP server (Switch A) dynamically assigns IP addresses to clients in the LAN.

Configure two subnets in the address pool on the DHCP server: 10.1.1.0/24 as the primary subnet and 10.1.2.0/24 as the secondary subnet. The DHCP server selects IP addresses from the secondary subnet when the primary subnet has no assignable addresses.

Switch A assigns the following parameters:

·          The default gateway 10.1.1.254/24 to clients on subnet 10.1.1.0/24.

·          The default gateway 10.1.2.254/24 to clients on subnet 10.1.2.0/24.

Figure 20 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

# Enable DHCP.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] dhcp enable

# Configure the primary and secondary IP addresses of VLAN-interface 10.

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 10

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface10] ip address 10.1.1.1 24

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface10] ip address 10.1.2.1 24 sub

# Enable the DHCP server on VLAN-interface 10.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface10] dhcp select server

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface10] quit

# Create DHCP address pool aa.

[SwitchA] dhcp server ip-pool aa

# Specify the primary subnet and the gateway address for dynamic allocation.

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-aa] network 10.1.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-aa] gateway-list 10.1.1.254

# Specify the secondary subnet and the gateway address for dynamic allocation.

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-aa] network 10.1.2.0 mask 255.255.255.0 secondary

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-aa-secondary] gateway-list 10.1.2.254

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-aa-secondary] quit

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-aa] quit

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that the DHCP server assigns clients IP addresses and gateway address from the secondary subnet when no address is available from the primary subnet. (Details not shown.)

# Display the primary and secondary subnet IP addresses the DHCP server has assigned. The following is part of the command output.

[SwitchA] display dhcp server ip-in-use

IP address       Client identifier/    Lease expiration      Type

                 Hardware address

10.1.1.2         0031-3865-392e-6262-  Jan 14 22:25:03 2015  Auto(C)

                 3363-2e30-3230-352d-

                 4745-302f-30

10.1.2.2         3030-3030-2e30-3030-  Jan 14 22:25:03 2015  Auto(C)

                 662e-3030-3033-2d45-

                 7568-6572-1e

DHCP option customization configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 21, DHCP clients obtain IP addresses and PXE server addresses from the DHCP server (Switch A). The subnet for address allocation is 10.1.1.0/24.

Configure the address allocation scheme as follows:

 

Assign PXE addresses

To clients

2.3.4.5 and 3.3.3.3

The hardware address in the request is six bytes long and begins with aabb-aabb.

1.2.3.4 and 2.2.2.2.

Other clients.

 

The DHCP server assigns PXE server addresses to DHCP clients through Option 43, a customized option. The format of Option 43 and that of the PXE server address sub-option are shown in Figure 15 and Figure 17. For example, the value of Option 43 configured in the DHCP address pool is 80 0B 00 00 02 01 02 03 04 02 02 02 02.

·          The number 80 is the value of the sub-option type.

·          The number 0B is the value of the sub-option length.

·          The numbers 00 00 are the value of the PXE server type.

·          The number 02 indicates the number of servers.

·          The numbers 01 02 03 04 02 02 02 02 indicate that the PXE server addresses are 1.2.3.4 and 2.2.2.2.

Figure 21 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

1.        Specify IP addresses for the interfaces. (Details not shown.)

2.        Configure the DHCP server:

# Enable DHCP.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] dhcp enable

# Create DHCP user class ss and configure a match rule to match DHCP requests in which the hardware address is six bytes long and begins with aabb-aabb.

[SwitchA] dhcp class ss

[SwitchA-dhcp-class-ss] if-match rule 1 hardware-address aabb-aabb-0000 mask ffff-ffff-0000

[SwitchA-dhcp-class-ss] quit

# Create DHCP option group 1 and customize Option 43.

[SwitchA] dhcp option-group 1

[SwitchA-dhcp-option-group-1] option 43 hex 800B0000020203040503030303

# Enable the DHCP server on VLAN-interface 2.

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] dhcp select server

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] quit

# Create DHCP address pool 0.

[SwitchA] dhcp server ip-pool 0

# Specify the subnet for dynamic address allocation.

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-0] network 10.1.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0

# Customize Option 43.

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-0] option 43 hex 800B0000020102030402020202

# Associate DHCP user class ss with option group 1.

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-0] class ss option-group 1

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-0] quit

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that Switch B can obtain an IP address on subnet 10.1.1.0/24 and the corresponding PXE server addresses from the Switch A. (Details not shown.)

# On the DHCP server, display the IP addresses assigned to the clients.

[SwitchA] display dhcp server ip-in-use

IP address       Client identifier/    Lease expiration      Type

                 Hardware address

10.1.1.2         aabb-aabb-ab01        Jan 14 22:25:03 2015  Auto(C)

Troubleshooting DHCP server configuration

Symptom

A client's IP address obtained from the DHCP server conflicts with another IP address.

Analysis

Another host on the subnet might have the same IP address.

Solution

1.        Disable the client's network adapter or disconnect the client's network cable. Ping the IP address of the client from another host to check whether there is a host using the same IP address.

2.        If a ping response is received, the IP address has been manually configured on a host. Execute the dhcp server forbidden-ip command on the DHCP server to exclude the IP address from dynamic allocation.

3.        Enable the network adapter or connect the network cable, release the IP address, and obtain another one on the client. For example, to release the IP address and obtain another one on a Windows XP DHCP client:

a.    In Windows environment, execute the cmd command to enter the DOS environment.

b.    Enter ipconfig /release to relinquish the IP address.

c.    Enter ipconfig /renew to obtain another IP address.


Configuring the DHCP relay agent

Overview

The DHCP relay agent enables clients to get IP addresses from a DHCP server on another subnet. This feature avoids deploying a DHCP server for each subnet to centralize management and reduce investment. Figure 22 shows a typical application of the DHCP relay agent.

Figure 22 DHCP relay agent application

 

An MCE device acting as the DHCP relay agent can forward DHCP packets between a DHCP server and clients on either a public network or a private network. For more information about MCE, see MPLS Configuration Guide.

Operation

The DHCP server and client interact with each other in the same way regardless of whether the relay agent exists. For the interaction details, see "IP address allocation process." The following only describes steps related to the DHCP relay agent:

1.        After receiving a DHCP-DISCOVER or DHCP-REQUEST broadcast message from a DHCP client, the DHCP relay agent processes the message as follows:

a.    Fills the giaddr field of the message with its IP address.

b.    Unicasts the message to the designated DHCP server.

2.        Based on the giaddr field, the DHCP server returns an IP address and other configuration parameters in a response.

3.        The relay agent conveys the response to the client.

Figure 23 DHCP relay agent operation

 

DHCP relay agent support for Option 82

Option 82 records the location information about the DHCP client. It enables the administrator to perform the following tasks:

·          Locate the DHCP client for security and accounting purposes.

·          Assign IP addresses in a specific range to clients.

For more information about Option 82, see "Relay agent option (Option 82)."

If the DHCP relay agent supports Option 82, it handles DHCP requests by following the strategies described in Table 4.

If a response returned by the DHCP server contains Option 82, the DHCP relay agent removes the Option 82 before forwarding the response to the client.

Table 4 Handling strategies of the DHCP relay agent

If a DHCP request has…

Handling strategy

The DHCP relay agent…

Option 82

Drop

Drops the message.

Keep

Forwards the message without changing Option 82.

Replace

Forwards the message after replacing the original Option 82 with the Option 82 padded according to the configured padding format, padding content, and code type.

No Option 82

N/A

Forwards the message after adding Option 82 padded according to the configured padding format, padding content, and code type.

 

DHCP relay agent configuration task list

Tasks at a glance

(Required.) Enabling DHCP

(Required.) Enabling the DHCP relay agent on an interface

(Required.) Specifying DHCP servers on a relay agent

(Optional.) Configuring the DHCP relay agent security features

(Optional.) Configuring the DHCP relay agent to release an IP address

(Optional.) Configuring Option 82

(Optional.) Setting the DSCP value for DHCP packets sent by the DHCP relay agent

(Optional.) Configuring a DHCP address pool on the DHCP relay agent

(Optional.) Configuring the DHCP smart relay feature

 

Enabling DHCP

You must enable DHCP to validate other DHCP relay agent settings.

To enable DHCP:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enable DHCP.

dhcp enable

By default, DHCP is disabled.

 

Enabling the DHCP relay agent on an interface

With the DHCP relay agent enabled, an interface forwards incoming DHCP requests to a DHCP server.

An IP address pool that contains the IP address of the DHCP relay interface must be configured on the DHCP server. Otherwise, the DHCP clients connected to the relay agent cannot obtain correct IP addresses.

To enable the DHCP relay agent on an interface:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.       Enable the DHCP relay agent.

dhcp select relay

By default, when DHCP is enabled, an interface operates in the DHCP server mode.

 

Specifying DHCP servers on a relay agent

To improve availability, you can specify several DHCP servers on the DHCP relay agent. When the interface receives request messages from clients, the relay agent forwards them to all DHCP servers.

Follow these guidelines when you specify a DHCP server address on a relay agent:

·          The IP address of any specified DHCP server must not reside on the same subnet as the IP address of the relay interface. Otherwise, the clients might fail to obtain IP addresses.

·          You can specify a maximum of eight DHCP servers.

To specify a DHCP server address on a relay agent:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.       Specify a DHCP server address on the relay agent.

dhcp relay server-address ip-address

By default, no DHCP server address is specified on the relay agent.

 

Configuring the DHCP relay agent security features

Enabling the DHCP relay agent to record relay entries

Perform this task to enable the DHCP relay agent to automatically record clients' IP-to-MAC bindings (relay entries) after they obtain IP addresses through DHCP.

Some security features use the relay entries to check incoming packets and block packets that do not match any entry. In this way, illegal hosts are not able to access external networks through the relay agent. Examples of the security features are ARP address check, authorized ARP, and IP source guard.

To enable the DHCP relay agent to record relay entries:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enable the relay agent to record relay entries.

dhcp relay client-information record

By default, the relay agent does not record relay entries.

 

Enabling periodic refresh of dynamic relay entries

A DHCP client unicasts a DHCP-RELEASE message to the DHCP server to release its IP address. The DHCP relay agent conveys the message to the DHCP server and does not remove the IP-to-MAC entry of the client.

With this feature, the DHCP relay agent uses the IP address of a relay entry to periodically send a DHCP-REQUEST message to the DHCP server:

The relay agent maintains the relay entries depending on what it receives from the DHCP server:

·          If the server returns a DHCP-ACK message or does not return any message within an interval, the DHCP relay agent removes the relay entry. In addition, upon receiving the DHCP-ACK message, the relay agent sends a DHCP-RELEASE message to release the IP address.

·          If the server returns a DHCP-NAK message, the relay agent keeps the relay entry.

To enable periodic refresh of dynamic relay entries:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enable periodic refresh of dynamic relay entries.

dhcp relay client-information refresh enable

By default, periodic refresh of dynamic relay entries is enabled.

3.       Set the refresh interval.

dhcp relay client-information refresh [ auto | interval interval ]

By default, the refresh interval is auto, which is calculated based on the number of total relay entries.

 

Enabling DHCP starvation attack protection

A DHCP starvation attack occurs when an attacker constantly sends forged DHCP requests using different MAC addresses in the chaddr field to a DHCP server. This exhausts the IP address resources of the DHCP server so legitimate DHCP clients cannot obtain IP addresses. The DHCP server might also fail to work because of exhaustion of system resources. The following methods are available to relieve or prevent such attacks.

·          To relieve a DHCP starvation attack that uses DHCP packets encapsulated with different source MAC addresses, you can use one of the following methods:

?  Limit the number of ARP entries that a Layer 3 interface can learn.

?  Set the MAC learning limit for a Layer 2 port, and disable unknown frame forwarding when the MAC learning limit is reached.

·          To prevent a DHCP starvation attack that uses DHCP requests encapsulated with the same source MAC address, you can enable MAC address check on the DHCP relay agent. The DHCP relay agent compares the chaddr field of a received DHCP request with the source MAC address in the frame header. If they are the same, the DHCP relay agent forwards the request to the DHCP server. If not, the relay agent discards the request.

Enable MAC address check only on the DHCP relay agent directly connected to the DHCP clients. A DHCP relay agent changes the source MAC address of DHCP packets before sending them.

A MAC address check entry has an aging time. When the aging time expires, both of the following occur:

·          The entry ages out.

·          The DHCP relay agent rechecks the validity of DHCP requests sent from the MAC address in the entry.

To enable MAC address check:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Set the aging time for MAC address check entries.

dhcp relay check mac-address aging-time time

The default aging time is 30 seconds.

This command takes effect only after you execute the dhcp relay check mac-address command.

3.       Enter the interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

4.       Enable MAC address check.

dhcp relay check mac-address

By default, MAC address check is disabled.

 

Configuring the DHCP relay agent to release an IP address

Configure the relay agent to release the IP address for a relay entry. The relay agent sends a DHCP-RELEASE message to the server and meanwhile deletes the relay entry. Upon receiving the DHCP-RELEASE message, the DHCP server releases the IP address.

To configure the DHCP relay agent to release an IP address:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Configure the DHCP relay agent to release an IP address.

dhcp relay release ip ip-address [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

This command can release only the IP addresses in the recorded relay entries.

 

Configuring Option 82

Follow these guidelines when you configure Option 82:

·          To support Option 82, you must perform related configuration on both the DHCP server and relay agent. For DHCP server Option 82 configuration, see "Enabling handling of Option 82."

·          If the handling strategy is replace, configure a padding mode and a padding format for Option 82. If the handling strategy is keep or drop, you do not need to configure a padding mode or padding format for Option 82.

·          The device name (sysname) must not include spaces if it is configured as the padding content for sub-option 1. Otherwise, the DHCP relay agent will fail to add or replace Option 82.

To configure Option 82:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.       Enable the relay agent to handle Option 82.

dhcp relay information enable

By default, handling of Option 82 is disabled.

4.       (Optional.) Configure the strategy for handling DHCP requests that contain Option 82.

dhcp relay information strategy { drop | keep | replace }

By default, the handling strategy is replace.

5.       (Optional.) Configure the padding mode and padding format for the Circuit ID sub-option.

dhcp relay information circuit-id { bas | string circuit-id | vxlan-port | { normal | verbose [ node-identifier { mac | sysname | user-defined node-identifier } ] [ interface ] } [ format { ascii | hex } ] }

By default, the padding mode for Circuit ID sub-option is normal, and the padding format is hex.

6.       (Optional.) Configure the padding mode and padding format for the Remote ID sub-option.

dhcp relay information remote-id { normal [ format { ascii | hex } ] | string remote-id | sysname }

By default, the padding mode for the Remote ID sub-option is normal, and the padding format is hex.

 

Setting the DSCP value for DHCP packets sent by the DHCP relay agent

The DSCP value of a packet specifies the priority level of the packet and affects the transmission priority of the packet.

To set the DSCP value for DHCP packets sent by the DHCP relay agent:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Set the DSCP value for DHCP packets sent by the DHCP relay agent.

dhcp dscp dscp-value

By default, the DSCP value in DHCP packets sent by the DHCP relay agent is 56.

 

Configuring a DHCP address pool on the DHCP relay agent

This feature allows DHCP clients of the same type to obtain IP addresses and other configuration parameters from the DHCP servers specified in the matching DHCP address pool.

It applies to scenarios where the DHCP relay agent connects to clients of the same access type but classified into different types by their locations. In this case, the relay interface typically has no IP address configured. You can use the gateway-list command to specify gateway addresses for clients matching the same DHCP address pool and bind the gateway addresses to the device's MAC address.

Upon receiving a DHCP DISCOVER or REQUEST from a client that matches a DHCP address pool, the relay agent processes the packet as follows:

·          Fills the giaddr field of the packet with a specified gateway address.

·          Forwards the packet to all DHCP servers in the matching DHCP address pool.

The DHCP servers select a DHCP address pool according to the gateway address.

To configure a DHCP address pool on the DHCP relay agent:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Create a DHCP address pool and enter its view.

dhcp server ip-pool pool-name

By default, no DHCP address pools exist.

3.       Specify gateway addresses for the clients matching the DHCP address pool.

gateway-list ip-address&<1-64>

By default, no gateway address is specified.

4.       Specify DHCP servers for the DHCP address pool.

remote-server ip-address&<1-8>

By default, no DHCP server is specified for the DHCP address pool.

You can specify a maximum of eight DHCP servers for one DHCP address pool for high availability. The relay agent forwards DHCP DISCOVER and REQUEST packets to all DHCP servers in the DHCP address pool.

 

Configuring the DHCP smart relay feature

The DHCP smart relay feature allows the DHCP relay agent to insert secondary IP addresses when the DHCP server does not reply the DHCP-OFFER message.

The relay agent initially inserts its primary IP address in the giaddr field before forwarding a request to the DHCP server. If no DHCP-OFFER is received, the relay agent allows the client to send a maximum of two requests to the DHCP server by using the primary IP address. If no DHCP-OFFER is returned after two retries, the relay agent switches to a secondary IP address. If the DHCP server still does not respond, the next secondary IP address is used. After the secondary IP addresses are all tried and the DHCP server does not respond, the relay agent repeats the process by starting from the primary IP address.

Without this feature, the relay agent only inserts the primary IP address in the giaddr field of all requests.

On a relay agent where DHCP address pools and gateway addresses are configured, the smart relay feature starts the process from the first gateway address. For more information, see "Configuring a DHCP address pool on the DHCP relay agent."

To configure the DHCP smart relay feature for a common network:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.       Enable the DHCP relay agent.

dhcp select relay

By default, an interface operates in the DHCP server mode when DHCP is enabled.

4.       Assign primary and secondary IP addresses to the DHCP relay agent.

ip address ip-address { mask-length | mask } [ sub ]

By default, the DHCP relay agent does not have any IP addresses.

5.       Return to system view.

quit

N/A

6.       Enable the DHCP smart relay feature.

dhcp smart-relay enable

By default, the DHCP smart relay feature is disabled.

 

To configure the DHCP smart relay feature for a network with DHCP address pools:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.       Enable the DHCP relay agent.

dhcp select relay

By default, an interface operates in the DHCP server mode when DHCP is enabled.

4.       Return to system view.

quit

N/A

5.       Create a DHCP address pool and enter its view.

dhcp server ip-pool pool-name

By default, no DHCP address pool exists.

6.       Specify gateway addresses for the clients matching the DHCP address pool.

gateway-list ip-address&<1-64>

By default, the DHCP address pool does not have any gateway addresses.

7.       Specify DHCP servers for the DHCP address pool.

remote-server ip-address&<1-8>

By default, the DHCP address pool does not have any DHCP server IP addresses.

You can specify a maximum of eight DHCP servers for one DHCP address pool for high availability. The relay agent forwards DHCP-DISCOVER and DHCP-REQUEST packets to all DHCP servers in the DHCP address pool.

8.       Return to system view.

quit

N/A

9.       Enable the DHCP smart relay feature.

dhcp smart-relay enable

By default, the DHCP smart relay feature is disabled.

 

Displaying and maintaining the DHCP relay agent

Execute display commands in any view and reset commands in user view.

 

Task

Command

Display information about DHCP servers on an interface.

display dhcp relay server-address [ interface interface-type interface-number ]

Display Option 82 configuration information on the DHCP relay agent.

display dhcp relay information [ interface interface-type interface-number ]

Display relay entries on the DHCP relay agent.

display dhcp relay client-information [ interface interface-type interface-number | ip ip-address [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] ]

Display packet statistics on the DHCP relay agent.

display dhcp relay statistics [ interface interface-type interface-number ]

Display MAC address check entries on the DHCP relay agent.

display dhcp relay check mac-address

Clear relay entries on the DHCP relay agent.

reset dhcp relay client-information [ interface interface-type interface-number | ip ip-address [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] ]

Clear packet statistics on the DHCP relay agent.

reset dhcp relay statistics [ interface interface-type interface-number ]

 

DHCP relay agent configuration examples

DHCP relay agent configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 24, configure the DHCP relay agent on Switch A. The DHCP relay agent enables DHCP clients to obtain IP addresses and other configuration parameters from the DHCP server on another subnet.

The DHCP relay agent and server are on different subnets. Configure static or dynamic routing to make them reachable to each other.

Perform the configuration on the DHCP server to guarantee the client-server communication. For DHCP server configuration information, see "DHCP server configuration examples."

Figure 24 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

# Specify IP addresses for the interfaces. (Details not shown.)

# Enable DHCP.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] dhcp enable

# Enable the DHCP relay agent on VLAN-interface 10.

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 10

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface10] dhcp select relay

# Specify the IP address of the DHCP server on the relay agent.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface10] dhcp relay server-address 10.1.1.1

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that DHCP clients can obtain IP addresses and all other network parameters from the DHCP server through the DHCP relay agent. (Details not shown.)

# Display the statistics of DHCP packets forwarded by the DHCP relay agent.

[SwitchA] display dhcp relay statistics

# Display relay entries if you have enabled relay entry recording on the DHCP relay agent.

[SwitchA] display dhcp relay client-information

Option 82 configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 24, the DHCP relay agent (Switch A) replaces Option 82 in DHCP requests before forwarding them to the DHCP server (Switch B).

·          The Circuit ID sub-option is company001.

·          The Remote ID sub-option is device001.

To use Option 82, you must also enable the DHCP server to handle Option 82.

Configuration procedure

# Specify IP addresses for the interfaces. (Details not shown.)

# Enable DHCP.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] dhcp enable

# Enable the DHCP relay agent on VLAN-interface 10.

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 10

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface10] dhcp select relay

# Specify the IP address of the DHCP server.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface10] dhcp relay server-address 10.1.1.1

# Configure the handling strategies and padding content of Option 82.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface10] dhcp relay information enable

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface10] dhcp relay information strategy replace

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface10] dhcp relay information circuit-id string company001

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface10] dhcp relay information remote-id string device001

Troubleshooting DHCP relay agent configuration

Symptom

DHCP clients cannot obtain configuration parameters through the DHCP relay agent.

Analysis

Some problems might occur with the DHCP relay agent or server configuration.

Solution

To locate the problem, enable debugging and execute the display command on the DHCP relay agent to view the debugging information and interface state information.

Check that:

·          DHCP is enabled on the DHCP server and relay agent.

·          The DHCP server has an address pool on the same subnet as the DHCP clients.

·          The DHCP server and DHCP relay agent can reach each other.

·          The DHCP server address specified on the DHCP relay interface connected to the DHCP clients is correct.


Configuring the DHCP client

With DHCP client enabled, an interface uses DHCP to obtain configuration parameters from the DHCP server, for example, an IP address.

The DHCP client configuration is supported only on Layer 3 Ethernet interfaces (or subinterfaces), VLAN interfaces, and Layer 3 aggregate interfaces.

Enabling the DHCP client on an interface

Follow these guidelines when you enable the DHCP client on an interface:

·          If the number of IP address request failures reaches the system-defined amount, the DHCP client-enabled interface uses a default IP address.

·          An interface can be configured to acquire an IP address in multiple ways. The new configuration overwrites the old.

·          Secondary IP addresses cannot be configured on an interface that is enabled with the DHCP client.

·          If the interface obtains an IP address on the same segment as another interface on the device, the interface does not use the assigned address. Instead, it requests a new IP address from the DHCP server.

To enable the DHCP client on an interface:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.       Configure an interface to use DHCP for IP address acquisition.

ip address dhcp-alloc

By default, an interface does not use DHCP for IP address acquisition.

 

Configuring a DHCP client ID for an interface

A DHCP client ID is added to the DHCP option 61. A DHCP server can specify IP addresses for clients based on the DHCP client ID.

Make sure the IDs for different DHCP clients are unique.

To configure a DHCP client ID for an interface:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.       Configure a DHCP client ID for the interface.

dhcp client identifier { ascii ascii-string | hex hex-string | mac interface-type interface-number }

By default, an interface generates the DHCP client ID based on its MAC address. If the interface has no MAC address, it uses the MAC address of the first Ethernet interface to generate its client ID.

4.       Verify the client ID configuration.

display dhcp client [ verbose ] [ interface interface-type interface-number ]

DHCP client ID includes ID type and type value. Each ID type has a fixed type value. You can check the fields for the client ID to verify which type of client ID is used:

·         If an ASCII string is used as the client ID, the type value is 00.

·         If a hexadecimal number is used as the client ID, the type value is the first two characters in the number.

·         If the MAC address of an interface is used as the client ID, the type value is 01.

 

Enabling duplicated address detection

DHCP client detects IP address conflict through ARP packets. An attacker can act as the IP address owner to send an ARP reply. The spoofing attack makes the client unable to use the IP address assigned by the server. As a best practice, disable duplicate address detection when ARP attacks exist on the network.

To enable duplicated address detection:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enable duplicate address detection.

dhcp client dad enable

By default, the duplicate address detection feature is enabled on an interface.

 

Setting the DSCP value for DHCP packets sent by the DHCP client

The DSCP value of a packet specifies the priority level of the packet and affects the transmission priority of the packet.

To set the DSCP value for DHCP packets sent by the DHCP client:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Set the DSCP value for DHCP packets sent by the DHCP client.

dhcp client dscp dscp-value

By default, the DSCP value in DHCP packets sent by the DHCP client is 56.

 

Displaying and maintaining the DHCP client

Execute display command in any view.

 

Task

Command

Display DHCP client information.

display dhcp client [ verbose ] [ interface interface-type interface-number ]

 

DHCP client configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 26, on a LAN, Switch B contacts the DHCP server through VLAN-interface 2 to obtain an IP address, a DNS server address, and static route information. The DHCP client's IP address resides on subnet 10.1.1.0/24. The DNS server address is 20.1.1.1. The next hop of the static route to subnet 20.1.1.0/24 is 10.1.1.2.

The DHCP server uses Option 121 to assign static route information to DHCP clients. Figure 25 shows the Option 121 format. The destination descriptor field contains the following parts: subnet mask length and destination network address, both in hexadecimal notation. In this example, the destination descriptor is 18 14 01 01 (the subnet mask length is 24 and the network address is 20.1.1.0 in dotted decimal notation). The next hop address is 0A 01 01 02 (10.1.1.2 in dotted decimal notation).

Figure 25 Option 121 format

 

Figure 26 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

1.        Configure Switch A:

# Specify an IP address for VLAN-interface 2.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] ip address 10.1.1.1 24

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] quit

# Enable DHCP.

[SwitchA] dhcp enable

# Exclude an IP address from dynamic allocation.

[SwitchA] dhcp server forbidden-ip 10.1.1.2

# Configure DHCP address pool 0. Specify the subnet, lease duration, DNS server address, and a static route to subnet 20.1.1.0/24.

[SwitchA] dhcp server ip-pool 0

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-0] network 10.1.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-0] expired day 10

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-0] dns-list 20.1.1.1

[SwitchA-dhcp-pool-0] option 121 hex 18 14 01 01 0A 01 01 02

2.        Configure Switch B:

# Configure VLAN-interface 2 to use DHCP for IP address acquisition.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] ip address dhcp-alloc

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] quit

Verifying the configuration

# Display the IP address and other network parameters assigned to Switch B.

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] display dhcp client verbose

Vlan-interface2 DHCP client information:

 Current state: BOUND

 Allocated IP: 10.1.1.3 255.255.255.0

 Allocated lease: 864000 seconds, T1: 331858 seconds, T2: 756000 seconds

 Lease from May 21 19:00:29 2012   to   May 31 19:00:29 2012

 DHCP server: 10.1.1.1

 Transaction ID: 0xcde72232

 Classless static routes:

   Destination: 20.1.1.0, Mask: 255.255.255.0, NextHop: 10.1.1.2

 DNS servers: 20.1.1.1

 Client ID type: acsii(type value=00)

 Client ID value: 000c.29d3.8659-Vlan2

 Client ID (with type) hex: 0030-3030-632e-3239-

                            6433-2e38-3635-392d-

                            4574-6830-2f30-2f32

 T1 will timeout in 3 days 19 hours 48 minutes 43 seconds

# Display the route information on Switch B. The output shows that a static route to subnet 20.1.1.0/24 is added to the routing table.

[SwitchB] display ip routing-table

 

Destinations : 11        Routes : 11

 

Destination/Mask    Proto  Pre  Cost         NextHop         Interface

10.1.1.0/24         Direct 0    0            10.1.1.3        Vlan2

10.1.1.3/32         Direct 0    0            127.0.0.1       InLoop0

20.1.1.0/24         Static 70   0            10.1.1.2        Vlan2

10.1.1.255/32       Direct 0    0            10.1.1.3        Vlan2

127.0.0.0/8         Direct 0    0            127.0.0.1       InLoop0

127.0.0.0/32        Direct 0    0            127.0.0.1       InLoop0

127.0.0.1/32        Direct 0    0            127.0.0.1       InLoop0

127.255.255.255/32  Direct 0    0            127.0.0.1       InLoop0

224.0.0.0/4         Direct 0    0            0.0.0.0         NULL0

224.0.0.0/24        Direct 0    0            0.0.0.0         NULL0

255.255.255.255/32  Direct 0    0            127.0.0.1       InLoop0


Configuring DHCP snooping

Overview

DHCP snooping works between the DHCP client and server, or between the DHCP client and DHCP relay agent. It guarantees that DHCP clients obtain IP addresses from authorized DHCP servers. Also, it records IP-to-MAC bindings of DHCP clients (called DHCP snooping entries) for security purposes.

DHCP snooping does not work between the DHCP server and DHCP relay agent.

DHCP snooping defines trusted and untrusted ports to make sure clients obtain IP addresses only from authorized DHCP servers.

·          Trusted—A trusted port can forward DHCP messages correctly to make sure the clients get IP addresses from authorized DHCP servers.

·          Untrusted—An untrusted port discards received DHCP-ACK and DHCP-OFFER messages to prevent unauthorized servers from assigning IP addresses.

DHCP snooping reads DHCP-ACK messages received from trusted ports and DHCP-REQUEST messages to create DHCP snooping entries. A DHCP snooping entry includes the MAC and IP addresses of a client, the port that connects to the DHCP client, and the VLAN.

The following features need to use DHCP snooping entries:

·          ARP fast-reply—Uses DHCP snooping entries to reduce ARP broadcast traffic. For more information, see "Configuring ARP fast-reply."

·          ARP attack detection—Uses DHCP snooping entries to filter ARP packets from unauthorized clients. For more information, see Security Configuration Guide.

·          IP source guard—Uses DHCP snooping entries to filter illegal packets on a per-port basis. For more information, see Security Configuration Guide.

·          VLAN mapping—Uses DHCP snooping entries to replace service provider VLAN in packets with customer VLAN before sending the packets to clients. For more information, see Layer 2LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

Application of trusted and untrusted ports

Configure ports facing the DHCP server as trusted ports, and configure other ports as untrusted ports.

As shown in Figure 27, configure the DHCP snooping device's port that is connected to the DHCP server as a trusted port. The trusted port forwards response messages from the DHCP server to the client. The untrusted port connected to the unauthorized DHCP server discards incoming DHCP response messages.

Figure 27 Trusted and untrusted ports

 

In a cascaded network as shown in Figure 28, configure the DHCP snooping devices' ports facing the DHCP server as trusted ports. To save system resources, you can enable only the untrusted ports directly connected to the DHCP clients to record DHCP snooping entries.

Figure 28 Trusted and untrusted ports in a cascaded network

DHCP snooping support for Option 82

Option 82 records the location information about the DHCP client so the administrator can locate the DHCP client for security and accounting purposes. For more information about Option 82, see "Relay agent option (Option 82)."

DHCP snooping uses the same strategies as the DHCP relay agent to handle Option 82 for DHCP request messages, as shown in Table 5. If a response returned by the DHCP server contains Option 82, DHCP snooping removes Option 82 before forwarding the response to the client. If the response contains no Option 82, DHCP snooping forwards it directly.

Table 5 Handling strategies

If a DHCP request has…

Handling strategy

DHCP snooping…

Option 82

Drop

Drops the message.

Keep

Forwards the message without changing Option 82.

Replace

Forwards the message after replacing the original Option 82 with the Option 82 padded according to the configured padding format, padding content, and code type.

No Option 82

N/A

Forwards the message after adding the Option 82 padded according to the configured padding format, padding content, and code type.

 

DHCP snooping configuration task list

The DHCP snooping configuration does not take effect on a Layer 2 Ethernet interface that is an aggregation member port. The configuration takes effect when the interface leaves the aggregation group.

 

Tasks at a glance

(Required.) Configuring basic DHCP snooping

(Optional.) Configuring Option 82

(Optional.) Configuring DHCP snooping entry auto backup

(Optional.) Enabling DHCP starvation attack protection

(Optional.) Enabling DHCP-REQUEST attack protection

(Optional.) Setting the maximum number of DHCP snooping entries

(Optional.) Configuring DHCP packet rate limit

 

Configuring basic DHCP snooping

Follow these guidelines when you configure basic DHCP snooping:

·          Specify the ports connected to authorized DHCP servers as trusted ports to make sure that DHCP clients can obtain valid IP addresses. The trusted ports and the ports connected to DHCP clients must be in the same VLAN.

·          You can specify the following interfaces as trusted ports: Layer 2 Ethernet interfaces, Layer 2 aggregate interfaces, Layer 3 Ethernet interfaces, and Layer 3 aggregate interfaces. For more information about aggregate interfaces, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

·          The DHCP snooping configuration on a Layer 2 Ethernet interface that has been added to an aggregation group does not take effect unless the interface leaves the aggregation group.

To configure basic DHCP snooping:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enable DHCP snooping.

dhcp snooping enable

By default, DHCP snooping is disabled.

3.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

This interface must connect to the DHCP server.

4.       Specify the port as a trusted port.

dhcp snooping trust

By default, all ports are untrusted ports after DHCP snooping is enabled.

5.       Return to system view.

quit

N/A

6.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

This interface must connect to the DHCP client.

7.       (Optional.) Enable the recording of DHCP snooping entries.

dhcp snooping binding record

By default, the recording of DHCP snooping entries is disabled.

 

Configuring Option 82

Follow these guidelines when you configure Option 82:

·          The Option 82 configuration on a Layer 2 Ethernet interface that has been added to an aggregation group does not take effect unless the interface leaves the aggregation group.

·          To support Option 82, you must configure Option 82 on both the DHCP server and the DHCP snooping device. For information about configuring Option 82 on the DHCP server, see "Enabling handling of Option 82."

·          If the handling strategy is replace, configure a padding mode and padding format for Option 82. If the handling strategy is keep or drop, you do not need to configure any padding mode or padding format for Option 82. The settings do not take effect even if you configure them.

·          If Option 82 contains the device name, the device name must contain no spaces. Otherwise, DHCP snooping drops the message. You can use the sysname command to specify the device name. For more information about this command, see Fundamentals Command Reference.

·          In verbose mode, DHCP snooping pads the VLAN ID field of sub-option 1 in the format of outer VLAN tag.inner VLAN tag if a DHCP packet contains two VLAN tags.

For example, if the outer VLAN tag is 10 and the inner VLAN tag is 20, the VLAN ID field is 000a.0014. The hexadecimal digit a represents the outer VLAN tag 10, and the hexadecimal digit 14 represents the inner VLAN tag 20.

·          The device name (sysname) must not include spaces if it is configured as the padding content for sub-option 1. Otherwise, the DHCP snooping device will fail to add or replace Option 82.

To configure DHCP snooping to support Option 82:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.       Enable DHCP snooping to support Option 82.

dhcp snooping information enable

By default, DHCP snooping does not support Option 82.

4.       (Optional.) Configure a handling strategy for DHCP requests that contain Option 82.

dhcp snooping information strategy { drop | keep | replace }

By default, the handling strategy is replace.

5.       (Optional.) Configure the padding mode and padding format for the Circuit ID sub-option.

dhcp snooping information circuit-id { [ vlan vlan-id ] string circuit-id | { normal | verbose [ node-identifier { mac | sysname | user-defined node-identifier } ] } [ format { ascii | hex } ] }

By default, the padding mode is normal and the padding format is hex for the Circuit ID sub-option.

6.       (Optional.) Configure the padding mode and padding format for the Remote ID sub-option.

dhcp snooping information remote-id { normal [ format { ascii | hex } ] | [ vlan vlan-id ] string remote-id | sysname }

By default, the padding mode is normal and the padding format is hex for the Remote ID sub-option.

 

Configuring DHCP snooping entry auto backup

The auto backup feature saves DHCP snooping entries to a backup file, and allows the DHCP snooping device to download the entries from the backup file at device reboot. The entries on the DHCP snooping device cannot survive a reboot. The auto backup helps the security features provide services if these features (such as IP source guard) must use DHCP snooping entries for user authentication.

 

 

NOTE:

If you disable DHCP snooping with the undo dhcp snooping enable command, the device deletes all DHCP snooping entries, including those stored in the backup file.

 

To save DHCP snooping entries:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Configure the DHCP snooping device to back up DHCP snooping entries to a file.

dhcp snooping binding database filename { filename | url url [ username username [ password { cipher | simple } string ] ] }

By default, the DHCP snooping device does not back up DHCP snooping entries.

With this command executed, the DHCP snooping device backs up DHCP snooping entries immediately and runs auto backup.

This command automatically creates the file if you specify a non-existent file.

3.       (Optional.) Manually save DHCP snooping entries to the backup file.

dhcp snooping binding database update now

N/A

4.       (Optional.) Set the waiting time after a DHCP snooping entry change for the DHCP snooping device to update the backup file.

dhcp snooping binding database update interval interval

The default waiting time is 300 seconds.

When a DHCP snooping entry is learned, updated, or removed, the waiting period starts. The DHCP snooping device updates the backup file when the specified waiting period is reached. All changed entries during the period will be saved to the backup file.

If no DHCP snooping entry changes, the backup file is not updated.

 

Enabling DHCP starvation attack protection

A DHCP starvation attack occurs when an attacker constantly sends forged DHCP requests that contain identical or different sender MAC addresses in the chaddr field to a DHCP server. This attack exhausts the IP address resources of the DHCP server so legitimate DHCP clients cannot obtain IP addresses. The DHCP server might also fail to work because of exhaustion of system resources. For information about the fields of DHCP packet, see "DHCP message format."

You can prevent DHCP starvation attacks in the following ways:

·          If the forged DHCP requests contain different sender MAC addresses, use the mac-address max-mac-count command to set the MAC learning limit on Layer 2 port. For more information about the command, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Command Reference.

·          If the forged DHCP requests contain the same sender MAC address, perform this task to enable MAC address check for DHCP snooping. This feature compares the chaddr field of a received DHCP request with the source MAC address field in the frame header. If they are the same, the request is considered valid and forwarded to the DHCP server. If not, the request is discarded.

To enable MAC address check:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.       Enable MAC address check.

dhcp snooping check mac-address

By default, MAC address check is disabled.

 

Enabling DHCP-REQUEST attack protection

DHCP-REQUEST messages include DHCP lease renewal packets, DHCP-DECLINE packets, and DHCP-RELEASE packets. This feature prevents the unauthorized clients that forge the DHCP-REQUEST messages from attacking the DHCP server.

Attackers can forge DHCP lease renewal packets to renew leases for legitimate DHCP clients that no longer need the IP addresses. These forged messages disable the victim DHCP server from releasing the IP addresses.

Attackers can also forge DHCP-DECLINE or DHCP-RELEASE packets to terminate leases for legitimate DHCP clients that still need the IP addresses.

To prevent such attacks, you can enable DHCP-REQUEST check. This feature uses DHCP snooping entries to check incoming DHCP-REQUEST messages.

·          If a matching entry is found for a message, this feature compares the entry with the message information.

?  If they are consistent, the message is considered as valid and forwarded to the DHCP server.

?  If they are different, the message is considered as a forged message and is discarded.

·          If no matching entry is found, the message is considered valid and forwarded to the DHCP server.

To enable DHCP-REQUEST check:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.       Enable DHCP-REQUEST check.

dhcp snooping check request-message

By default, DHCP-REQUEST check is disabled.

 

Setting the maximum number of DHCP snooping entries

Perform this task to prevent the system resources from being overused.

To set the maximum number of DHCP snooping entries:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.       Set the maximum number of DHCP snooping entries for the interface to learn.

dhcp snooping max-learning-num max-number

By default, the number of DHCP snooping entries for an interface to learn is unlimited.

 

Configuring DHCP packet rate limit

Perform this task to set the maximum rate at which an interface can receive DHCP packets. This feature discards exceeding DHCP packets to prevent attacks that send large numbers of DHCP packets.

To configure DHCP packet rate limit:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.       Set the maximum rate at which the interface can receive DHCP packets.

dhcp snooping rate-limit rate

By default, incoming DHCP packets are not rate limited.

The rate set on the Layer 2 aggregate interface applies to all members of the aggregate interface. If a member interface leaves the aggregation group, it uses the rate set in its Ethernet interface view.

 

Displaying and maintaining DHCP snooping

Execute display commands in any view, and reset commands in user view.

 

Task

Command

Remarks

Display DHCP snooping entries.

display dhcp snooping binding [ ip ip-address [ vlan vlan-id ] ] [ verbose ]

Available in any view.

Display Option 82 configuration information on the DHCP snooping device.

display dhcp snooping information { all | interface interface-type interface-number }

Available in any view.

(In standalone mode.) Display DHCP packet statistics on the DHCP snooping device.

display dhcp snooping packet statistics [ slot slot-number ]

Available in any view.

(In IRF mode.) Display DHCP packet statistics on the DHCP snooping device.

display dhcp snooping packet statistics [ chassis chassis-number slot slot-number ]

Available in any view.

Display information about trusted ports.

display dhcp snooping trust

Available in any view.

Display information about the file that stores DHCP snooping entries.

display dhcp snooping binding database

Available in any view.

Clear DHCP snooping entries.

reset dhcp snooping binding { all | ip ip-address [ vlan vlan-id ] }

Available in user view.

(In standalone mode.) Clear DHCP packet statistics on the DHCP snooping device.

reset dhcp snooping packet statistics [ slot slot-number ]

Available in user view.

(In IRF mode.) Clear DHCP packet statistics on the DHCP snooping device.

reset dhcp snooping packet statistics [ chassis chassis-number slot slot-number ]

Available in user view.

 

DHCP snooping configuration examples

Basic DHCP snooping configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 29, Switch B is connected to the authorized DHCP server through HundredGigE 1/0/1, to the unauthorized DHCP server through HundredGigE 1/0/3, and to the DHCP client through HundredGigE 1/0/2.

Configure only the port connected to the authorized DHCP server to forward the responses from the DHCP server. Enable the DHCP snooping device to record clients' IP-to-MAC bindings by reading DHCP-ACK messages received from the trusted port and the DHCP-REQUEST messages.

Figure 29 Network diagram

Configuration procedure

# Enable DHCP snooping.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] dhcp snooping enable

# Configure HundredGigE 1/0/1 as a trusted port.

[SwitchB] interface hundredgige 1/0/1

[SwitchB-HundredGigE1/0/1] dhcp snooping trust

[SwitchB-HundredGigE1/0/1] quit

# Enable recording clients' IP-to-MAC bindings on HundredGigE 1/0/2.

[SwitchB] interface hundredgige 1/0/2

[SwitchB-HundredGigE1/0/2] dhcp snooping binding record

[SwitchB-HundredGigE1/0/2] quit

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that the DHCP client can obtain an IP address and other configuration parameters only from the authorized DHCP server. (Details not shown.)

# Display the DHCP snooping entry recorded for the client.

[SwitchB] display dhcp snooping binding

Option 82 configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 30, enable DHCP snooping and configure Option 82 on Switch B as follows:

·          Configure the handling strategy for DHCP requests that contain Option 82 as replace.

·          On HundredGigE 1/0/2, configure the padding content for the Circuit ID sub-option as company001 and for the Remote ID sub-option as device001.

·          On HundredGigE 1/0/3, configure the padding mode for the Circuit ID sub-option as verbose, access node identifier as sysname, and padding format as ascii. Configure the padding content for the Remote ID sub-option as device001.

Figure 30 Network diagram

Configuration procedure

# Enable DHCP snooping.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] dhcp snooping enable

# Configure HundredGigE 1/0/1 as a trusted port.

[SwitchB] interface hundredgige 1/0/1

[SwitchB-HundredGigE1/0/1] dhcp snooping trust

[SwitchB-HundredGigE1/0/1] quit

# Configure Option 82 on HundredGigE 1/0/2.

[SwitchB] interface hundredgige 1/0/2

[SwitchB-HundredGigE1/0/2] dhcp snooping information enable

[SwitchB-HundredGigE1/0/2] dhcp snooping information strategy replace

[SwitchB-HundredGigE1/0/2] dhcp snooping information circuit-id string company001

[SwitchB-HundredGigE1/0/2] dhcp snooping information remote-id string device001

[SwitchB-HundredGigE1/0/2] quit

# Configure Option 82 on HundredGigE 1/0/3.

[SwitchB] interface hundredgige 1/0/3

[SwitchB-HundredGigE1/0/3] dhcp snooping information enable

[SwitchB-HundredGigE1/0/3] dhcp snooping information strategy replace

[SwitchB-HundredGigE1/0/3] dhcp snooping information circuit-id verbose node-identifier sysname format ascii

[SwitchB-HundredGigE1/0/3] dhcp snooping information remote-id string device001

Verifying the configuration

# Display Option 82 configuration information on HundredGigE 1/0/2 and HundredGigE 1/0/3 on the DHCP snooping device.

[SwitchB] display dhcp snooping information

 


Configuring DNS

Overview

Domain Name System (DNS) is a distributed database used by TCP/IP applications to translate domain names into IP addresses. The domain name-to-IP address mapping is called a DNS entry.

DNS services can be static or dynamic. After a user specifies a name, the device checks the static name resolution table for an IP address. If no IP address is available, it contacts the DNS server for dynamic name resolution, which takes more time than static name resolution. To improve efficiency, you can put frequently queried name-to-IP address mappings in the local static name resolution table.

Static domain name resolution

Static domain name resolution means manually creating mappings between domain names and IP addresses. For example, you can create a static DNS mapping for a device so that you can Telnet to the device by using the domain name.

Dynamic domain name resolution

Resolution process

1.        A user program sends a name query to the resolver of the DNS client.

2.        The DNS resolver looks up the local domain name cache for a match. If the resolver finds a match, it sends the corresponding IP address back. If not, it sends a query to the DNS server.

3.        The DNS server looks up the corresponding IP address of the domain name in its DNS database. If no match is found, the server sends a query to other DNS servers. This process continues until a result, whether successful or not, is returned.

4.        After receiving a response from the DNS server, the DNS client returns the resolution result to the user program.

Figure 31 shows the relationship between the user program, DNS client, and DNS server.

The DNS client includes the resolver and cache. The user program and DNS client can run on the same device or different devices. The DNS server and the DNS client usually run on different devices.

Figure 31 Dynamic domain name resolution

 

Dynamic domain name resolution allows the DNS client to store latest DNS entries in the dynamic domain name cache. The DNS client does not need to send a request to the DNS server for a repeated query within the aging time. To make sure the entries from the DNS server are up to date, a DNS entry is removed when its aging timer expires. The DNS server determines how long a mapping is valid, and the DNS client obtains the aging information from DNS responses.

DNS suffixes

You can configure a domain name suffix list so that the resolver can use the list to supply the missing part of an incomplete name.

For example, you can configure com as the suffix for aabbcc.com. The user only needs to enter aabbcc to obtain the IP address of aabbcc.com. The resolver adds the suffix and delimiter before passing the name to the DNS server.

The name resolver handles the queries based on the domain names that the user enters:

·          If the user enters a domain name without a dot (.) (for example, aabbcc), the resolver considers the domain name to be a host name. It adds a DNS suffix to the host name before performing the query operation. If no match is found for any host name and suffix combination, the resolver uses the user-entered domain name (for example, aabbcc) for the IP address query.

·          If the user enters a domain name with a dot (.) among the letters (for example, www.aabbcc), the resolver directly uses this domain name for the query operation. If the query fails, the resolver adds a DNS suffix for another query operation.

·          If the user enters a domain name with a dot (.) at the end (for example, aabbcc.com.), the resolver considers the domain name an FQDN and returns the successful or failed query result. The dot at the end of the domain name is considered a terminating symbol.

The device supports static and dynamic DNS client services.

If an alias is configured for a domain name on the DNS server, the device can resolve the alias into the IP address of the host.

DNS configuration task list

Tasks at a glance

Perform one of the following tasks:

·         Configuring the IPv4 DNS client

·         Configuring the IPv6 DNS client

(Optional.) Specifying the source interface for DNS packets

(Optional.) Configuring the DNS trusted interface

(Optional.) Setting the DSCP value for outgoing DNS packets

 

Configuring the IPv4 DNS client

Configuring static domain name resolution

Static domain name resolution allows applications such as Telnet to contact hosts by using host names instead of IPv4 addresses.

Follow these guidelines when you configure static domain name resolution:

·          For the public network or a VPN instance, each host name maps to only one IPv4 address. The most recent configuration for a host name takes effect.

·          You can configure the following:

?  IPv4 DNS entries for both public network and VPN instances.

?  A maximum of 1024 IPv4 DNS entries for the public network or each VPN instance.

To configure static domain name resolution:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Configure a host name-to-IPv4 address mapping.

ip host host-name ip-address [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

By default, no host name-to-IPv4 address mappings exist.

 

Configuring dynamic domain name resolution

To use dynamic domain name resolution, configure DNS servers so that DNS queries can be sent to a correct server for resolution. A DNS server manually configured takes precedence over the one dynamically obtained through DHCP, and a DNS server configured earlier takes precedence. A name query is first sent to the DNS server that has the highest priority. If no reply is received, it is sent to the DNS server that has the second highest priority, and so on.

In addition, you can configure a DNS suffix that the system automatically adds to the provided domain name for resolution. A DNS suffix manually configured takes precedence over the one dynamically obtained through DHCP, and a DNS suffix configured earlier takes precedence. The DNS resolver first uses the suffix that has the highest priority. If the name resolution fails, the DNS resolver uses the suffix that has the second highest priority, and so on.

Configuration guidelines

Follow these guidelines when you configure dynamic domain name resolution:

·          You can specify DNS server IPv4 addresses as follows:

?  Specify DNS server IPv4 addresses for both public network and VPN instances.

?  Specify a maximum of six DNS server IPv4 addresses for the public network or each VPN instance.

·          You can specify DNS server IPv6 addresses as follows:

?  Specify DNS server IPv6 addresses for both public network and VPN instances.

?  Specify a maximum of six DNS server IPv6 addresses for the public network or each VPN instance.

An IPv4 name query is first sent to the DNS server IPv4 addresses. If no reply is received, it is sent to the DNS server IPv6 addresses.

·          You can specify DNS suffixes as follows:

?  Specify DNS suffixes for both public network and VPN instances.

?  Specify a maximum of 16 DNS suffixes for the public network or each VPN instance.

Configuration procedure

To configure dynamic domain name resolution:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Specify a DNS server.

·         Specify a DNS server IPv4 address:
dns server ip-address [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

·         Specify a DNS server IPv6 address:
ipv6 dns server
ipv6-address [ interface-type interface-number ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

By default, no DNS server is specified.

You can specify both the IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.

3.       (Optional.) Configure a DNS suffix.

dns domain domain-name [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

By default, no DNS suffix is configured and only the provided domain name is resolved.

 

Configuring the IPv6 DNS client

Configuring static domain name resolution

Static domain name resolution allows applications such as Telnet to contact hosts by using host names instead of IPv6 addresses.

Follow these guidelines when you configure static domain name resolution:

·          For the public network or a VPN instance, each host name maps to only one IPv6 address. The most recent configuration for a host name takes effect.

·          You can configure the following items:

?  IPv6 DNS entries for both public network and VPN instances.

?  A maximum of 1024 IPv6 DNS entries for the public network or each VPN instance.

To configure static domain name resolution:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Configure a host name-to-IPv6 address mapping.

ipv6 host host-name ipv6-address [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

By default, no host name-to-IPv6 address mappings exist.

 

Configuring dynamic domain name resolution

To send DNS queries to a correct server for resolution, you must enable dynamic domain name resolution and configure DNS servers. A DNS server manually configured takes precedence over the one dynamically obtained through DHCP, and a DNS server configured earlier takes precedence. A name query is first sent to the DNS server that has the highest priority. If no reply is received, it is sent to the DNS server that has the second highest priority, and so on.

In addition, you can configure a DNS suffix that the system automatically adds to the provided domain name for resolution. A DNS suffix manually configured takes precedence over the one dynamically obtained through DHCP, and a DNS suffix configured earlier takes precedence. The DNS resolver first uses the suffix that has the highest priority. If the name resolution fails, the DNS resolver uses the suffix that has the second highest priority, and so on.

Configuration guidelines

Follow these guidelines when you configure dynamic domain name resolution:

·          You can specify DNS server IPv4 addresses as follows:

?  Specify DNS server IPv4 addresses for both public network and VPN instances.

?  Specify a maximum of six DNS server IPv4 addresses for the public network or each VPN instance.

·          You can specify DNS server IPv6 addresses as follows:

?  Specify DNS server IPv6 addresses for both public network and VPN instances.

?  Specify a maximum of six DNS server IPv6 addresses for the public network or each VPN instance.

An IPv6 name query is first sent to the IPv6 DNS servers. If no reply is received, it is sent to the IPv4 DNS servers.

·          You can specify DNS suffixes as follows:

?  Specify DNS suffixes for both public network and VPN instances.

?  Specify a maximum of 16 DNS suffixes for the public network or each VPN instance.

Configuration procedure

To configure dynamic domain name resolution:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Specify a DNS server.

·         Specify a DNS server IPv4 address:
dns server ip-address [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

·         Specify a DNS server IPv6 address:
ipv6 dns server ipv6-address [ interface-type interface-number ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

By default, no DNS server is specified.

You can specify both the IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.

3.       (Optional.) Configure a DNS suffix.

dns domain domain-name [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

By default, no DNS suffix is configured. Only the provided domain name is resolved.

 

Specifying the source interface for DNS packets

This task enables the device to always use the primary IP address of the specified source interface as the source IP address of outgoing DNS packets. This feature applies to scenarios in which the DNS server responds only to DNS requests sourced from a specific IP address. If no IP address is configured on the source interface, no DNS packets can be sent out.

When sending an IPv6 DNS request, the device follows the method defined in RFC 3484 to select an IPv6 address of the source interface.

You can configure only one source interface on the public network or a VPN instance. You can configure the source interface for both public network and VPN instances.

To specify the source interface for DNS packets:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Specify the source interface for DNS packets.

dns source-interface interface-type interface-number [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

By default, no source interface for DNS packets is specified.

If you execute the command multiple times, the most recent configuration takes effect.

If you specify the vpn-instance vpn-instance-name option, make sure the source interface belongs to the specified VPN instance.

 

Configuring the DNS trusted interface

This task enables the device to use only the DNS suffix and domain name server information obtained through the trusted interface. The device can then obtain the correct resolved IP address. This feature protects the device against attackers that act as the DHCP server to assign incorrect DNS suffix and domain name server address.

To configure the DNS trusted interface:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Specify the DNS trusted interface.

dns trust-interface interface-type interface-number

By default, no DNS trusted interface is specified.

You can configure up to 128 DNS trusted interfaces.

 

Setting the DSCP value for outgoing DNS packets

The DSCP value of a packet specifies the priority level of the packet and affects the transmission priority of the packet. A bigger DSCP value represents a higher priority.

To set the DSCP value for outgoing DNS packets:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Set the DSCP value for DNS packets sent by a DNS client or a DNS proxy.

·         DSCP value for IPv4 DNS packets:
dns dscp
dscp-value

·         DSCP value for IPv6 DNS packets:
ipv6 dns dscp
dscp-value

By default, the DSCP value is 0 in DNS packets sent by a DNS client or a DNS proxy.

 

Displaying and maintaining DNS

Execute display commands in any view and reset commands in user view.

 

Task

Command

Display the domain name resolution table.

display dns host [ ip | ipv6 ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

Display IPv4 DNS server information.

display dns server [ dynamic ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

Display IPv6 DNS server information.

display ipv6 dns server [ dynamic ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

Display DNS suffixes.

display dns domain [ dynamic ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

Clear dynamic DNS entries.

reset dns host [ ip | ipv6 ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

 

IPv4 DNS configuration examples

Static domain name resolution configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 32, the host at 10.1.1.2 is named host.com. Configure static IPv4 DNS on the device so that the device can use the easy-to-remember domain name rather than the IP address to access the host.

Figure 32 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

# Configure a mapping between host name host.com and IP address 10.1.1.2.

<Sysname> system-view

[Sysname] ip host host.com 10.1.1.2

# Verify that the device can use static domain name resolution to resolve domain name host.com into IP address 10.1.1.2.

[Sysname] ping host.com

Ping host.com (10.1.1.2): 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break

56 bytes from 10.1.1.2: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=1.000 ms

56 bytes from 10.1.1.2: icmp_seq=1 ttl=255 time=1.000 ms

56 bytes from 10.1.1.2: icmp_seq=2 ttl=255 time=1.000 ms

56 bytes from 10.1.1.2: icmp_seq=3 ttl=255 time=1.000 ms

56 bytes from 10.1.1.2: icmp_seq=4 ttl=255 time=2.000 ms

 

--- Ping statistics for host.com ---

5 packet(s) transmitted, 5 packet(s) received, 0.0% packet loss

round-trip min/avg/max/std-dev = 1.000/1.200/2.000/0.400 ms

Dynamic domain name resolution configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 33, configure the DNS server to store the mapping between the host's domain name host and IPv4 address 3.1.1.1/16 in the com domain. Configure dynamic IPv4 DNS and DNS suffix com on the device so that the device can use domain name host to access the host.

Figure 33 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

Before performing the following configuration, make sure that:

·          The device and the host can reach each other.

·          The IP addresses of the interfaces are configured as shown in Figure 33.

1.        Configure the DNS server:

The configuration might vary by DNS server. The following configuration is performed on a PC running Windows Server 2008 R2.

a.    Select Start > Programs > Administrative Tools > DNS.

The DNS server configuration page appears, as shown in Figure 34.

b.    Right-click Forward Lookup Zones, select New Zone, and then follow the wizard to create a new zone named com.

Figure 34 Creating a zone

 

a.    On the DNS server configuration page, right-click zone com and select New Host.

Figure 35 Adding a host

 

a.    On the page that appears, enter host name host and IP address 3.1.1.1.

b.    Click Add Host.

The mapping between the IP address and host name is created.

Figure 36 Adding a mapping between domain name and IP address

 

2.        Configure the DNS client:

# Specify the DNS server 2.1.1.2.

<Sysname> system-view

[Sysname] dns server 2.1.1.2

# Specify com as the name suffix.

[Sysname] dns domain com

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that the device can use the dynamic domain name resolution to resolve domain name host.com into IP address 3.1.1.1.

[Sysname] ping host

Ping host.com (3.1.1.1): 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break

56 bytes from 3.1.1.1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=1.000 ms

56 bytes from 3.1.1.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=255 time=1.000 ms

56 bytes from 3.1.1.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=255 time=1.000 ms

56 bytes from 3.1.1.1: icmp_seq=3 ttl=255 time=1.000 ms

56 bytes from 3.1.1.1: icmp_seq=4 ttl=255 time=2.000 ms

 

--- Ping statistics for host ---

5 packet(s) transmitted, 5 packet(s) received, 0.0% packet loss

round-trip min/avg/max/std-dev = 1.000/1.200/2.000/0.400 ms

IPv6 DNS configuration examples

Static domain name resolution configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 37, the host at 1::2 is named host.com. Configure static IPv6 DNS on the device so that the device can use the easy-to-remember domain name rather than the IPv6 address to access the host.

Figure 37 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

# Configure a mapping between host name host.com and IPv6 address 1::2.

<Device> system-view

[Device] ipv6 host host.com 1::2

# Verify that the device can use static domain name resolution to resolve domain name host.com into IPv6 address 1::2.

[Sysname] ping ipv6 host.com

Ping6(56 data bytes) 1::1 --> 1::2, press CTRL_C to break

56 bytes from 1::2, icmp_seq=0 hlim=128 time=1.000 ms

56 bytes from 1::2, icmp_seq=1 hlim=128 time=0.000 ms

56 bytes from 1::2, icmp_seq=2 hlim=128 time=1.000 ms

56 bytes from 1::2, icmp_seq=3 hlim=128 time=1.000 ms

56 bytes from 1::2, icmp_seq=4 hlim=128 time=0.000 ms

 

--- Ping6 statistics for host.com ---

5 packet(s) transmitted, 5 packet(s) received, 0.0% packet loss

round-trip min/avg/max/std-dev = 0.000/0.600/1.000/0.490 ms

Dynamic domain name resolution configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 38, configure the DNS server to store the mapping between the host's domain name host and IPv6 address 1::1/64 in the com domain. Configure dynamic IPv6 DNS and DNS suffix com on the device so that the device can use domain name host to access the host.

Figure 38 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

Before performing the following configuration, make sure that:

·          The device and the host can reach each other.

·          The IPv6 addresses of the interfaces are configured as shown in Figure 38.

1.        Configure the DNS server:

The configuration might vary by DNS server. The following configuration is performed on a PC running Windows Server 2008 R2. Make sure that the DNS server supports IPv6 DNS so that the server can process IPv6 DNS packets and its interfaces can forward IPv6 packets.

a.    Select Start > Programs > Administrative Tools > DNS.

The DNS server configuration page appears, as shown in Figure 39.

b.    Right-click Forward Lookup Zones, select New Zone, and then follow the wizard to create a new zone named com.

Figure 39 Creating a zone

 

a.    On the DNS server configuration page, right-click zone com and select New Host.

Figure 40 Adding a host

 

a.    On the page that appears, enter host name host and IPv6 address 1::1.

b.    Click Add Host.

The mapping between the IPv6 address and host name is created.

Figure 41 Adding a mapping between domain name and IPv6 address

 

2.        Configure the DNS client:

# Specify the DNS server 2::2.

<Device> system-view

[Device] ipv6 dns server 2::2

# Configure com as the DNS suffix.

[Device] dns domain com

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that the device can use the dynamic domain name resolution to resolve the domain name host.com into the IP address 1::1.

[Device] ping ipv6 host

Ping6(56 data bytes) 3::1 --> 1::1, press CTRL_C to break

56 bytes from 1::1, icmp_seq=0 hlim=128 time=1.000 ms

56 bytes from 1::1, icmp_seq=1 hlim=128 time=0.000 ms

56 bytes from 1::1, icmp_seq=2 hlim=128 time=1.000 ms

56 bytes from 1::1, icmp_seq=3 hlim=128 time=1.000 ms

56 bytes from 1::1, icmp_seq=4 hlim=128 time=0.000 ms

 

--- Ping6 statistics for host ---

5 packet(s) transmitted, 5 packet(s) received, 0.0% packet loss

round-trip min/avg/max/std-dev = 0.000/0.600/1.000/0.490 ms

Troubleshooting IPv4 DNS configuration

Symptom

After enabling dynamic domain name resolution, the user cannot get the correct IP address.

Solution

1.        Use the display dns host ip command to verify that the specified domain name is in the cache.

2.        If the specified domain name does not exist, check that the DNS client can communicate with the DNS server.

3.        If the specified domain name is in the cache, but the IP address is incorrect, check that the DNS client has the correct IP address of the DNS server.

4.        Verify that the mapping between the domain name and IP address is correct on the DNS server.

Troubleshooting IPv6 DNS configuration

Symptom

After enabling dynamic domain name resolution, the user cannot get the correct IPv6 address.

Solution

1.        Use the display dns host ipv6 command to verify that the specified domain name is in the cache.

2.        If the specified domain name does not exist, check that dynamic domain name resolution is enabled, and that the DNS client can communicate with the DNS server.

3.        If the specified domain name is in the cache, but the IPv6 address is incorrect, check that the DNS client has the correct IPv6 address of the DNS server.

4.        Verify that the mapping between the domain name and IPv6 address is correct on the DNS server.

 


Configuring IP forwarding basic settings

The device uses the destination IP address of a received packet to find a match from the forwarding information base (FIB) table. It then uses the matching entry to forward the packet.

FIB table

A device selects optimal routes from the routing table, and puts them into the FIB table. Each FIB entry specifies the next hop IP address and output interface for packets destined for a specific subnet or host.

For more information about the routing table, see Layer 3—IP Routing Configuration Guide.

Use the display fib command to display FIB table entries. The following example displays the entire FIB table.

<Sysname> display fib

 

Destination count: 4 FIB entry count: 4

 

Flag:

  U:Usable   G:Gateway   H:Host   B:Blackhole   D:Dynamic   S:Static

  R:Relay     F:FRR

 

Destination/Mask   Nexthop         Flag     OutInterface/Token       Label

10.2.0.0/16        10.2.1.1        U        HGE1/0/1                 Null

10.2.1.1/32        127.0.0.1       UH       InLoop0                  Null

127.0.0.0/8        127.0.0.1       U        InLoop0                  Null

127.0.0.1/32       127.0.0.1       UH       InLoop0                  Null

A FIB entry includes the following items:

·          Destination—Destination IP address.

·          Mask—Network mask. The mask and the destination address identify the destination network. A logical AND operation between the destination address and the network mask yields the address of the destination network. For example, if the destination address is 192.168.1.40 and the mask 255.255.255.0, the address of the destination network is 192.168.1.0. A network mask includes a certain number of consecutive 1s. It can be expressed in dotted decimal format or by the number of the 1s.

·          Nexthop—IP address of the next hop.

·          Flag—Route flag.

·          OutInterface—Output interface.

·          Token—MPLS Label Switched Path index number.

·          Label—Inner label.

Saving the IP forwarding entries to a file

The feature automatically creates the file if you specify a nonexistent file. If the file already exists, this feature overwrites the file content.

To automatically save the IP forwarding entries periodically, configure a schedule for the device to automatically run the ip forwarding-table save command. For information about scheduling a task, see Fundamentals Configuration Guide.

To save the IP forwarding entries to a file:

 

Task

Command

Remarks

Specify a file to save the IP forwarding entries.

ip forwarding-table save filename filename

Executing this command triggers one-time saving of the IP forwarding entries.

This command can be executed in any view.

 

Displaying FIB table entries

Execute display commands in any view.

 

Task

Command

Display FIB entries.

display fib [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] [ ip-address [ mask | mask-length ] ]

 


Configuring load sharing

If a routing protocol finds multiple equal-cost best routes to the same destination, the device forwards packets over the equal-cost routes to implement load sharing.

 

Configuring per-flow load sharing

The device forwards flows over equal-cost routes. Packets of one flow travel along the same routes. You can configure the device to identify a flow based on the following criteria: source IP address, destination IP address, source port number, destination port number, IP protocol number, ingress port, and VLAN.

In a complex network, when the per-flow criteria cannot distinguish flows, you can use the algorithm keyword to specify an algorithm to identify flows.

The device supports configuring any combination of flow match criteria for load sharing.

To configure load sharing:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Configure load sharing.

In standalone mode:
ip load-sharing mode per-flow [ algorithm algorithm-number | [ dest-ip | dest-port | ip-pro | src-ip | src-port | ingress-port ] * | tunnel { all | inner | outer } ] { global | slot slot-number }

In IRF mode:
ip load-sharing mode per-flow [ algorithm algorithm-number | [ dest-ip | dest-port | ip-pro | src-ip | src-port | ingress-port ] * | tunnel { all | inner | outer } ] { chassis chassis-number slot slot-number | global }

By default, the device performs per-flow load sharing based on the following criteria: source IP address, destination IP address, source port number, destination port number, IP protocol number, and ingress port.

 

Enabling local-first load sharing

Local-first load sharing distributes traffic preferentially across the output interfaces on the receiving IRF member device if output interfaces for multiple equal-cost routes are on different members. This feature enhances packets forwarding efficiency.

To enable local-first load sharing:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enable local-first load sharing.

ip load-sharing local-first enable

Local-first load sharing is enabled.

 

Displaying the load sharing path selected for a flow

When you configure this command, make sure the options are the same as those in the ip load-sharing mode command. If the options are not consistent, the path displayed by this command might be different from the real path for load sharing.

To display the load sharing path selected for a flow:

 

Task

Command

Display the load sharing path selected for a flow.

display ip load-sharing path ingress-port interface-type interface-number packet-format { ipv4oe dest-ip ip-address [ src-ip ip-address ] | ipv6oe dest-ipv6 ipv6-address [ src-ipv6 ipv6-address ] } [ dest-port port-id | ip-pro protocol-id | src-port port-id | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] *

Load sharing configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 42, Switch A has two equal-cost routes to Switch B. Configure load sharing on Switch A to forward packets through Switch B to the destination IP address 1.2.3.4/24.

Figure 42 Network diagram

Configuration procedure

# On Switch A, assign HundredGigE 1/0/1 to VLAN 10, and HundredGigE 1/0/2 to VLAN 20.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] vlan 10

[SwitchA-vlan10] port hundredgige 1/0/1

[SwitchA-vlan10] quit

[SwitchA] vlan 20

[SwitchA-vlan20] port hundredgige 1/0/2

[SwitchA-vlan20] quit

# On Switch A, configure IP addresses for VLAN-interface 10 and VLAN-interface 20.

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 10

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface10] ip address 10.1.1.1 24

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface10] quit

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 20

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface20] ip address 20.1.1.1 24

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface20] quit

# On Switch B, assign HundredGigE 1/0/1 to VLAN 10, and HundredGigE 1/0/2 to VLAN 20.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] vlan 10

[SwitchB-vlan10] port hundredgige 1/0/1

[SwitchB-vlan10] quit

[SwitchB] vlan 20

[SwitchB-vlan20] port hundredgige 1/0/2

[SwitchB-vlan20] quit

# On Switch B, configure IP addresses for VLAN-interface 10 and VLAN-interface 20.

[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 10

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface10] ip address 10.1.1.2 24

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface10] quit

[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 20

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface20] ip address 20.1.1.2 24

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface20] quit

# On Switch A, configure two static routes to the destination IP address.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] ip route-static 1.2.3.4 24 10.1.1.2

[SwitchA] ip route-static 1.2.3.4 24 20.1.1.2

[SwitchA] quit

# On Switch A, display FIB entries matching the destination IP address 1.2.3.4.

<SwitchA> display fib 1.2.3.4

 

Destination count: 1 FIB entry count: 2

 

Flag:

  U:Usable   G:Gateway   H:Host   B:Blackhole   D:Dynamic   S:Static

  R:Relay     F:FRR

 

Destination/Mask   Nexthop         Flag     OutInterface/Token       Label

1.2.3.0/24         10.1.1.2        USGR     Vlan10                   Null

1.2.3.0/24         20.1.1.2        USGR     Vlan20                   Null

# On Switch A, configure per-flow load sharing based on the source IP address and destination IP address.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] ip load-sharing mode per-flow dest-ip src-ip

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that Switch A implements load sharing.

<SwitchA> display counters outbound interface HundredGigE

Interface         Total (pkts)   Broadcast (pkts)   Multicast (pkts)  Err (pkts)

HGE1/0/1                 1045                  0                  0           0

HGE1/0/2                 1044                  0                  0           0

 


Configuring IRDP

The term "router" in this chapter refers to a routing-capable device.

The term "host" in this chapter refers to the host that supports IRDP. For example, a host that runs the Linux operating system.

Overview

ICMP Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP), an extension of the ICMP, is independent of any routing protocol. It allows hosts to discover the IP addresses of neighboring routers that can act as default gateways to reach devices on other IP networks.

IRDP enables hosts to track dynamic changes in router availability and requires a minimal amount of manual configuration.

IRDP operation

IRDP uses the following types of ICMP messages:

·