10-High Availability Configuration Guide

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06-Track configuration
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Configuring Track

Overview

The Track module works between application modules and detection modules, as shown in Figure 1. It shields the differences between various detection modules from application modules.

Collaboration is enabled after you associate the Track module with a detection module and an application module. Collaboration operates as follows:

1.        The detection module probes specific objects such as interface status, link status, network reachability, and network performance, and informs the Track module of detection results.

2.        The Track module sends the detection results to the associated application module.

3.        When notified of changes for the tracked object, the application modules can react to avoid communication interruption and network performance degradation.

Figure 1 Collaboration through the Track module

 

Collaboration fundamentals

The Track module collaborates with detection modules and application modules.

Collaboration between the Track module and a detection module

The detection module sends the detection result of the associated tracked object to the Track module. Depending on the result, the Track module changes the status of the track entry as follows:

·          If the tracked object operates correctly, the state of the track entry is Positive. For example, the track entry state is Positive in one of the following conditions:

?  The target interface is up.

?  The target network is reachable.

·          If the tracked object does not operate correctly, the state of the track entry is Negative. For example, the track entry state is Negative in one of the following conditions:

?  The target interface is down.

?  The target network is unreachable.

·          If the detection result is not valid, the state of the track entry is NotReady. For example, the track entry state is NotReady if its associated NQA operation does not exist.

The following detection modules can be associated with the Track module:

·          NQA.

·          BFD.

·          Interface management.

Collaboration between the Track module and an application module

The following application modules can be associated with the Track module:

·          VRRP.

·          Static routing.

·          Policy-based routing.

When configuring a track entry for an application module, you can set a notification delay to avoid immediate notification of status changes. This helps prevent communication failure when route convergence is slower than the link state change notification. For example, when the master in a VRRP group detects an uplink interface failure through the Track module, the Track module notifies the master to decrease its priority. A backup with a higher priority then preempts as the new master. When the failed uplink interface recovers, the Track module immediately notifies the original master to restore its priority and forward traffic. If the uplink route has not recovered, forwarding failure will occur.

Collaboration application example

The following is an example of collaboration between NQA, Track, and static routing.

Configure a static route with next hop 192.168.0.88 on the device. If the next hop is reachable, the static route is valid. If the next hop becomes unreachable, the static route should become invalid. For this purpose, configure NQA-Track-static routing collaboration as follows:

1.        Create an NQA operation to monitor the accessibility of IP address 192.168.0.88.

2.        Create a track entry and associate it with the NQA operation.

?  When the next hop 192.168.0.88 is reachable, the track entry is in Positive state.

?  When the next hop becomes unreachable, the track entry is in Negative state.

3.        Associate the track entry with the static route.

?  When the track entry turns to the Positive state, the static route is valid.

?  When the associated track entry turns to Negative state, the static route is invalid.

Track configuration task list

To implement the collaboration function, establish associations between the Track module and the detection modules, and between the Track module and the application modules.

To configure the Track module, perform the following tasks:

 

Tasks at a glance

(Required.) Associating the Track module with a detection module:

·         Associating Track with NQA

·         Associating Track with BFD

·         Associating Track with interface management

(Required.) Associating the Track module with an application module:

·         Associating Track with VRRP

·         Associating Track with static routing

·         Associating Track with PBR

 

Associating the Track module with a detection module

Associating Track with NQA

NQA supports multiple operation types to analyze network performance, services, and service quality. For example, an NQA operation can periodically detect whether a destination is reachable, or whether the TCP connection to a TCP server can be set up.

An NQA operation operates as follows when it is associated with a track entry:

·          If the consecutive failures reach the specified threshold, the NQA module notifies the Track module that the tracked object has malfunctioned. Then the Track module sets the track entry to Negative state.

·          If the specified threshold is not reached, the NQA module notifies the Track module that the tracked object is operating correctly. The Track module then sets the track entry to Positive state.

For more information about NQA, see Network Management and Monitoring Configuration Guide.

To associate Track with NQA:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Create a track entry, and associate it with an NQA reaction entry.

track track-entry-number nqa entry admin-name operation-tag reaction item-number [ delay { negative negative-time | positive positive-time } * ]

By default, no track entry is created.

If the specified NQA operation or the reaction entry in the track entry does not exist, the status of the track entry is NotReady.

 

Associating Track with BFD

BFD supports the control packet mode and echo packet mode. A track entry can be associated only with the echo-mode BFD session, and cannot be associated with the control-mode BFD session. For more information about BFD, see "Configuring BFD."

BFD operates as follows when it is associated with a track entry:

·          If the BFD detects that the link fails, it informs the track entry of the link failure. The Track module sets the track entry to Negative state.

·          If the BFD detects that the link is operating correctly, the Track module sets the track entry to Positive state.

Before you associate Track with BFD, configure the source IP address of BFD echo packets. For more information, see "Configuring BFD."

To associate Track with BFD:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Create a track entry, and associate it with the BFD session.

track track-entry-number bfd echo interface interface-type interface-number remote ip remote-ip local ip local-ip [ delay { negative negative-time | positive positive-time } * ]

By default, no track entry is created.

Do not configure the virtual IP address of a VRRP group as the local or remote address of a BFD session.

 

Associating Track with interface management

The interface management module monitors the link status or network-layer protocol status of the interface. The interface management module operates as follows when it is associated with a track entry:

·          When the link or network-layer protocol status of the interface changes to up, the interface management module informs the Track module of the change. The Track module sets the track entry to Positive.

·          When the link or network-layer protocol status of the interface changes to down, the interface management module informs the Track module of the change. The Track module sets the track entry to Negative.

To associate Track with interface management:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Associate Track with interface management.

·         Create a track entry, and associate it with the interface management module to monitor the link status of an interface:
track track-entry-number interface interface-type interface-number [ delay { negative negative-time | positive positive-time } * ]

·         Create a track entry, and associate it with the interface management module to monitor the Layer 3 protocol status of an interface:
track track-entry-number interface interface-type interface-number protocol ipv4 [ delay { negative negative-time | positive positive-time } * ]

By default, no track entry is created.

 

Associating the Track module with an application module

Associating Track with VRRP

When VRRP is operating in standard mode or load balancing mode, associate the Track module with the VRRP group to implement the following actions:

·          Change the priority of a router according to the status of the uplink. If a fault occurs on the uplink of the router, the VRRP group is not aware of the uplink failure. If the router is the master, hosts in the LAN cannot access the external network. To resolve this problem, configure the detection module-Track-VRRP collaboration. The detection module monitors the status of the uplink of the router and notifies the Track module of the detection result.

When the uplink fails, the detection module notifies the Track module to change the status of the monitored track entry to Negative. The priority of the master decreases by a user-specified value. A router with a higher priority in the VRRP group becomes the master.

·          Monitor the master on a backup. If a fault occurs on the master, the backup operating in switchover mode will switch to the master immediately to maintain normal communication.

When VRRP is operating in load balancing mode, associate the Track module with the VRRP VF to implement the following functions:

·          Change the priority of the AVF according to its uplink state. When the uplink of the AVF fails, the track entry changes to Negative state. The weight of the AVF decreases by a user-specified value. The VF with a higher priority becomes the new AVF to forward packets.

·          Monitor the AVF status from the LVF. When the AVF fails, the LVF that is operating in switchover mode becomes the new AVF to ensure continuous forwarding.

When you associate Track with VRRP, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·          The vrrp vrid track priority reduced or vrrp vrid track switchover command does not take effect on an IP address owner. The command takes effect when the router does not act as the IP address owner.

An IP address owner is the router with its interface IP address used as the virtual IP address of the VRRP group.

·          When the status of the track entry changes from Negative to Positive or NotReady, one of the following events occurs:

?  The master router automatically restores its priority.

?  The AVF automatically restores its weight.

?  The failed master router becomes the master again.

?  The failed AVF becomes active again.

·          You can associate a nonexistent track entry with a VRRP group or VF. The association takes effect only after you create the track entry.

To associate Track with VRRP:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.       Associate a track entry with VRRP.

vrrp vrid virtual-router-id track track-entry-number { forwarder-switchover member-ip ip-address | priority reduced [ priority-reduced ] | switchover | weight reduced [ weight-reduced ] }

By default, VRRP is not associated with any track entries.

 

Associating Track with static routing

A static route is a manually configured route. With a static route configured, packets to the specified destination are forwarded through the path specified by the administrator. For more information about static route configuration, see Layer 3—IP Routing Configuration Guide.

The disadvantage of using static routes is that they cannot adapt to network topology changes. Faults or topological changes in the network can make the routes unreachable, causing communication interruption.

To prevent this problem, configure another route to back up the static route. When the static route is reachable, packets are forwarded through the static route. When the static route is unreachable, packets are forwarded through the backup route.

To check the accessibility of a static route in real time, associate the Track module with the static route.

If you specify the next hop but not the output interface when configuring a static route, you can configure the static routing-Track-detection module collaboration. This collaboration enables you to check the accessibility of the static route based on the track entry state.

·          If the track entry is in Positive state, the following conditions exist:

?  The next hop of the static route is reachable.

?  The configured static route is valid.

·          If the track entry is in Negative state, the following conditions exist:

?  The next hop of the static route is not reachable.

?  The configured static route is invalid.

·          If the track entry is in NotReady state, the following conditions exist:

?  The accessibility of the next hop of the static route is unknown.

?  The static route is valid.

When you associate Track with static routing, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·          You can associate a nonexistent track entry with a static route. The association takes effect only after you create the track entry.

·          In static routing-Track-NQA collaboration, you must configure the same VPN instance for the NQA operation and the next hop of the static route.

·          If a static route needs route recursion, the associated track entry must monitor the next hop of the recursive route instead of that of the static route. Otherwise, a valid route might be considered invalid.

To associate Track with static routing:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Associate the static route with a track entry to check the accessibility of the next hop.

·         Method 1:
ip route-static dest-address { mask | mask-length } { next-hop-address [ track track-entry-number ] | interface-type interface-number [ next-hop-address ] | vpn-instance d-vpn-instance-name next-hop-address [ track track-entry-number ] } [ permanent ] [ preference preference-value ] [ tag tag-value ] [ description description-text ]

·         Method 2:
ip route-static vpn-instance s-vpn-instance-name dest-address { mask | mask-length } { next-hop-address [ public ] [ track track-entry-number ] | interface-type interface-number [ next-hop-address ] | vpn-instance d-vpn-instance-name next-hop-address [ track track-entry-number ] } [ permanent ] [ preference preference-value ] [ tag tag-value ] [ description description-text ]

By default, Track is not associated with static routing.

 

Associating Track with PBR

PBR uses user-defined policies to route packets. A policy can specify parameters for packets that match specific criteria such as ACLs. The parameters include VPN instance, output interface, next hop, and default next hop. For more information about PBR, see Layer 3—IP Routing Configuration Guide.

PBR cannot detect the availability of any action taken on packets. When an action is not available, packets processed by the action might be discarded. For example, if the next hop specified for PBR fails, PBR cannot sense the failure, and continues to forward matching packets to the next hop.

This problem can be solved by associating Track with PBR. The association improves the flexibility of the PBR application and enables PBR to sense topology changes.

After you associate a track entry with an apply clause, the detection module associated with the track entry sends Track the detection result of the availability of the tracked object.

·          The Positive state of the track entry shows that the object is available, and the apply clause is valid.

·          The Negative state of the track entry shows that the object is not available, and the apply clause is invalid.

·          The NotReady state of the track entry shows that the apply clause is valid.

the following objects can be associated with a track entry:

·          Outgoing interface.

·          Next hop.

·          Default next hop.

Configuration prerequisites

Before you associate Track with PBR, create a policy or a policy node and configure the match criteria as well.

Configuration procedure

You can associate a nonexistent track entry with PBR. The association takes effect only after you create the track entry.

To associate Track with IPv4 PBR:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.       Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.       Create a policy or policy node and enter PBR policy node view.

policy-based-route policy-name [ deny | permit ] node node-number

N/A

3.       Define a match criterion.

if-match acl { acl-number | name acl-name }

By default, no packets are filtered.

4.       Associate Track with PBR.

·         Set the output interface, and associate it with a track entry:
apply output-interface { interface-type interface-number [ track track-entry-number ] }&<1-n>

·         Set the next hop, and associate it with a track entry:
apply next-hop [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name | inbound-vpn ] { ip-address [ direct ] [ track track-entry-number ] }&<1-n>

·         Set the default next hop, and associate it with a track entry:
apply default-next-hop [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name | inbound-vpn ] { ip-address [ direct ] [ track track-entry-number ] }&<1-n>

Use at least one of the commands.

 

Displaying and maintaining track entries

Execute the display command in any view.

 

Task

Command

Display information about track entries.

display track { track-entry-number | all }

 

Track configuration examples

VRRP-Track-NQA collaboration configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 2:

·          Host A requires access to Host B. The default gateway of Host A is 10.1.1.10/24.

·          Switch A and Switch B belong to VRRP group 1. The virtual IP address of VRRP group 1 is 10.1.1.10.

Configure VRRP-Track-NQA collaboration to monitor the uplink on the master and meet the following requirements:

·          When Switch A operates correctly, packets from Host A to Host B are forwarded through Switch A.

·          When NQA detects a fault on the uplink of Switch A, packets from Host A to Host B are forwarded through Switch B.

Figure 2 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

1.        Configure the IP address of each VLAN interface as shown in Figure 2. (Details not shown.)

2.        Configure an NQA operation on Switch A:

# Create an NQA operation with the administrator name admin and the operation tag test.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] nqa entry admin test

# Configure the operation type as ICMP echo.

[SwitchA-nqa-admin-test] type icmp-echo

# Configure the destination address of ICMP echo requests as 10.1.2.2.

[SwitchA-nqa-admin-test-icmp-echo] destination ip 10.1.2.2

# Configure the ICMP echo operation to repeat at an interval of 100 milliseconds.

[SwitchA-nqa-admin-test-icmp-echo] frequency 100

# Configure reaction entry 1, specifying that five consecutive probe failures trigger the Track module.

[SwitchA-nqa-admin-test-icmp-echo] reaction 1 checked-element probe-fail threshold-type consecutive 5 action-type trigger-only

[SwitchA-nqa-admin-test-icmp-echo] quit

# Start the NQA operation.

[SwitchA] nqa schedule admin test start-time now lifetime forever

3.        On Switch A, configure track entry 1, and associate it with reaction entry 1 of the NQA operation.

[SwitchA] track 1 nqa entry admin test reaction 1

4.        Configure VRRP on Switch A:

# Specify VRRPv2 to run on VLAN-interface 2.

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] vrrp version 2

# Create VRRP group 1, and configure the virtual IP address 10.1.1.10 for the group.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 10.1.1.10

# Set the priority of Switch A in VRRP group 1 to 110.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 priority 110

# Set the authentication mode of VRRP group 1 to simple, and the authentication key to hello.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 authentication-mode simple hello

# Configure the master to send VRRP packets at an interval of 500 centiseconds.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 timer advertise 500

# Configure Switch A to operate in preemptive mode, and set the preemption delay to 500 centiseconds.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 preempt-mode timer delay 500

# Configure to monitor track entry 1, and specify the priority decrement to 30.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 track 1 priority reduced 30

5.        Configure VRRP on Switch B:

# Specify VRRPv2 to run on VLAN-interface 2.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] vrrp version 2

# Create VRRP group 1, and configure the virtual IP address 10.1.1.10 for the group.

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 10.1.1.10

# Set the authentication mode of VRRP group 1 to simple, and the authentication key to hello.

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 authentication-mode simple hello

# Configure the master to send VRRP packets at an interval of 500 centiseconds.

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 timer advertise 500

# Configure Switch B to operate in preemptive mode, and set the preemption delay to 500 centiseconds.

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 preempt-mode timer delay 500

Verifying the configuration

# Ping Host B from Host A to verify that Host B is reachable. (Details not shown.)

# Display detailed information about VRRP group 1 on Switch A.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] display vrrp verbose

IPv4 Virtual Router Information:

 Running Mode      : Standard

 Total number of virtual routers : 1

   Interface Vlan-interface2

     VRID           : 1               Adver Timer  : 500

     Admin Status   : Up              State        : Master

     Config Pri     : 110             Running Pri  : 110

     Preempt Mode   : Yes             Delay Time   : 500

     Auth Type      : Simple          Key          : ******

     Virtual IP     : 10.1.1.10

     Virtual MAC    : 0000-5e00-0101

     Master IP      : 10.1.1.1

   VRRP Track Information:

     Track Object   : 1              State : Positive          Pri Reduced : 30

# Display detailed information about VRRP group 1 on Switch B.

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] display vrrp verbose

IPv4 Virtual Router Information:

 Running Mode      : Standard

 Total number of virtual routers : 1

   Interface Vlan-interface2

     VRID           : 1               Adver Timer  : 500

     Admin Status   : Up              State        : Backup

     Config Pri     : 100             Running Pri  : 100

     Preempt Mode   : Yes             Delay Time   : 500

     Become Master  : 2200ms left

     Auth Type      : Simple          Key          : ******

     Virtual IP     : 10.1.1.10

     Master IP      : 10.1.1.1

The output shows that in VRRP group 1, Switch A is the master and Switch B is a backup. Packets from Host A to Host B are forwarded through Switch A.

# Disconnect the link between Switch A and Switch C, and verify that Host A can still ping Host B. (Details not shown.)

# Display detailed information about VRRP group 1 on Switch A.

IPv4 Virtual Router Information:

 Running Mode      : Standard

 

 Total number of virtual routers : 1

   Interface Vlan-interface2

     VRID           : 1               Adver Timer  : 500

     Admin Status   : Up              State        : Backup

     Config Pri     : 110             Running Pri  : 80

     Preempt Mode   : Yes             Delay Time   : 500

     Become Master  : 2200ms left

     Auth Type      : Simple          Key          : ******

     Virtual IP     : 10.1.1.10

     Master IP      : 10.1.1.2

   VRRP Track Information:

     Track Object   : 1              State : Negative          Pri Reduced : 30

# Display detailed information about VRRP group 1 on Switch B.

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] display vrrp verbose

IPv4 Virtual Router Information:

 Running Mode      : Standard

 Total number of virtual routers : 1

   Interface Vlan-interface2

     VRID           : 1               Adver Timer  : 500

     Admin Status   : Up              State        : Master

     Config Pri     : 100             Running Pri  : 100

     Preempt Mode   : Yes             Delay Time   : 500

     Auth Type      : Simple          Key          : ******

     Virtual IP     : 10.1.1.10

     Virtual MAC    : 0000-5e00-0101

     Master IP      : 10.1.1.2

The output shows that Switch A becomes the backup, and Switch B becomes the master. Packets from Host A to Host B are forwarded through Switch B.

Configuring BFD for a VRRP backup to monitor the master

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 3:

·          Switch A and Switch B belong to VRRP group 1. The virtual IP address of VRRP group 1 is 192.168.0.10.

·          The default gateway of the hosts in the LAN is 192.168.0.10.

Configure VRRP-Track-BFD collaboration to monitor the master on the backup and meet the following requirements:

·          When Switch A operates correctly, the hosts in the LAN access the Internet through Switch A.

·          When Switch A fails, the backup (Switch B) can detect the state change of the master through BFD and become the new master. The hosts in the LAN access the Internet through Switch B.

Figure 3 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

1.        Configure the IP address of each VLAN interface as shown in Figure 3. (Details not shown.)

2.        Configure VRRP on Switch A:

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 2

# Create VRRP group 1, and configure the virtual IP address 192.168.0.10 for the group.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 192.168.0.10

# Set the priority of Switch A in VRRP group 1 to 110.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 priority 110

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] return

3.        Configure Switch B:

# Configure the source address of BFD echo packets as 10.10.10.10.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] bfd echo-source-ip 10.10.10.10

# Create track entry 1, and associate it with the BFD session to verify the reachability of Switch A.

[SwitchB] track 1 bfd echo interface vlan-interface 2 remote ip 192.168.0.101 local ip 192.168.0.102

# Create VRRP group 1, and configure the virtual IP address 192.168.0.10 for the group.

[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 192.168.0.10

# Configure VRRP group 1 to monitor the status of track entry 1.

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 track 1 switchover

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] return

Verifying the configuration

# Display detailed information about VRRP group 1 on Switch A.

<SwitchA> display vrrp verbose

IPv4 Virtual Router Information:

 Running Mode      : Standard

 Total number of virtual routers : 1

   Interface Vlan-interface2

     VRID           : 1               Adver Timer  : 100

     Admin Status   : Up              State        : Master

     Config Pri     : 110             Running Pri  : 110

     Preempt Mode   : Yes             Delay Time   : 0

     Auth Type      : None

     Virtual IP     : 192.168.0.10

     Virtual MAC    : 0000-5e00-0101

     Master IP      : 192.168.0.101

# Display detailed information about VRRP group 1 on Switch B.

<SwitchB> display vrrp verbose

IPv4 Virtual Router Information:

 Running Mode      : Standard

 Total number of virtual routers : 1

   Interface Vlan-interface2

     VRID           : 1               Adver Timer  : 100

     Admin Status   : Up              State        : Backup

     Config Pri     : 100             Running Pri  : 100

     Preempt Mode   : Yes             Delay Time   : 0

     Become Master  : 2200ms left

     Auth Type      : None

     Virtual IP     : 192.168.0.10

     Master IP      : 192.168.0.101

   VRRP Track Information:

     Track Object   : 1              State : Positive          Switchover

# Display information about track entry 1 on Switch B.

<SwitchB> display track 1

Track ID: 1

  State: Positive

  Duration: 0 days 0 hours 0 minutes 32 seconds

  Notification delay: Positive 0, Negative 0 (in seconds)

  Tracked object:

    BFD session mode: Echo

Outgoing interface: Vlan-interface2

VPN instance name: -

    Remote IP: 192.168.0.101

    Local IP: 192.168.0.102

The output shows that when the status of the track entry becomes Positive, Switch A is the master and Switch B is the backup.

# Enable VRRP state debugging and BFD event debugging on Switch B.

<SwitchB> terminal debugging

<SwitchB> terminal monitor

<SwitchB> debugging vrrp fsm

<SwitchB> debugging bfd ntfy

# When Switch A fails, the following output is displayed on Switch B.

*Dec 17 14:44:34:142 2013 SwitchB BFD/7/DEBUG: Notify application:TRACK State:DOWN [Src:192.168.0.102,Dst:192.168.0.101,Vlan-interface2,Echo], instance:0, protocol:Track

*Dec 17 14:44:34:144 2013 SwitchB VRRP4/7/FSM:

 IPv4 Vlan-interface2 | Virtual Router 1 : Backup --> Master   reason: The status of the tracked object changed

# Display detailed information about the VRRP group on Switch B.

<SwitchB> display vrrp verbose

IPv4 Virtual Router Information:

 Running Mode      : Standard

 Total number of virtual routers : 1

   Interface Vlan-interface2

     VRID           : 1               Adver Timer  : 100

     Admin Status   : Up              State        : Master

     Config Pri     : 100             Running Pri  : 100

     Preempt Mode   : Yes             Delay Time   : 0

     Auth Type      : None

     Virtual IP     : 192.168.0.10

     Virtual MAC    : 0000-5e00-0101

     Master IP      : 192.168.0.102

   VRRP Track Information:

     Track Object   : 1              State : Negative          Switchover

The output shows that when BFD detects that Switch A fails, the Track module notifies VRRP to change the status of Switch B to master. The backup can quickly preempt as the master without waiting for a period three times the advertisement interval plus the Skew_Time.

Configuring BFD for the VRRP master to monitor the uplinks

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 4:

·          Switch A and Switch B belong to VRRP group 1. The virtual IP address of VRRP group 1 is 192.168.0.10.

·          The default gateway of the hosts in the LAN is 192.168.0.10.

Configure VRRP-Track-BFD collaboration to monitor the uplink on the master and meet the following requirements:

·          When Switch A operates correctly, the hosts in the LAN access the Internet through Switch A.

·          When Switch A detects that the uplink is down through BFD, Switch B can preempt as the master. The hosts in the LAN can access the Internet through Switch B.

Figure 4 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

1.        Configure the IP address of each VLAN interface as shown in Figure 4. (Details not shown.)

2.        Configure Switch A:

# Configure the source address of BFD echo packets as 10.10.10.10.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] bfd echo-source-ip 10.10.10.10

# Create track entry 1 for the BFD session to verify the reachability of the uplink device (1.1.1.2 ).

[SwitchA] track 1 bfd echo interface vlan-interface 3 remote ip 1.1.1.2 local ip 1.1.1.1

# Create VRRP group 1, and configure the virtual IP address of the group as 192.168.0.10.

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 192.168.0.10

# Set the priority of Switch A in VRRP group 1 to 110.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 priority 110

# Associate VRRP group 1 with track entry 1 and decrease the router priority by 20 when the state of track entry 1 changes to negative.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 track 1 priority reduced 20

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] return

3.        On Switch B, create VRRP group 1, and configure the virtual IP address of the group as 192.168.0.10.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 192.168.0.10

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] return

Verifying the configuration

# Display detailed information about the VRRP group on Switch A.

<SwitchA> display vrrp verbose

IPv4 Virtual Router Information:

 Running Mode      : Standard

 Total number of virtual routers : 1

   Interface Vlan-interface2

     VRID           : 1               Adver Timer  : 100

     Admin Status   : Up              State        : Master

     Config Pri     : 110             Running Pri  : 110

     Preempt Mode   : Yes             Delay Time   : 0

     Auth Type      : None

     Virtual IP     : 192.168.0.10

     Virtual MAC    : 0000-5e00-0101

     Master IP      : 192.168.0.101

   VRRP Track Information:

     Track Object   : 1               State : Positive   Pri Reduced : 20

# Display information about track entry 1 on Switch A.

<SwitchA> display track 1

Track ID: 1

  State: Positive

  Duration: 0 days 0 hours 0 minutes 32 seconds

  Notification delay: Positive 0, Negative 0 (in seconds)

  Tracked object:

    BFD session mode: Echo

    Outgoing interface: Vlan-interface2

VPN instance name: -

    Remote IP: 1.1.1.2

    Local IP: 1.1.1.1

# Display detailed information about the VRRP group on Switch B.

<SwitchB> display vrrp verbose

IPv4 Virtual Router Information:

 Running Mode      : Standard

 Total number of virtual routers : 1

   Interface Vlan-interface2

     VRID           : 1               Adver Timer  : 100

     Admin Status   : Up              State        : Backup

     Config Pri     : 100             Running Pri  : 100

     Preempt Mode   : Yes             Delay Time   : 0

     Become Master  : 2200ms left

     Auth Type      : None

     Virtual IP     : 192.168.0.10

     Master IP      : 192.168.0.101

The output shows that when the status of track entry 1 becomes Positive, Switch A is the master, and Switch B is the backup.

# Display information about track entry 1 when the uplink of Switch A goes down.

<SwitchA> display track 1

Track ID: 1

  State: Negative

  Duration: 0 days 0 hours 0 minutes 32 seconds

  Notification delay: Positive 0, Negative 0 (in seconds)

  Tracked object:

    BFD session mode: Echo

    Outgoing interface: Vlan-interface2

VPN instance name: -

    Remote IP: 1.1.1.2

    Local IP: 1.1.1.1

# Display detailed information about VRRP group 1 on Switch A.

<SwitchA> display vrrp verbose

IPv4 Virtual Router Information:

 Running Mode      : Standard

 Total number of virtual routers : 1

   Interface Vlan-interface2

     VRID           : 1               Adver Timer  : 100

     Admin Status   : Up              State        : Backup

     Config Pri     : 110             Running Pri  : 90

     Preempt Mode   : Yes             Delay Time   : 0

     Become Master  : 2200ms left

     Auth Type      : None

     Virtual IP     : 192.168.0.10

     Master IP      : 192.168.0.102

   VRRP Track Information:

     Track Object   : 1               State : Negative   Pri Reduced : 20

# Display detailed information about VRRP group 1 on Switch B.

<SwitchB> display vrrp verbose

IPv4 Virtual Router Information:

 Running Mode      : Standard

 Total number of virtual routers : 1

   Interface Vlan-interface2

     VRID           : 1               Adver Timer  : 100

     Admin Status   : Up              State        : Master

     Config Pri     : 100             Running Pri  : 100

     Preempt Mode   : Yes             Delay Time   : 0

     Auth Type      : None

     Virtual IP     : 192.168.0.10

     Virtual MAC    : 0000-5e00-0101

     Master IP      : 192.168.0.102

The output shows that when Switch A detects that the uplink fails through BFD, it decreases its priority by 20. Switch B then preempts as the master.

Static routing-Track-BFD collaboration configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 5:

·          Switch A is the default gateway of the hosts in network 20.1.1.0/24.

·          Switch B is the default gateway of the hosts in network 30.1.1.0/24.

·          Hosts in the two networks communicate with each other through static routes.

To ensure network availability, configure route backup and static routing-Track-BFD collaboration on Switch A and Switch B as follows:

·          On Switch A, assign a higher priority to the static route to 30.1.1.0/24 with Switch B as the next hop. This route is the master route. The static route to 30.1.1.0/24 with Switch C as the next hop acts as the backup route. When the master route is unavailable, BFD can quickly detect the route failure to make the backup route take effect.

·          On Switch B, assign a higher priority to the static route to 20.1.1.0/24 with Switch A as the next hop. This route is the master route. The static route to 20.1.1.0/24 with Switch C as the next hop acts as the backup route. When the master route is unavailable, BFD can quickly detect the route failure to make the backup route take effect.

Figure 5 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

1.        Configure the IP address of each VLAN interface as shown in Figure 5. (Details not shown.)

2.        Configure Switch A:

# Configure a static route to 30.1.1.0/24 with the next hop 10.2.1.2 and the default priority 60, and associate this route with track entry 1.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] ip route-static 30.1.1.0 24 10.2.1.2 track 1

# Configure a static route to 30.1.1.0/24 with the next hop 10.3.1.3 and the priority 80.

[SwitchA] ip route-static 30.1.1.0 24 10.3.1.3 preference 80

# Configure the source address of BFD echo packets as 10.10.10.10.

[SwitchA] bfd echo-source-ip 10.10.10.10

# Configure track entry 1, and associate it with the BFD session to verify the connectivity between Switch A and Switch B.

[SwitchA] track 1 bfd echo interface vlan-interface 2 remote ip 10.2.1.2 local ip 10.2.1.1

3.        Configure Switch B:

# Configure a static route to 20.1.1.0/24 with the next hop 10.2.1.1 and the default priority 60, and associate this static route with track entry 1.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] ip route-static 20.1.1.0 24 10.2.1.1 track 1

# Configure a static route to 20.1.1.0/24 with the next hop 10.4.1.3 and the priority 80.

[SwitchB] ip route-static 20.1.1.0 24 10.4.1.3 preference 80

# Configure the source address of BFD echo packets as 1.1.1.1.

[SwitchB] bfd echo-source-ip 1.1.1.1

# Configure track entry 1 that is associated with the BFD session to verify the connectivity between Switch B and Switch A.

[SwitchB] track 1 bfd echo interface vlan-interface 2 remote ip 10.2.1.1 local ip 10.2.1.2

4.        Configure Switch C:

# Configure a static route to 30.1.1.0/24 with the next hop 10.4.1.2.

<SwitchC> system-view

[SwitchC] ip route-static 30.1.1.0 24 10.4.1.2

# Configure a static route to 20.1.1.0/24 with the next hop 10.3.1.1.

[SwitchB] ip route-static 20.1.1.0 24 10.3.1.1

Verifying the configuration

# Display information about the track entry on Switch A.

[SwitchA] display track all

Track ID: 1

  State: Positive

  Duration: 0 days 0 hours 0 minutes 32 seconds

  Notification delay: Positive 0, Negative 0 (in seconds)

  Tracked object:

    BFD session mode: Echo

    Outgoing interface: Vlan-interface2

    Remote IP: 10.2.1.2

    Local IP: 10.2.1.1

The output shows that the status of the track entry is Positive, indicating that the next hop 10.2.1.2 is reachable.

# Display the routing table of Switch A.

[SwitchA] display ip routing-table

 

Destinations : 9        Routes : 9

 

Destination/Mask    Proto  Pre  Cost         NextHop         Interface

10.2.1.0/24         Direct 0    0            10.2.1.1        Vlan2

10.2.1.1/32         Direct 0    0            127.0.0.1       InLoop0

10.3.1.0/24         Direct 0    0            10.3.1.1        Vlan3

10.3.1.1/32         Direct 0    0            127.0.0.1       InLoop0

20.1.1.0/24         Direct 0    0            20.1.1.1        Vlan5

20.1.1.1/32         Direct 0    0            127.0.0.1       InLoop0

30.1.1.0/24         Static 60   0            10.2.1.2        Vlan2

127.0.0.0/8         Direct 0    0            127.0.0.1       InLoop0

127.0.0.1/32        Direct 0    0            127.0.0.1       InLoop0

The output shows that Switch A forwards packets to 30.1.1.0/24 through Switch B. The master static route takes effect.

# Remove the IP address of interface VLAN-interface 2 on Switch B.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] undo ip address

# Display information about the track entry on Switch A.

[SwitchA] display track all

Track ID: 1

  State: Negative

  Duration: 0 days 0 hours 0 minutes 32 seconds

  Notification delay: Positive 0, Negative 0 (in seconds)

  Tracked object:

    BFD session mode: Echo

    Outgoing interface: Vlan-interface2

    VPN instance name: -

    Remote IP: 10.2.1.2

    Local IP: 10.2.1.1

The output shows that the status of the track entry is Negative, indicating that the next hop 10.2.1.2 is unreachable.

# Display the routing table of Switch A.

[SwitchA] display ip routing-table

 

Destinations : 9        Routes : 9

 

Destination/Mask    Proto  Pre  Cost         NextHop         Interface

10.2.1.0/24         Direct 0    0            10.2.1.1        Vlan2

10.2.1.1/32         Direct 0    0            127.0.0.1       InLoop0

10.3.1.0/24         Direct 0    0            10.3.1.1        Vlan3

10.3.1.1/32         Direct 0    0            127.0.0.1       InLoop0

20.1.1.0/24         Direct 0    0            20.1.1.1        Vlan5

20.1.1.1/32         Direct 0    0            127.0.0.1       InLoop0

30.1.1.0/24         Static 80   0            10.3.1.3        Vlan3

127.0.0.0/8         Direct 0    0            127.0.0.1       InLoop0

127.0.0.1/32        Direct 0    0            127.0.0.1       InLoop0

The output shows that Switch A forwards packets to 30.1.1.0/24 through Switch C. The backup static route has taken effect.

# Verify that the hosts in 20.1.1.0/24 can communicate with the hosts in 30.1.1.0/24 when the master route fails.

[SwitchA] ping -a 20.1.1.1 30.1.1.1

Ping 30.1.1.1: 56  data bytes, press CTRL_C to break

Reply from 30.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=254 time=2 ms

Reply from 30.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=254 time=1 ms

Reply from 30.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=254 time=1 ms

Reply from 30.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=254 time=2 ms

Reply from 30.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=254 time=1 ms

 

--- Ping statistics for 30.1.1.1 ---

5 packet(s) transmitted, 5 packet(s) received, 0.00% packet loss

round-trip min/avg/max/std-dev = 1/1/2/1 ms

# Verify that the hosts in 30.1.1.0/24 can still communicate with the hosts in 20.1.1.0/24 when the master route fails.

[SwitchB] ping -a 30.1.1.1 20.1.1.1

Ping 20.1.1.1: 56  data bytes, press CTRL_C to break

Reply from 20.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=254 time=2 ms

Reply from 20.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=254 time=1 ms

Reply from 20.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=254 time=1 ms

Reply from 20.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=254 time=1 ms

Reply from 20.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=254 time=1 ms

 

--- Ping statistics for 20.1.1.1 ---

5 packet(s) transmitted, 5 packet(s) received, 0.00% packet loss

round-trip min/avg/max/std-dev = 1/1/2/1 ms

VRRP-Track-interface management collaboration configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 6:

·          Host A requires access to Host B. The default gateway of Host A is 10.1.1.10/24.

·          Switch A and Switch B belong to VRRP group 1. The virtual IP address of VRRP group 1 is 10.1.1.10.

Configure VRRP-Track-interface management collaboration to monitor the uplink interface on the master and meet the following requirements:

·          When Switch A operates correctly, packets from Host A to Host B are forwarded through Switch A.

·          When VRRP detects that a fault is on the uplink interface of Switch A through the interface management module, Switch B forwards packets from Host A to Host B.

Figure 6 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

1.        Configure the IP address of each VLAN interface as shown in Figure 6. (Details not shown.)

2.        Configure Switch A:

# Configure track entry 1 and associate it with the link status of the uplink interface VLAN-interface 3.

[SwitchA] track 1 interface vlan-interface 3

# Create VRRP group 1 and configure the virtual IP address 10.1.1.10 for the group.

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 10.1.1.10

# Set the priority of Switch A in VRRP group 1 to 110.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 priority 110

# Associate VRRP group 1 with track entry 1 and decrease the router priority by 30 when the state of track entry 1 changes to negative.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 track 1 priority reduced 30

3.        On Switch B, create VRRP group 1, and configure the virtual IP address 10.1.1.10 for the group.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] vrrp vrid 1 virtual-ip 10.1.1.10

Verifying the configuration

# Ping Host B from Host A to verify that Host B is reachable. (Details not shown.)

# Display detailed information about VRRP group 1 on Switch A.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] display vrrp verbose

IPv4 Virtual Router Information:

 Running Mode      : Standard

 Total number of virtual routers : 1

   Interface Vlan-interface2

     VRID           : 1               Adver Timer  : 100

     Admin Status   : Up              State        : Master

     Config Pri     : 110             Running Pri  : 110

     Preempt Mode   : Yes             Delay Time   : 0

     Auth Type      : None

     Virtual IP     : 10.1.1.10

     Virtual MAC    : 0000-5e00-0101

     Master IP      : 10.1.1.1

   VRRP Track Information:

     Track Object   : 1               State : Positive   Pri Reduced : 30

# Display detailed information about VRRP group 1 on Switch B.

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] display vrrp verbose

IPv4 Virtual Router Information:

 Running Mode       : Standard

 Total number of virtual routers : 1

   Interface Vlan-interface2

     VRID           : 1               Adver Timer  : 100

     Admin Status   : Up              State        : Backup

     Config Pri     : 100             Running Pri  : 100

     Preempt Mode   : Yes             Delay Time   : 0

     Become Master  : 2200ms left

     Auth Type      : None

     Virtual IP     : 10.1.1.10

     Master IP      : 10.1.1.1

The output shows that in VRRP group 1, Switch A is the master and Switch B is a backup. Packets from Host A to Host B are forwarded through Switch A.

# Shut down the uplink interface VLAN-interface 3 on Switch A.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] interface vlan-interface 3

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface3] shutdown

# Ping Host B from Host A to verify that Host B is reachable. (Details not shown.)

# Display detailed information about VRRP group 1 on Switch A.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface3] display vrrp verbose

IPv4 Virtual Router Information:

 Running Mode      : Standard

 Total number of virtual routers : 1

   Interface Vlan-interface2

     VRID           : 1               Adver Timer  : 100

     Admin Status   : Up              State        : Backup

     Config Pri     : 110             Running Pri  : 80

     Preempt Mode   : Yes             Delay Time   : 0

     Become Master  : 2200ms left

     Auth Type      : None

     Virtual IP     : 10.1.1.10

     Master IP      : 10.1.1.2

   VRRP Track Information:

     Track Object   : 1               State : Negative   Pri Reduced : 30

# Display detailed information about VRRP group 1 on Switch B.

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] display vrrp verbose

IPv4 Virtual Router Information:

 Running Mode      : Standard

 Total number of virtual routers : 1

   Interface Vlan-interface2

     VRID           : 1               Adver Timer  : 100

     Admin Status   : Up              State        : Master

     Config Pri     : 100             Running Pri  : 100

     Preempt Mode   : Yes             Delay Time   : 0

     Auth Type      : None

     Virtual IP     : 10.1.1.10

     Virtual MAC    : 0000-5e00-0101

     Master IP      : 10.1.1.2

The output shows that Switch A becomes the backup, and Switch B becomes the master. Packets from Host A to Host B are forwarded through Switch B.

 

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