10-Security Configuration Guide

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02-802.1X configuration
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02-802.1X configuration 614.13 KB

Contents

802.1X overview· 1

802.1X architecture· 1

Controlled/uncontrolled port and port authorization status· 1

802.1X-related protocols· 2

Packet formats· 2

EAP over RADIUS· 3

802.1X authentication initiation· 4

802.1X client as the initiator 4

Access device as the initiator 4

802.1X authentication procedures· 5

Comparing EAP relay and EAP termination· 5

EAP relay· 6

EAP termination· 7

Configuring 802.1X· 9

Access control methods· 9

802.1X VLAN manipulation· 9

Authorization VLAN·· 9

Guest VLAN·· 12

Auth-Fail VLAN·· 13

Critical VLAN·· 14

Critical voice VLAN·· 16

802.1X VSI manipulation· 16

802.1X support for VXLANs· 16

Authorization VSI 17

Guest VSI 17

Auth-Fail VSI 18

Critical VSI 18

Using 802.1X authentication with other features· 19

ACL assignment 19

EAD assistant 20

Redirect URL assignment 20

802.1X configuration restrictions and guidelines· 20

Configuration prerequisites· 21

802.1X configuration task list 21

Enabling 802.1X· 22

Enabling EAP relay or EAP termination· 23

Setting the port authorization state· 23

Specifying an access control method· 24

Setting the maximum number of concurrent 802.1X users on a port 24

Setting the maximum number of authentication request attempts· 24

Setting the 802.1X authentication timeout timers· 25

Configuring online user handshake· 25

Configuration restrictions and guidelines· 26

Configuration procedure· 26

Configuring 802.1X offline detection· 26

Overview·· 26

Configuration restrictions and guidelines· 27

Configuration procedure· 27

Configuring 802.1X unauthenticated user aging· 27

Overview·· 27

Configuration restrictions and guidelines· 27

Configuration procedure· 28

Configuring the authentication trigger feature· 28

Configuration restrictions and guidelines· 28

Configuration procedure· 28

Specifying a mandatory authentication domain on a port 29

Setting the quiet timer 29

Configuring 802.1X reauthentication· 29

Overview·· 29

Configuration restrictions and guidelines· 30

Configuring 802.1X periodic reauthentication· 30

Configuring 802.1X manual reauthentication· 31

Enabling the keep-online feature· 31

Configuring an 802.1X guest VLAN·· 31

Configuration restrictions and guidelines· 31

Configuration prerequisites· 32

Configuration procedure· 32

Enabling 802.1X guest VLAN assignment delay· 32

Configuring an 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN·· 33

Configuration restrictions and guidelines· 33

Configuration prerequisites· 33

Configuration procedure· 34

Configuring an 802.1X critical VLAN·· 34

Configuration restrictions and guidelines· 34

Configuration prerequisites· 34

Configuration procedure· 35

Enabling the 802.1X critical voice VLAN·· 35

Configuration restrictions and guidelines· 35

Configuration prerequisites· 35

Configuration procedure· 35

Configuring an 802.1X guest VSI 36

Configuration restrictions and guidelines· 36

Configuration prerequisites· 36

Configuration procedure· 36

Enabling 802.1X guest VSI assignment delay· 36

Overview·· 36

Configuration procedure· 37

Configuring an 802.1X Auth-Fail VSI 37

Configuration restrictions and guidelines· 37

Configuration prerequisites· 37

Configuration procedure· 37

Configuring an 802.1X critical VSI 38

Configuration restrictions and guidelines· 38

Configuration prerequisites· 38

Configuration procedure· 38

Specifying supported domain name delimiters· 38

Enabling 802.1X user IP freezing· 39

Removing the VLAN tags of 802.1X protocol packets sent out of a port 39

Overview·· 39

Configuration restrictions and guidelines· 39

Configuration prerequisites· 40

Configuration procedure· 40

Setting the maximum number of 802.1X authentication attempts for MAC authenticated users· 40

Configuring 802.1X MAC address binding· 41

Overview·· 41

Configuration restrictions and guidelines· 41

Configuration procedure· 41

Configuring the EAD assistant feature· 41

Enabling logging for 802.1X users· 42

Overview·· 42

Configuration restrictions and guidelines· 42

Configuration procedure· 42

Displaying and maintaining 802.1X· 43

802.1X authentication configuration examples· 43

Basic 802.1X authentication configuration example· 43

802.1X guest VLAN and authorization VLAN configuration example· 45

802.1X with ACL assignment configuration example· 48

802.1X guest VSI and authorization VSI configuration example· 50

802.1X with EAD assistant configuration example (with DHCP relay agent) 52

802.1X with EAD assistant configuration example (with DHCP server) 55

Troubleshooting 802.1X· 57

EAD assistant URL redirection failure· 57

 


802.1X overview

802.1X is a port-based network access control protocol initially proposed for securing WLANs. The protocol has also been widely used on Ethernet networks for access control.

802.1X controls network access by authenticating the devices connected to 802.1X-enabled LAN ports.

802.1X architecture

802.1X operates in the client/server model. As shown in Figure 1, 802.1X authentication includes the following entities:

·     Client (supplicant)—A user terminal seeking access to the LAN. The terminal must have 802.1X software to authenticate to the access device.

·     Access device (authenticator)—Authenticates the client to control access to the LAN. In a typical 802.1X environment, the access device uses an authentication server to perform authentication.

·     Authentication server—Provides authentication services for the access device. The authentication server first authenticates 802.1X clients by using the data sent from the access device. Then, the server returns the authentication results to the access device to make access decisions. The authentication server is typically a RADIUS server. In a small LAN, you can use the access device as the authentication server.

Figure 1 802.1X architecture

 

Controlled/uncontrolled port and port authorization status

802.1X defines two logical ports for the network access port: controlled port and uncontrolled port. Any packet arriving at the network access port is visible to both logical ports.

·     Uncontrolled port—Is always open to receive and transmit authentication packets.

·     Controlled port—Filters packets depending on the port state.

¡     Authorized state—The controlled port is in authorized state when the client has passed authentication. The port allows traffic to pass through.

¡     Unauthorized state—The port is in unauthorized state when the client has failed authentication. The port controls traffic by using one of the following methods:

-     Performs bidirectional traffic control to deny traffic to and from the client.

-     Performs unidirectional traffic control to deny traffic from the client. The H3C devices support only unidirectional traffic control.

Figure 2 Authorization state of a controlled port

 

802.1X-related protocols

802.1X uses the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) to transport authentication information for the client, the access device, and the authentication server. EAP is an authentication framework that uses the client/server model. The framework supports a variety of authentication methods, including MD5-Challenge, EAP-Transport Layer Security (EAP-TLS), and Protected EAP (PEAP).

802.1X defines EAP over LAN (EAPOL) for passing EAP packets between the client and the access device over a wired or wireless LAN. Between the access device and the authentication server, 802.1X delivers authentication information by using one of the following methods:

·     Encapsulates EAP packets in RADIUS by using EAP over RADIUS (EAPOR), as described in "EAP relay."

·     Extracts authentication information from the EAP packets and encapsulates the information in standard RADIUS packets, as described in "EAP termination."

Packet formats

EAP packet format

Figure 3 shows the EAP packet format.

Figure 3 EAP packet format

 

·     Code—Type of the EAP packet. Options include Request (1), Response (2), Success (3), or Failure (4).

·     Identifier—Used for matching Responses with Requests.

·     Length—Length (in bytes) of the EAP packet. The EAP packet length is the sum of the Code, Identifier, Length, and Data fields.

·     Data—Content of the EAP packet. This field appears only in a Request or Response EAP packet. The Data field contains the request type (or the response type) and the type data. Type 1 (Identity) and type 4 (MD5-Challenge) are two examples for the type field.

EAPOL packet format

Figure 4 shows the EAPOL packet format.

Figure 4 EAPOL packet format

 

·     PAE Ethernet type—Protocol type. It takes the value 0x888E for EAPOL.

·     Protocol version—The EAPOL protocol version used by the EAPOL packet sender.

·     Type—Type of the EAPOL packet. Table 1 lists the types of EAPOL packets supported by implementation of 802.1X on the device.

Table 1 Types of EAPOL packets

Value

Type

Description

0x00

EAP-Packet

The client and the access device uses EAP-Packets to transport authentication information.

0x01

EAPOL-Start

The client sends an EAPOL-Start message to initiate 802.1X authentication to the access device.

0x02

EAPOL-Logoff

The client sends an EAPOL-Logoff message to tell the access device that the client is logging off.

 

·     Length—Data length in bytes, or length of the Packet body. If packet type is EAPOL-Start or EAPOL-Logoff, this field is set to 0, and no Packet body field follows.

·     Packet body—Content of the packet. When the EAPOL packet type is EAP-Packet, the Packet body field contains an EAP packet.

EAP over RADIUS

RADIUS adds two attributes, EAP-Message and Message-Authenticator, for supporting EAP authentication. For the RADIUS packet format, see "Configuring AAA."

EAP-Message

RADIUS encapsulates EAP packets in the EAP-Message attribute, as shown in Figure 5. The Type field takes 79, and the Value field can be up to 253 bytes. If an EAP packet is longer than 253 bytes, RADIUS encapsulates it in multiple EAP-Message attributes.

Figure 5 EAP-Message attribute format

 

Message-Authenticator

As shown in Figure 6, RADIUS includes the Message-Authenticator attribute in all packets that have an EAP-Message attribute to check their integrity. The packet receiver drops the packet if the calculated packet integrity checksum is different from the Message-Authenticator attribute value. The Message-Authenticator prevents EAP authentication packets from being tampered with during EAP authentication.

Figure 6 Message-Authenticator attribute format

 

802.1X authentication initiation

Both the 802.1X client and the access device can initiate 802.1X authentication.

802.1X client as the initiator

The client sends an EAPOL-Start packet to the access device to initiate 802.1X authentication. The destination MAC address of the packet is the IEEE 802.1X specified multicast address 01-80-C2-00-00-03 or the broadcast MAC address. If any intermediate device between the client and the authentication server does not support the multicast address, you must use an 802.1X client that can send broadcast EAPOL-Start packets. For example, you can use the iNode 802.1X client.

Access device as the initiator

If the client cannot send EAPOL-Start packets, configure the access device to initiate authentication. One example is the 802.1X client available with Windows XP.

The access device supports the following modes:

·     Multicast trigger mode—The access device multicasts EAP-Request/Identity packets to initiate 802.1X authentication at the identity request interval.

·     Unicast trigger mode—Upon receiving a frame from an unknown MAC address, the access device sends an EAP-Request/Identity packet out of the receiving port to the MAC address. The device retransmits the packet if no response has been received within the identity request timeout interval. This process continues until the maximum number of request attempts set by using the dot1x retry command is reached.

The username request timeout timer sets both the identity request interval for the multicast trigger and the identity request timeout interval for the unicast trigger.

802.1X authentication procedures

802.1X authentication has two methods: EAP relay and EAP termination. You choose either mode depending on support of the RADIUS server for EAP packets and EAP authentication methods.

·     EAP relay mode.

EAP relay is defined in IEEE 802.1X. In this mode, the network device uses EAPOR packets to send authentication information to the RADIUS server, as shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7 EAP relay

 

In EAP relay mode, the client must use the same authentication method as the RADIUS server. On the access device, you only need to use the dot1x authentication-method eap command to enable EAP relay.

·     EAP termination mode.

As shown in Figure 8, the access device performs the following operations in EAP termination mode:

a.     Terminates the EAP packets received from the client.

b.     Encapsulates the client authentication information in standard RADIUS packets.

c.     Uses PAP or CHAP to authenticate to the RADIUS server.

Figure 8 EAP termination

 

Comparing EAP relay and EAP termination

Packet exchange method

Benefits

Limitations

EAP relay

·     Supports various EAP authentication methods.

·     The configuration and processing are simple on the access device.

The RADIUS server must support the EAP-Message and Message-Authenticator attributes, and the EAP authentication method used by the client.

EAP termination

Works with any RADIUS server that supports PAP or CHAP authentication.

·     Supports only the following EAP authentication methods:

¡     MD5-Challenge EAP authentication.

¡     The username and password EAP authentication initiated by an iNode 802.1X client.

·     The processing is complex on the access device.

 

EAP relay

Figure 9 shows the basic 802.1X authentication procedure in EAP relay mode, assuming that EAP-MD5 is used.

Figure 9 802.1X authentication procedure in EAP relay mode

 

 

The following steps describe the 802.1X authentication procedure:

1.     When a user launches the 802.1X client and enters a registered username and password, the 802.1X client sends an EAPOL-Start packet to the access device.

2.     The access device responds with an EAP-Request/Identity packet to ask for the client username.

3.     In response to the EAP-Request/Identity packet, the client sends the username in an EAP-Response/Identity packet to the access device.

4.     The access device relays the EAP-Response/Identity packet in a RADIUS Access-Request packet to the authentication server.

5.     The authentication server uses the identity information in the RADIUS Access-Request to search its user database. If a matching entry is found, the server uses a randomly generated challenge (EAP-Request/MD5-Challenge) to encrypt the password in the entry. Then, the server sends the challenge in a RADIUS Access-Challenge packet to the access device.

6.     The access device transmits the EAP-Request/MD5-Challenge packet to the client.

7.     The client uses the received challenge to encrypt the password, and sends the encrypted password in an EAP-Response/MD5-Challenge packet to the access device.

8.     The access device relays the EAP-Response/MD5-Challenge packet in a RADIUS Access-Request packet to the authentication server.

9.     The authentication server compares the received encrypted password with the encrypted password it generated at step 5. If the two passwords are identical, the server considers the client valid and sends a RADIUS Access-Accept packet to the access device.

10.     Upon receiving the RADIUS Access-Accept packet, the access device performs the following operations:

a.     Sends an EAP-Success packet to the client.

b.     Sets the controlled port in authorized state.

The client can access the network.

11.     After the client comes online, the access device periodically sends handshake requests to check whether the client is still online. By default, if two consecutive handshake attempts fail, the device logs off the client.

12.     Upon receiving a handshake request, the client returns a response. If the client fails to return a response after a number of consecutive handshake attempts (two by default), the access device logs off the client. This handshake mechanism enables timely release of the network resources used by 802.1X users that have abnormally gone offline.

13.     The client can also send an EAPOL-Logoff packet to ask the access device for a logoff.

14.     In response to the EAPOL-Logoff packet, the access device changes the status of the controlled port from authorized to unauthorized. Then, the access device sends an EAP-Failure packet to the client.

EAP termination

Figure 10 shows the basic 802.1X authentication procedure in EAP termination mode, assuming that CHAP authentication is used.

Figure 10 802.1X authentication procedure in EAP termination mode

 

 

In EAP termination mode, the access device rather than the authentication server generates an MD5 challenge for password encryption. The access device then sends the MD5 challenge together with the username and encrypted password in a standard RADIUS packet to the RADIUS server.

 


Configuring 802.1X

This chapter describes how to configure 802.1X on an H3C device. You can also configure the port security feature to perform 802.1X. Port security combines and extends 802.1X and MAC authentication. It applies to a network, a WLAN, for example, that requires different authentication methods for different users on a port. For more information about the port security feature, see "Configuring port security."

Access control methods

H3C implements port-based access control as defined in the 802.1X protocol, and extends the protocol to support MAC-based access control.

·     Port-based access control—Once an 802.1X user passes authentication on a port, any subsequent user can access the network through the port without authentication. When the authenticated user logs off, all other users are logged off.

·     MAC-based access control—Each user is separately authenticated on a port. When a user logs off, no other online users are affected.

802.1X VLAN manipulation

Authorization VLAN

The authorization VLAN controls the access of an 802.1X user to authorized network resources. The device supports authorization VLANs assigned locally or by a remote server.

 

IMPORTANT

IMPORTANT:

Only remote servers can assign tagged authorization VLANs.

 

Remote VLAN authorization

In remote VLAN authorization, you must configure the authorization VLAN for a user on the remote server. After the user authenticates to the server, the server assigns authorization VLAN information to the device. Then, the device assigns the user access port to the authorization VLAN as a tagged or untagged member.

The device supports assignment of the following authorization VLAN information by the remote server:

·     VLAN ID.

·     VLAN name, which must be the same as the VLAN description on the access device.

·     A string of VLAN IDs and VLAN names.

In the string, some VLANs are represented by their IDs, and some VLANs are represented by their names.

·     VLAN group name.

For more information about VLAN groups, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

·     VLAN ID with a suffix of t or u.

The t and u suffixes require the device to assign the access port to the VLAN as a tagged or untagged member, respectively. For example, 2u indicates assigning the port to VLAN 2 as an untagged member.

If a VLAN name or VLAN group name is assigned, the device converts the information into a VLAN ID before VLAN assignment.

 

IMPORTANT

IMPORTANT:

For the VLAN represented by its VLAN name to be assigned successfully, you must make sure the VLAN has been created on the device.

To assign VLAN IDs with suffixes, make sure the access port is a hybrid or trunk port that performs port-based access control.

 

IMPORTANT

IMPORTANT:

To ensure a successful assignment, the authorization VLANs assigned by the remote server cannot be any of the following types:

·     Dynamically learned VLANs.

·     Reserved VLANs.

·     Super VLANs.

·     Private VLANs.

 

If the server assigns a set of VLANs, the access device selects and assigns a VLAN as described in Table 2.

Table 2 Authorization VLAN selection from a group of VLANs

VLAN information

Authorization VLAN selection

VLANs by IDs

VLANs by names

VLAN group name

If the 802.1X-enabled port performs MAC-based access control, the device selects an authorization VLAN from the VLAN group for a user according to the following rules:

·     On a hybrid port with MAC-based VLAN enabled:

¡     If the port does not have online users, the device selects the VLAN with the lowest ID.

¡     If the port has online users, the device selects the VLAN that has the fewest online users. If two VLANs have the same number of online 802.1X users, the device selects the VLAN with the lower ID.

·     On an access, trunk, or MAC-based VLAN disabled hybrid port:

¡     If the port does not have online users, the device selects the VLAN with the lowest ID.

¡     If the port has online users, the device examines the VLAN group for the VLAN of the online users. If the VLAN is found, the VLAN is assigned to the user as the authorization VLAN. If the VLAN is not found, VLAN authorization fails.

If the 802.1X-enabled port performs port-based access control, the device selects the VLAN with the lowest ID from the VLAN group. All subsequent 802.1X users are assigned to that VLAN.

VLAN IDs with suffixes

1.     The device selects the leftmost VLAN ID without a suffix, or the leftmost VLAN ID suffixed by u as an untagged VLAN, whichever is more leftmost.

2.     The device assigns the untagged VLAN to the port as the PVID, and it assigns the remaining as tagged VLANs. If no untagged VLAN is assigned, the PVID of the port does not change. The port permits traffic from these tagged and untagged VLANs to pass through.

For example, the authentication server sends the string 1u 2t 3 to the access device for a user. The device assigns VLAN 1 as an untagged VLAN and all remaining VLANs (including VLAN 3) as tagged VLANs. VLAN 1 becomes the PVID.

 

Local VLAN authorization

To perform local VLAN authorization for a user, specify the VLAN ID in the authorization attribute list of the local user account for that user. For each local user, you can specify only one authorization VLAN ID. The port through which the user accesses the device is assigned to the VLAN as an untagged member.

 

IMPORTANT

IMPORTANT:

Local VLAN authorization does not support assignment of tagged VLANs.

 

For more information about local user configuration, see "Configuring AAA."

Authorization VLAN manipulation for an 802.1X-enabled port

Table 3 describes how the access device handles VLANs (except for the VLANs specified with suffixes) on an 802.1X-enabled port.

Table 3 VLAN manipulation

Port access control method

VLAN manipulation

Port-based

The device assigns the port to the first authenticated user's authorization VLAN. All subsequent 802.1X users can access the VLAN without authentication.

If the authorization VLAN has the untagged attribute, the device assigns the port to the authorization VLAN as an untagged member and sets the VLAN as the PVID. If the authorization VLAN has the tagged attribute, the device assigns the port to the VLAN as a tagged member without changing the PVID.

MAC-based

On a hybrid port with MAC-based VLAN enabled, the device maps the MAC address of each user to its own authorization VLAN. The PVID of the port does not change.

On an access, trunk, or MAC-based VLAN disabled hybrid port:

·     The device assigns the port to the first authenticated user's authorization VLAN and sets the VLAN as the PVID if that authorization VLAN has the untagged attribute.

·     If the authorization VLAN has the tagged attribute, the device assigns the port to the authorization VLAN without changing its PVID.

 

IMPORTANT

IMPORTANT:

·     For users attached to an access port, make sure the authorization VLAN assigned by the server has the untagged attribute. VLAN assignment will fail if the server issues a VLAN that has the tagged attribute.

·     When you assign VLANs to users attached to a trunk or MAC-based VLAN disabled hybrid port, make sure there is only one untagged VLAN. If a different untagged VLAN is assigned to a subsequent user, the user cannot pass authentication.

·     As a best practice to enhance network security, do not use the port hybrid vlan command to assign a hybrid port to an authorization VLAN as a tagged member.

 

Whether the authorization VLAN of an authenticated user takes effect on the 802.1X-enabled port depends on the port link type and VLAN tagging mode.

·     If the port is an access or trunk port, the authorization VLAN always takes effect.

·     If the port is a hybrid port, the device compares the VLAN tagging mode assigned by the server with the VLAN tagging mode configured on the port for the authorization VLAN.

¡     If the VLAN tagging modes are the same one (tagged or untagged), the authorization VLAN takes effect.

¡     If the VLAN tagging modes are different, the configuration on the port takes effect instead of the assigned information.

Authorization VLAN assignment does not affect the VLAN configuration on the 802.1X-enabled port. After the user is logged off, the original VLAN configuration on the port is restored.

For an 802.1X authenticated user to access the network on a hybrid port when no authorization VLANs are assigned to the user, perform one of the following tasks:

·     If the port receives tagged authentication packets from the user in a VLAN, use the port hybrid vlan command to configure the port as a tagged member in the VLAN.

·     If the port receives untagged authentication packets from the user in a VLAN, use the port hybrid vlan command to configure the port as an untagged member in the VLAN.

On a port with periodic online user reauthentication enabled, the MAC-based VLAN feature does not take effect on a user that has been online since before this feature was enabled. The access device creates a MAC-to-VLAN mapping for the user when the following requirements are met:

·     The user passes reauthentication.

·     The authorization VLAN for the user is changed.

For more information about VLAN configuration and MAC-based VLANs, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

Guest VLAN

The 802.1X guest VLAN on a port accommodates users that have not performed 802.1X authentication. Users in the guest VLAN can access a limited set of network resources, such as a software server, to download antivirus software and system patches. Once a user in the guest VLAN passes 802.1X authentication, it is removed from the guest VLAN and can access authorized network resources.

The access device handles VLANs on an 802.1X-enabled port based on its 802.1X access control method.

Port-based access control

Authentication status

VLAN manipulation

A user accesses the 802.1X-enabled port when the port is in auto state.

The device assigns the port to the 802.1X guest VLAN. All 802.1X users on this port can access only resources in the guest VLAN.

The guest VLAN assignment varies by port link mode. For more information, see Table 3 in "Authorization VLAN."

A user in the 802.1X guest VLAN fails 802.1X authentication.

If an 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN is available, the device assigns the port to the Auth-Fail VLAN. All users on this port can access only resources in the Auth-Fail VLAN.

If no Auth-Fail VLAN is configured, the port is still in the 802.1X guest VLAN. All users on the port are in the guest VLAN.

For information about the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN, see "Auth-Fail VLAN."

A user in the 802.1X guest VLAN passes 802.1X authentication.

The device removes the port from the 802.1X guest VLAN and assigns the port to the authorization VLAN of the user.

If the authentication server does not assign an authorization VLAN, the initial PVID of the port applies. The user and all subsequent 802.1X users are assigned to the initial port VLAN.

After the user logs off, the port is assigned to the guest VLAN again.

NOTE:

The initial PVID of an 802.1X-enabled port refers to the PVID used by the port before the port is assigned to any 802.1X VLANs.

 

IMPORTANT

IMPORTANT:

When the port receives a packet with a VLAN tag, the packet will be forwarded within the VLAN even if the VLAN is not the guest VLAN.

 

MAC-based access control

Authentication status

VLAN manipulation

A user accesses the port and has not performed 802.1X authentication.

The device creates a mapping between the MAC address of the user and the 802.1X guest VLAN. The user can access only resources in the guest VLAN.

A user in the 802.1X guest VLAN fails 802.1X authentication.

If an 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN is available, the device remaps the MAC address of the user to the Auth-Fail VLAN. The user can access only resources in the Auth-Fail VLAN.

If no 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN is configured, the user is removed from the guest VLAN and added to the initial PVID.

A user in the 802.1X guest VLAN passes 802.1X authentication.

The device remaps the MAC address of the user to the authorization VLAN.

If the authentication server does not assign an authorization VLAN, the device remaps the MAC address of the user to the initial PVID on the port.

 

For the 802.1X guest VLAN feature to take effect on a port that performs MAC-based access control, make sure the following requirements are met:

·     The port is a hybrid port.

·     MAC-based VLAN is enabled on the port.

The network device assigns a hybrid port to an 802.1X guest VLAN as an untagged member.

For more information about VLAN configuration and MAC-based VLANs, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

Auth-Fail VLAN

The 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN on a port accommodates users that have failed 802.1X authentication because of the failure to comply with the organization security strategy. For example, the VLAN accommodates users with wrong passwords entered. Users in the Auth-Fail VLAN can access a limited set of network resources, such as a software server, to download antivirus software and system patches.

The access device handles VLANs on an 802.1X-enabled port based on its 802.1X access control method.

Port-based access control

Authentication status

VLAN manipulation

A user accesses the port and fails 802.1X authentication.

The device assigns the port to the Auth-Fail VLAN. All 802.1X users on this port can access only resources in the Auth-Fail VLAN.

The Auth-Fail VLAN assignment varies by port link mode. For more information, see Table 3 in "Authorization VLAN."

A user in the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN fails 802.1X authentication.

The port is still in the Auth-Fail VLAN, and all 802.1X users on this port are in this VLAN.

A user in the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN passes 802.1X authentication.

The device assigns the port to the authorization VLAN of the user, and it removes the port from the Auth-Fail VLAN.

If the authentication server does not assign an authorization VLAN, the initial PVID of the port applies. The user and all subsequent 802.1X users are assigned to the initial PVID.

After the user logs off, the port is assigned to the guest VLAN. If no guest VLAN is configured, the port is assigned to the initial PVID of the port.

 

MAC-based access control

Authentication status

VLAN manipulation

A user accesses the port and fails 802.1X authentication.

The device maps the MAC address of the user to the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN. The user can access only resources in the Auth-Fail VLAN.

A user in the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN fails 802.1X authentication.

The user is still in the Auth-Fail VLAN.

A user in the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN passes 802.1X authentication.

The device remaps the MAC address of the user to the authorization VLAN.

If the authentication server does not assign an authorization VLAN, the device remaps the MAC address of the user to the initial PVID on the port.

 

For the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN feature to take effect on a port that performs MAC-based access control, make sure the following requirements are met:

·     The port is a hybrid port.

·     MAC-based VLAN is enabled on the port.

The access device assigns a hybrid port to an 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN as an untagged member.

For more information about VLAN configuration and MAC-based VLANs, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

Critical VLAN

The 802.1X critical VLAN on a port accommodates 802.1X users that have failed authentication because none of the RADIUS servers in their ISP domain are reachable. Users in the critical VLAN can access a limited set of network resources depending on the configuration.

The critical VLAN feature takes effect when 802.1X authentication is performed only through RADIUS servers. If an 802.1X user fails local authentication after RADIUS authentication, the user is not assigned to the critical VLAN. For more information about the authentication methods, see "Configuring AAA."

The access device handles VLANs on an 802.1X-enabled port based on its 802.1X access control method.

Port-based access control

Authentication status

VLAN manipulation

A user accesses the port and fails 802.1X authentication because all the RADIUS servers are unreachable.

The device assigns the port to the critical VLAN. The 802.1X user and all subsequent 802.1X users on this port can access only resources in the 802.1X critical VLAN.

The critical VLAN assignment varies by port link mode. For more information, see Table 3 in "Authorization VLAN."

A user in the 802.1X critical VLAN fails authentication because all the RADIUS servers are unreachable.

The port is still in the critical VLAN.

A user in the 802.1X critical VLAN fails authentication for any reason other than unreachable servers.

If an 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN has been configured, the port is assigned to the Auth-Fail VLAN. If no 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN is configured, the port is assigned to the initial PVID of the port.

A user in the 802.1X critical VLAN passes 802.1X authentication.

The device assigns the port to the authorization VLAN of the user, and it removes the port from the 802.1X critical VLAN.

If the authentication server does not assign an authorization VLAN, the initial PVID of the port applies. The user and all subsequent 802.1X users are assigned to this port VLAN.

After the user logs off, the port is assigned to the guest VLAN. If no 802.1X guest VLAN is configured, the initial PVID of the port is restored.

A user in the 802.1X guest VLAN fails authentication because all the RADIUS servers are unreachable.

The device assigns the port to the 802.1X critical VLAN, and all 802.1X users on this port are in this VLAN.

A user in the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN fails authentication because all the RADIUS servers are unreachable.

The port is still in the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN. All 802.1X users on this port can access only resources in the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN.

A user that has passed authentication fails reauthentication because all the RADIUS servers are unreachable, and the user is logged out of the device.

The device assigns the port to the 802.1X critical VLAN.

 

MAC-based access control

Authentication status

VLAN manipulation

A user accesses the port and fails 802.1X authentication because all the RADIUS servers are unreachable.

The device maps the MAC address of the user to the 802.1X critical VLAN. The user can access only resources in the 802.1X critical VLAN.

A user in the 802.1X critical VLAN fails authentication because all the RADIUS servers are unreachable.

The user is still in the critical VLAN.

A user in the 802.1X critical VLAN fails 802.1X authentication for any reason rather than unreachable servers.

If an 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN has been configured, the device remaps the MAC address of the user to the Auth-Fail VLAN ID.

If no 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN has been configured, the device remaps the MAC address of the user to the initial PVID.

A user in the 802.1X critical VLAN passes 802.1X authentication.

The device remaps the MAC address of the user to the authorization VLAN.

If the authentication server does not assign an authorization VLAN to the user, the device remaps the MAC address of the user to the initial PVID on the port.

A user in the 802.1X guest VLAN fails authentication because all the RADIUS servers are unreachable.

The device remaps the MAC address of the user to the 802.1X critical VLAN. The user can access only resources in the 802.1X critical VLAN.

A user in the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN fails authentication because all the RADIUS servers are unreachable.

The user remains in the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN.

 

For the 802.1X critical VLAN feature to take effect on a port that performs MAC-based access control, make sure the following requirements are met:

·     The port is a hybrid port.

·     MAC-based VLAN is enabled on the port.

The network device assigns a hybrid port to an 802.1X critical VLAN as an untagged member.

For more information about VLAN configuration and MAC-based VLANs, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

When a reachable RADIUS server is detected, the device performs the following operations:

·     If MAC-based access control is used, the device removes 802.1X users from the critical VLAN. The port sends a unicast EAP-Request/Identity to these users to trigger authentication.

·     If port-based access control is used, the device removes the port from the critical VLAN. The port sends a multicast EAP-Request/Identity to all 802.1X users on the port to trigger authentication.

Critical voice VLAN

The 802.1X critical voice VLAN on a port accommodates 802.1X voice users that have failed authentication because none of the RADIUS servers in their ISP domain are reachable.

The critical voice VLAN feature takes effect when 802.1X authentication is performed only through RADIUS servers. If an 802.1X voice user fails local authentication after RADIUS authentication, the voice user is not assigned to the critical voice VLAN. For more information about the authentication methods, see "Configuring AAA."

When a reachable RADIUS server is detected, the device performs the following operations:

·     If port-based access control is used, the device removes the port from the critical voice VLAN. The port sends a multicast EAP-Request/Identity packet to all 802.1X voice users on the port to trigger authentication.

·     If MAC-based access control is used, the device removes 802.1X voice users from the critical voice VLAN. The port sends a unicast EAP-Request/Identity packet to each 802.1X voice user that was assigned to the critical voice VLAN to trigger authentication.

802.1X VSI manipulation

IMPORTANT

IMPORTANT:

This feature is supported only on 802.1X-enabled ports that perform MAC-based access control.

 

802.1X support for VXLANs

The device can act as a VTEP in a VXLAN network. As shown in Figure 11, when VTEPs in a VXLAN network act as NASs, users' VLANs cannot identify their service information. To resolve this issue, you must configure the RADIUS server to assign VSIs to authenticated 802.1X users. The VTEPs will map the users' traffic to the VXLANs that are associated with the users' respective authorization VSIs. The mapping criteria include the user access VLAN, access port, and MAC address.

For information about VSIs and VXLANs, see VXLAN Configuration Guide.

Figure 11 VXLAN network diagram for 802.1X authentication

 

Authorization VSI

An authorization VSI is associated with a VXLAN that has network resources inaccessible to unauthenticated users.

802.1X supports remote VSI authorization. When a user passes remote 802.1X authentication, the remote server assigns the authorization VSI information of the user to the user's access port. Upon receiving the authorization VSI information, the VTEP performs the following operations:

1.     Dynamically creates an AC based on the user's access port, VLAN, and MAC address.

2.     Maps the AC to the authorization VSI.

The user then can access resources in the VXLAN associated with the authorization VSI.

If the VTEP does not receive authorization VSI information for the user, the user cannot access resources in any VXLAN after passing authentication.

For information about dynamic creation of ACs, see VXLAN configuration Guide.

Guest VSI

The 802.1X guest VSI on a port accommodates users that have not performed 802.1X authentication. You can deploy a limited set of network resources in the VXLAN that is associated with the guest VSI. For example, deploy a software server for users to download anti-virus software and system patches. Once a user in the guest VSI passes 802.1X authentication, the user is removed from the guest VSI and can access authorized network resources.

The following table shows how the VTEP handles VSIs on an 802.1X-enabled port that performs MAC-based access control:

 

Authentication status

VSI manipulation

A user accesses the port and has not performed 802.1X authentication.

The VTEP maps the user's MAC address and access VLAN to the 802.1X guest VSI on the port. The user can access only resources in the VXLAN associated with the guest VSI.

A user in the 802.1X guest VSI fails 802.1X authentication.

If an 802.1X Auth-Fail VSI is available on the port, the VTEP remaps the user's MAC address and access VLAN to the Auth-Fail VSI. The user can access only resources in the VXLAN associated with the Auth-Fail VSI.

If no 802.1X Auth-Fail VSI is configured on the port, the user is removed from the 802.1X guest VSI.

A user in the 802.1X guest VSI passes 802.1X authentication.

The VTEP removes the user from the 802.1X guest VSI and remaps the user's MAC address and access VLAN to the authorization VSI.

 

Auth-Fail VSI

The 802.1X Auth-Fail VSI on a port accommodates users that have failed 802.1X authentication because of the failure to comply with the organization security strategy. For example, the VSI accommodates users with wrong passwords entered. Users in the Auth-Fail VSI can access a limited set of network resources in the VXLAN associated with this VSI. You can deploy a software server in the Auth-Fail VSI for users to download antivirus software and system patches.

The following table shows how the VTEP handles VSIs on an 802.1X-enabled port that performs MAC-based access control:

 

Authentication status

VSI manipulation

A user accesses the port and fails 802.1X authentication.

The VTEP maps the user's MAC address and access VLAN to the 802.1X Auth-Fail VSI on the port. The user can access only resources in the VXLAN associated with the Auth-Fail VSI.

A user in the 802.1X Auth-Fail VSI fails 802.1X authentication.

The user is still in the Auth-Fail VSI.

A user in the 802.1X Auth-Fail VSI passes 802.1X authentication.

The VTEP removes the user from the 802.1X Auth-Fail VSI and remaps the user's MAC address and access VLAN to the authorization VSI.

 

Critical VSI

The 802.1X critical VSI on a port accommodates 802.1X users that have failed authentication because none of the RADIUS servers in their ISP domain are reachable. Users in the critical VSI can access a limited set of network resources in the VXLAN associated with this VSI.

The critical VSI feature takes effect when 802.1X authentication is performed only through RADIUS servers. If an 802.1X user fails local authentication after RADIUS authentication, the user is not assigned to the critical VSI. For more information about the authentication methods, see "Configuring AAA."

The following table shows how the VTEP handles VSIs on an 802.1X-enabled port that performs MAC-based access control:

 

Authentication status

VSI manipulation

A user accesses the port and fails 802.1X authentication because all the RADIUS servers are unreachable.

The VTEP maps the user's MAC address and access VLAN to the 802.1X critical VSI on the port. The user can access only resources in the VXLAN associated with the critical VSI.

A user in the 802.1X critical VSI fails authentication because all the RADIUS servers are unreachable.

The user is still in the critical VSI.

A user in the 802.1X critical VSI fails 802.1X authentication for any reason other than unreachable servers.

If an 802.1X Auth-Fail VSI has been configured on the port, the VTEP remaps the user's MAC address and access VLAN to the Auth-Fail VSI.

If no 802.1X Auth-Fail VSI has been configured on the port, the VTEP logs off the user.

A user in the 802.1X critical VSI passes 802.1X authentication.

The VTEP remaps the user's MAC address and access VLAN to the authorization VSI.

A user in the 802.1X guest VSI fails authentication because all the RADIUS servers are unreachable.

The VTEP maps the user's MAC address and access VLAN to the 802.1X critical VSI on the port. The user can access only resources in the VXLAN associated with the critical VSI.

A user in the 802.1X Auth-Fail VSI fails authentication because all the RADIUS servers are unreachable.

The user remains in the 802.1X Auth-Fail VSI.

 

Using 802.1X authentication with other features

ACL assignment

You can specify an ACL for an 802.1X user on the authentication server to control the user's access to network resources. After the user passes 802.1X authentication, the authentication server assigns the ACL to the access port of the user. The ACL will filter traffic for this user by permitting or rejecting matching traffic. The authentication server can be the local access device or a RADIUS server. In either case, you must configure the ACL on the access device.

After receiving an ACL from the server, the device will check the following parameters defined in the ACL rules:

·     Source IP address.

·     Destination IP address.

·     Protocol type.

·     Ethernet type.

·     Source port.

·     Destination port.

·     DSCP priority.

For more information about these parameters, see ACL and QoS Command Reference.

To change the access control criteria for the user, you can use one of the following methods:

·     Modify ACL rules on the access device.

·     Specify another authorization ACL on the authentication server.

The supported authorization ACLs include the following types:

·     Basic ACLs, which are numbered in the range of 2000 to 2999.

·     Advanced ACLs, which are numbered in the range of 3000 to 3999.

·     Layer 2 ACLs, which are numbered in the range of 4000 to 4999.

For an authorization ACL to take effect, make sure the ACL exists with rules and none of the rules contains the counting, established, fragment, source-mac, or logging keyword.

For more information about ACLs, see ACL and QoS Configuration Guide.

EAD assistant

Endpoint Admission Defense (EAD) is an H3C integrated endpoint access control solution to improve the threat defensive capability of a network. The solution enables the security client, security policy server, access device, and third-party server to operate together. If a terminal device seeks to access an EAD network, it must have an EAD client, which performs 802.1X authentication.

The EAD assistant feature enables the access device to redirect the HTTP or HTTPS requests of a user to a redirect URL for downloading and installing an EAD client. This feature eliminates the administrative task to deploy EAD clients.

EAD assistant is implemented by the following functionality:

·     Free IP.

A free IP is a freely accessible network segment, which has a limited set of network resources such as software and DHCP servers. To ensure security strategy compliance, an unauthenticated user can access only this segment to perform operations. For example, the user can download EAD client from a software server or obtain a dynamic IP address from a DHCP server.

·     Redirect URL.

If an unauthenticated 802.1X user is using a Web browser to access the network, EAD assistant redirects the HTTP or HTTPS requests of the user to a specific URL. For example, you can use this feature to redirect the user to the EAD client software download page.

The EAD assistant feature creates an ACL-based EAD rule automatically to open access to the redirect URL for each redirected user.

EAD rules are implemented by using ACL resources. When the EAD rule timer expires or the user passes authentication, the rule is removed. If users fail to download EAD client or fail to pass authentication before the timer expires, they must reconnect to the network to access the free IP.

Redirect URL assignment

The device supports the URL attribute assigned by a RADIUS server when the 802.1X-enabled port performs MAC-based access control and the port authorization state is auto. During authentication, the HTTP or HTTPS requests of an 802.1X user are redirected to the Web interface specified by the server-assigned URL attribute. After the user passes the Web authentication, the RADIUS server records the MAC address of the user and uses a DM (Disconnect Message) to log off the user. When the user initiates 802.1X authentication again, it will pass the authentication and come online successfully.

This feature is mutually exclusive with the EAD assistant feature.

To redirect the HTTPS requests of 802.1X users, specify the HTTPS redirect listening port on the device. For more information, see HTTP redirect in Layer 3—IP Services Configuration Guide.

802.1X configuration restrictions and guidelines

When you configure 802.1X, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·     VSI assignment is not supported on ports that perform port-based access control.

·     To support the authorization VSI, 802.1X guest VSI, 802.1X Auth-Fail VSI, and 802.1X critical VSI features on an 802.1X-enabled port, you must enable MAC-based traffic match mode for dynamic ACs. To enable MAC-based traffic match mode for dynamic ACs, use the mac-based ac command. For more information about this command, see VXLAN Command Reference.

·     In a VXLAN network that is configured with 802.1X authentication, a MAC address cannot move between local and remote sites. If a MAC address is authenticated on a site, users using the same MAC address cannot access the network correctly in another site.

·     If the authentication server assigns both authorization VSI and authorization VLAN information to a user, the device uses only authorization VLAN information.

·     On a port, the guest VLAN, Auth-Fail VLAN, and critical VLAN settings are mutually exclusive with the guest VSI, Auth-Fail VSI, and critical VSI settings.

·     For successful assignment of authorization VLANs or authorization VSIs, follow these guidelines:

¡     If a port is configured with the guest VLAN, Auth-Fail VLAN, or critical VLAN, configure the authentication server to assign authorization VLANs to 802.1X users on the port.

¡     If a port is configured with the guest VSI, Auth-Fail VSI, or critical VSI, configure the authentication server to assign authorization VSIs to 802.1X users on the port.

·     For the 802.1X guest VSI feature to work correctly, do not configure this feature together with EAD assistant.

·     Do not change the link type of a port when the 802.1X guest VLAN, Auth-Fail VLAN, or critical VLAN on the port has users.

·     802.1X configuration is supported on Layer 2 Ethernet interfaces and Layer 2 aggregate interfaces. In this chapter, the term "port" refers to a Layer 2 Ethernet interface or a Layer 2 aggregate interface.

·     Do not delete a Layer 2 aggregate interface if the interface has online 802.1X users.

·     After a Layer 2 Ethernet interface is added to an aggregation group, the 802.1X configuration on the interface does not take effect. Before enabling 802.1X on a Layer 2 Ethernet interface, make sure the interface is not added to a Layer 2 aggregation group.

Configuration prerequisites

Before you configure 802.1X, complete the following tasks:

·     Configure an ISP domain and AAA scheme (local or RADIUS authentication) for 802.1X users.

·     If RADIUS authentication is used, create user accounts on the RADIUS server.

·     If local authentication is used, create local user accounts on the access device and set the service type to lan-access.

802.1X configuration task list

Tasks at a glance

(Required.) Enabling 802.1X

(Required.) Enabling EAP relay or EAP termination

(Optional.) Setting the port authorization state

(Optional.) Specifying an access control method

(Optional.) Setting the maximum number of concurrent 802.1X users on a port

(Optional.) Setting the maximum number of authentication request attempts

(Optional.) Setting the 802.1X authentication timeout timers

(Optional.) Configuring online user handshake

(Optional.) Configuring 802.1X offline detection

(Optional.) Configuring 802.1X unauthenticated user aging

(Optional.) Configuring the authentication trigger feature

(Optional.) Specifying a mandatory authentication domain on a port

(Optional.) Setting the quiet timer

(Optional.) Configuring 802.1X reauthentication

(Optional.) Configuring an 802.1X guest VLAN

(Optional.) Enabling 802.1X guest VLAN assignment delay

(Optional.) Configuring an 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN

(Optional.) Configuring an 802.1X critical VLAN

(Optional.) Enabling the 802.1X critical voice VLAN

(Optional.) Configuring an 802.1X guest VSI

(Optional.) Enabling 802.1X guest VSI assignment delay

(Optional.) Configuring an 802.1X Auth-Fail VSI

(Optional.) Configuring an 802.1X critical VSI

(Optional.) Specifying supported domain name delimiters

(Optional.) Enabling 802.1X user IP freezing

(Optional.) Removing the VLAN tags of 802.1X protocol packets sent out of a port

(Optional.) Setting the maximum number of 802.1X authentication attempts for MAC authenticated users

(Optional.) Configuring 802.1X MAC address binding

(Optional.) Configuring the EAD assistant feature

(Optional.) Enabling logging for 802.1X users

 

Enabling 802.1X

When you enable 802.1X, follow these guidelines:

·     For 802.1X to take effect on a port, you must enable it both globally and on the port.

·     If the PVID is a voice VLAN, the 802.1X feature cannot take effect on the port. For more information about voice VLANs, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

·     Do not enable 802.1X on a port that is in a link aggregation or service loopback group.

To enable 802.1X:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Enable 802.1X globally.

dot1x

By default, 802.1X is disabled globally.

3.     Enter Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

4.     Enable 802.1X on a port.

dot1x

By default, 802.1X is disabled on a port.

 

Enabling EAP relay or EAP termination

When configuring EAP relay or EAP termination, consider the following factors:

·     Support of the RADIUS server for EAP packets.

·     Authentication methods supported by the 802.1X client and the RADIUS server.

You can use both EAP termination and EAP relay in any of the following situations:

·     The client is using only MD5-Challenge EAP authentication. If EAP termination is used, you must enable CHAP authentication on the access device.

·     The client is an iNode 802.1X client and initiates only the username and password EAP authentication. If EAP termination is used, you can enable either PAP or CHAP authentication on the access device. However, if the password is required to be transmitted in cipher text, you must use CHAP authentication on the access device.

To use EAP-TLS, PEAP, or any other EAP authentication methods, you must use EAP relay. When you make your decision, see "Comparing EAP relay and EAP termination" for help.

For more information about EAP relay and EAP termination, see "802.1X authentication procedures."

To configure EAP relay or EAP termination:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Configure EAP relay or EAP termination.

dot1x authentication-method { chap | eap | pap }

By default, the access device performs EAP termination and uses CHAP to communicate with the RADIUS server.

Specify the eap keyword to enable EAP relay.

Specify the chap or pap keyword to enable CHAP-enabled or PAP-enabled EAP termination.

 

 

NOTE:

If EAP relay mode is used, the user-name-format command configured in RADIUS scheme view does not take effect. The access device sends the authentication data from the client to the server without any modification.

 

Setting the port authorization state

The port authorization state determines whether the client is granted access to the network. You can control the authorization state of a port by using the dot1x port-control command and the following keywords:

·     authorized-force—Places the port in the authorized state, enabling users on the port to access the network without authentication.

·     unauthorized-force—Places the port in the unauthorized state, denying any access requests from users on the port.

·     auto—Places the port initially in unauthorized state to allow only EAPOL packets to pass. After a user passes authentication, sets the port in the authorized state to allow access to the network. You can use this option in most scenarios.

To set the authorization state of a port:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Enter Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.     Set the port authorization state.

dot1x port-control { authorized-force | auto | unauthorized-force }

By default, the auto state applies.

 

Specifying an access control method

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Enter Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.     Specify an access control method.

dot1x port-method { macbased | portbased }

By default, MAC-based access control applies.

To use both 802.1X and portal authentication on a port, you must specify MAC-based access control. For information about portal authentication, see "Configuring portal authentication."

 

Setting the maximum number of concurrent 802.1X users on a port

Perform this task to prevent the system resources from being overused.

To set the maximum number of concurrent 802.1X users on a port:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Enter Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.     Set the maximum number of concurrent 802.1X users on a port.

dot1x max-user max-number

The default setting is 4294967295.

 

Setting the maximum number of authentication request attempts

The access device retransmits an authentication request if it does not receive any responses to the request from the client within a period of time. To set the time, use the dot1x timer tx-period tx-period-value command or the dot1x timer supp-timeout supp-timeout-value command. The access device stops retransmitting the request if it has made the maximum number of request transmission attempts but still receives no response.

To set the maximum number of authentication request attempts:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Set the maximum number of attempts for sending an authentication request.

dot1x retry retries

The default setting is 2.

 

Setting the 802.1X authentication timeout timers

The network device uses the following 802.1X authentication timeout timers:

·     Client timeout timer—Starts when the access device sends an EAP-Request/MD5-Challenge packet to a client. If no response is received when this timer expires, the access device retransmits the request to the client.

·     Server timeout timer—Starts when the access device sends a RADIUS Access-Request packet to the authentication server. If no response is received when this timer expires, the access device retransmits the request to the server.

In most cases, the default settings are sufficient. You can edit the timers, depending on the network conditions.

·     In a low-speed network, increase the client timeout timer.

·     In a network with authentication servers of different performance, adjust the server timeout timer.

To set the 802.1X authentication timeout timers:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Set the client timeout timer.

dot1x timer supp-timeout supp-timeout-value

The default is 30 seconds.

3.     Set the server timeout timer.

dot1x timer server-timeout server-timeout-value

The default is 100 seconds.

 

Configuring online user handshake

The online user handshake feature checks the connectivity status of online 802.1X users. The access device sends handshake requests (EAP-Request/Identity) to online users at the interval specified by the dot1x timer handshake-period command. If the device does not receive any EAP-Response/Identity packets from an online user after it has made the maximum handshake attempts, the device sets the user to offline state. To set the maximum handshake attempts, use the dot1x retry command.

To use the online user handshake feature, make sure the 802.1X client can exchange handshake packets with the device.

Typically, the device does not reply to 802.1X clients' EAP-Response/Identity packets with EAP-Success packets. Some 802.1X clients will go offline if they do not receive the EAP-Success packets for handshake. To avoid this issue, enable the online user handshake reply feature.

If iNode clients are deployed, you can also enable the online user handshake security feature to check authentication information in the handshake packets from clients. This feature can prevent 802.1X users that use illegal client software from bypassing iNode security check, such as dual network interface cards (NICs) detection. If a user fails the handshake security checking, the device sets the user to the offline state.

Configuration restrictions and guidelines

When you configure online user handshake, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·     To use the online user handshake security feature, make sure the online user handshake feature is enabled.

·     The online user handshake security feature takes effect only on the network where the iNode client and IMC server are used.

·     If the network has 802.1X clients that cannot exchange handshake packets with the access device, disable the online user handshake feature. This operation prevents the 802.1X connections from being incorrectly torn down.

·     Enable the online user handshake reply feature only if 802.1X clients will go offline without receiving EAP-Success packets from the device.

Configuration procedure

To configure the online user handshake feature:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     (Optional.) Set the handshake timer.

dot1x timer handshake-period handshake-period-value

The default is 15 seconds.

3.     Enter Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

4.     Enable the online user handshake feature.

dot1x handshake

By default, the feature is enabled.

5.     (Optional.) Enable the online user handshake security feature.

dot1x handshake secure

By default, the feature is disabled.

6.     (Optional.) Enable the 802.1X online user handshake reply feature.

dot1x handshake reply enable

By default, the device does not reply to 802.1X clients' EAP-Response/Identity packets during the online handshake process.

 

Configuring 802.1X offline detection

Overview

The 802.1X offline detection feature monitors the online status of 802.1X users. This feature uses an offline detect timer to set the interval that the device waits for traffic from a user before the device regards the user as idle. If the device has not received traffic from a user before the timer expires, the device logs off that user and requests the accounting server to stop accounting for the user.

The 802.1X offline detection feature does not detect 802.1X protocol packets.

Configuration restrictions and guidelines

The 802.1X offline detection feature takes effect only on a port that performs MAC-based access control. If you change the port access mode to port-based, the 802.1X offline detection feature cannot take effect.

For this feature to operate as expected, do not set the offline detect timer to the same value as either of the following timers:

·     Handshake timer (set by using the dot1x timer handshake-period command).

·     Periodic reauthentication timer (set by using the dot1x timer reauth-period command).

Configuration procedure

To configure 802.1X offline detection:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     (Optional.) Set the 802.1X offline detect timer.

dot1x timer offline-detect offline-detect-value

By default, the 802.1X offline detect timer is 300 seconds.

3.     Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

4.     Enable 802.1X offline detection.

dot1x offline-detect enable

By default, 802.1X offline detection is disabled.

 

Configuring 802.1X unauthenticated user aging

Overview

802.1X unauthenticated user aging applies to users added to an 802.1X guest, critical, or Auth-Fail VLAN or VSI because they have not been authenticated or have failed authentication.

When a user in one of those VLANs or VSIs ages out, the device removes the user from the VLAN or VSI and deletes the MAC address entry for the user from the access port.

For users in one of those VLANs or VSIs on one port to be authenticated successfully and come online on another port, enable this feature. In any other scenarios, disable this feature as a best practice.

The 802.1X user aging mechanism on a port depends on its access control mode.

·     If the port uses port-based access control, a user aging timer starts when the port is assigned to the critical or Auth-Fail VLAN or VSI. When the aging timer expires, the port is removed from the VLAN or VSI and all MAC address entries for users in the VLAN or VSI are also removed.

·     If the port uses MAC-based access control, a user aging timer starts for each 802.1X user when they are assigned to the Auth-Fail, critical, or guest VLAN or VSI. When the aging timer for a user expires, the device removes that user from the VLAN or VSI.

Configuration restrictions and guidelines

As a best practice, disable 802.1X unauthenticated user aging on one port unless you want to have unauthenticated users on that port to be authenticated and come online on another port.

Configuration procedure

To configure 802.1X unauthenticated user aging:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Set the user aging timer for a type of 802.1X VLAN or VSI.

dot1x timer user-aging { auth-fail-vlan | auth-fail-vsi | critical-vlan | critical-vsi | guest-vlan | guest-vsi } aging-time-value

By default, the user aging timers for all applicable types of 802.1X VLANs and VSIs are 1000 seconds.

3.     Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

4.     Enable 802.1X unauthenticated user aging.

dot1x unauthenticated-user aging enable

By default, 802.1X unauthenticated user aging is enabled.

 

Configuring the authentication trigger feature

The authentication trigger feature enables the access device to initiate 802.1X authentication when 802.1X clients cannot initiate authentication.

This feature provides the multicast trigger and unicast trigger (see 802.1X authentication initiation in "802.1X overview").

Configuration restrictions and guidelines

When you configure the authentication trigger feature, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·     Enable the multicast trigger on a port when the clients attached to the port cannot send EAPOL-Start packets to initiate 802.1X authentication.

·     Enable the unicast trigger on a port if only a few 802.1X clients are attached to the port and these clients cannot initiate authentication.

·     To avoid duplicate authentication packets, do not enable both triggers on a port.

Configuration procedure

To configure the authentication trigger feature on a port:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     (Optional.) Set the username request timeout timer.

dot1x timer tx-period tx-period-value

The default is 30 seconds.

3.     Enter Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

4.     Enable an authentication trigger.

dot1x { multicast-trigger | unicast-trigger }

By default, the multicast trigger is enabled, and the unicast trigger is disabled.

 

Specifying a mandatory authentication domain on a port

You can place all 802.1X users in a mandatory authentication domain for authentication, authorization, and accounting on a port. No user can use an account in any other domain to access the network through the port. The implementation of a mandatory authentication domain enhances the flexibility of 802.1X access control deployment.

To specify a mandatory authentication domain for a port:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Enter Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.     Specify a mandatory 802.1X authentication domain on the port.

dot1x mandatory-domain domain-name

By default, no mandatory 802.1X authentication domain is specified.

 

Setting the quiet timer

The quiet timer enables the access device to wait a period of time before it can process any authentication request from a client that has failed an 802.1X authentication.

You can edit the quiet timer, depending on the network conditions.

·     In a vulnerable network, set the quiet timer to a high value.

·     In a high-performance network with quick authentication response, set the quiet timer to a low value.

To set the quiet timer:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Enable the quiet timer.

dot1x quiet-period

By default, the timer is disabled.

3.     (Optional.) Set the quiet timer.

dot1x timer quiet-period quiet-period-value

The default is 60 seconds.

 

Configuring 802.1X reauthentication

Overview

802.1X reauthentication tracks the connection status of online users and updates the authorization attributes assigned by the server. The attributes include the ACL and VLAN.

The following methods are available for 802.1X reauthentication:

·     Manual reauthentication—Allows you to manually reauthenticate all online 802.1X users on a port.

·     Periodic reauthentication—Reauthenticates online users at a user-configurable reauthentication interval.

By default, the device logs off online 802.1X users if no server is reachable for 802.1X reauthentication. The keep-online feature keeps authenticated 802.1X users online when no server is reachable for 802.1X reauthentication, either manually or periodically.

Configuration restrictions and guidelines

When you configure 802.1X reauthentication, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·     The server-assigned session timeout timer (Session-Timeout attribute) and termination action (Termination-Action attribute) together can affect periodic reauthentication. To display the server-assigned Session-Timeout and Termination-Action attributes, use the display dot1x connection command (see Security Command Reference).

¡     If the termination action is Default (logoff), periodic reauthentication on the device takes effect only when the periodic reauthentication timer is shorter than the session timeout timer.

¡     If the termination action is Radius-request, the periodic reauthentication configuration on the device does not take effect. The device reauthenticates the online 802.1X users after the session timeout timer expires.

Support for the assignment of Session-Timeout and Termination-Action attributes depends on the server model.

·     You can set the periodic reauthentication timer either in system view or in interface view by using the dot1x timer reauth-period command. A change to the periodic reauthentication timer applies to online users only after the old timer expires.

The device selects a periodic reauthentication timer for 802.1X reauthentication in the following order:

a.     Server-assigned reauthentication timer.

b.     Port-specific reauthentication timer.

c.     Global reauthentication timer.

d.     Default reauthentication timer.

·     The VLANs assigned to an online user before and after reauthentication can be the same or different.

·     Any modification to the mandatory authentication domain or EAP message handling method setting does not affect the reauthentication of online 802.1X users. The modified setting takes effect only on 802.1X users that come online after the modification.

Configuring 802.1X periodic reauthentication

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     (Optional.) Set the global periodic reauthentication timer.

dot1x timer reauth-period reauth-period-value

The default is 3600 seconds.

3.     Enter Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

4.     Enable 802.1X periodic reauthentication.

dot1x re-authenticate

By default, the feature is disabled.

5.     (Optional.) Set the periodic reauthentication timer on the port.

dot1x timer reauth-period reauth-period-value

By default, no periodic reauthentication timer is set on a port. The port uses the global 802.1X periodic reauthentication timer.

 

Configuring 802.1X manual reauthentication

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Enter Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.     Manually reauthenticate all online 802.1X users on the port.

dot1x re-authenticate manual

The device immediately reauthenticates all online 802.1X users on the port after you execute this command.

 

Enabling the keep-online feature

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Enter Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.     Enable the keep-online feature for 802.1X users.

dot1x re-authenticate server-unreachable keep-online

By default, this feature is disabled. The device logs off online 802.1X users if no authentication server is reachable for 802.1X reauthentication, either manually or periodically.

Use the keep-online feature according to the actual network condition.

In a fast-recovery network, you can use the keep-online feature to prevent 802.1X users from coming online and going offline frequently.

 

Configuring an 802.1X guest VLAN

Configuration restrictions and guidelines

When you configure an 802.1X guest VLAN, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·     You can configure only one 802.1X guest VLAN on a port. The 802.1X guest VLANs on different ports can be different.

·     Assign different IDs to the voice VLAN, the port VLAN, and the 802.1X guest VLAN on a port. The assignment makes sure the port can correctly process incoming VLAN-tagged traffic.

·     When you configure multiple security features on a port, follow the guidelines in Table 4.

Table 4 Relationships of the 802.1X guest VLAN and other security features

Feature

Relationship description

Reference

MAC-based VLAN

The MAC-based VLAN has higher priority than the 802.1X guest VLAN on a port that performs port-based access control.

See Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

Super VLAN

You cannot specify a VLAN as both a super VLAN and an 802.1X guest VLAN.

See Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN on a port that performs MAC-based access control

The 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN has higher priority than the 802.1X guest VLAN.

See "802.1X VLAN manipulation."

Port intrusion protection actions on a port that performs MAC-based access control

The 802.1X guest VLAN feature has higher priority than the block MAC action.

The 802.1X guest VLAN feature has lower priority than the shutdown port action of the port intrusion protection feature.

See "Configuring port security."

 

Configuration prerequisites

Before you configure an 802.1X guest VLAN, complete the following tasks:

·     Create the VLAN to be specified as the 802.1X guest VLAN.

·     If the 802.1X-enabled port performs MAC-based access control, perform the following operations for the port:

¡     Configure the port as a hybrid port.

¡     Enable MAC-based VLAN on the port. For more information about MAC-based VLANs, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

¡     Assign the port to the 802.1X guest VLAN as an untagged member.

Configuration procedure

To configure an 802.1X guest VLAN:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Enter Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.     Configure the 802.1X guest VLAN on the port.

dot1x guest-vlan guest-vlan-id

By default, no 802.1X guest VLAN exists.

 

Enabling 802.1X guest VLAN assignment delay

This feature delays assigning an 802.1X-enabled port to the 802.1X guest VLAN when 802.1X authentication is triggered on the port.

This feature applies only to situations where 802.1X authentication is triggered by EAPOL-Start packets from 802.1X clients or packets from unknown MAC addresses.

To use this feature, the 802.1X-enabled port must perform MAC-based access control.

When 802.1X authentication is triggered on a port, the device performs the following operations:

1.     Sends a unicast EAP-Request/Identity packet to the MAC address that triggers the authentication.

2.     Retransmits the packet if no response is received within the username request timeout interval set by using the dot1x timer tx-period command.

3.     Assigns the port the 802.1X guest VLAN after the maximum number of request attempts set by using the dot1x retry command is reached.

To enable 802.1X guest VLAN assignment delay on a port:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.     Enable 802.1X guest VLAN assignment delay on the port.

dot1x guest-vlan-delay { eapol | new-mac }

By default, 802.1X guest VLAN assignment delay is disabled on a port.

 

Configuring an 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN

Configuration restrictions and guidelines

When you configure an 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·     Assign different IDs to the voice VLAN, the port VLAN, and the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN on a port. The assignment makes sure the port can correctly process VLAN-tagged incoming traffic.

·     You can configure only one 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN on a port. The 802.1X Auth-Fail VLANs on different ports can be different.

·     When you configure multiple security features on a port, follow the guidelines in Table 5.

Table 5 Relationships of the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN with other features

Feature

Relationship description

Reference

Super VLAN

You cannot specify a VLAN as both a super VLAN and an 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN.

See Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

MAC authentication guest VLAN on a port that performs MAC-based access control

The 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN has a high priority.

See "Configuring MAC authentication."

Port intrusion protection actions on a port that performs MAC-based access control

The 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN feature has higher priority than the block MAC action.

The 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN feature has lower priority than the shutdown port action of the port intrusion protection feature.

See "Configuring port security."

 

Configuration prerequisites

Before you configure an 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN, complete the following tasks:

·     Create the VLAN to be specified as the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN.

·     If the 802.1X-enabled port performs MAC-based access control, perform the following operations for the port:

¡     Configure the port as a hybrid port.

¡     Enable MAC-based VLAN on the port. For more information about MAC-based VLANs, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

¡     Assign the port to the Auth-Fail VLAN as an untagged member.

Configuration procedure

To configure an 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Enter Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.     Configure the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN on the port.

dot1x auth-fail vlan authfail-vlan-id

By default, no 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN exists.

 

Configuring an 802.1X critical VLAN

Typically, when a client user is assigned to the 802.1X critical VLAN on a port, the device sends an EAP-Failure packet to the client. Some 802.1X clients, such as Windows built-in 802.1X clients, cannot respond to the EAP-Request/Identity packets of the device if they have received an EAP-Failure packet. As a result, reauthentication fails for these clients when an authentication server is reachable.

To resolve this issue, configure the device to send EAP-Success packets instead of EAP-Failure packets for 802.1X user assignment to the 802.1X critical VLAN. This configuration ensures that all 802.1X clients can perform reauthentication.

Configuration restrictions and guidelines

When you configure an 802.1X critical VLAN, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·     Assign different IDs to the voice VLAN, the PVID, and the 802.1X critical VLAN on a port. The assignment makes sure the port can correctly process VLAN-tagged incoming traffic.

·     You can configure only one 802.1X critical VLAN on a port. The 802.1X critical VLANs on different ports can be different.

·     You cannot specify a VLAN as both a super VLAN and an 802.1X critical VLAN. For information about super VLANs, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

Configuration prerequisites

Before you configure an 802.1X critical VLAN, complete the following tasks:

·     Create the VLAN to be specified as a critical VLAN.

·     If the 802.1X-enabled port performs MAC-based access control, perform the following operations for the port:

¡     Configure the port as a hybrid port.

¡     Enable MAC-based VLAN on the port. For more information about MAC-based VLANs, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

¡     Assign the port to the 802.1X critical VLAN as an untagged member.

Configuration procedure

To configure an 802.1X critical VLAN:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Enter Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.     Configure the 802.1X critical VLAN on the port.

dot1x critical vlan critical-vlan-id

By default, no 802.1X critical VLAN exists.

4.     (Optional.) Send an EAP-Success packet to a client when the 802.1X client user is assigned to the 802.1X critical VLAN on the port.

dot1x critical eapol

By default, the device sends an EAP-Failure packet to a client when the 802.1X client user is assigned to the 802.1X critical VLAN on the port.

 

Enabling the 802.1X critical voice VLAN

Configuration restrictions and guidelines

The feature does not take effect if the voice user has been in the 802.1X Auth-Fail VLAN.

Configuration prerequisites

Before you enable the 802.1X critical voice VLAN on a port, complete the following tasks:

·     Enable LLDP both globally and on the port.

The device uses LLDP to identify voice users. For information about LLDP, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

·     Enable voice VLAN on the port.

For information about voice VLANs, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

Configuration procedure

To enable the 802.1X critical voice VLAN feature on a port:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Enter Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.     Enable the 802.1X critical voice VLAN feature on a port.

dot1x critical-voice-vlan

By default, the 802.1X critical voice VLAN feature is disabled on a port.

 

Configuring an 802.1X guest VSI

Configuration restrictions and guidelines

You can configure only one 802.1X guest VSI on a port. The 802.1X guest VSIs on different ports can be different.

Only ports that perform MAC-based access control support the 802.1X guest VSI.

Configuration prerequisites

Before you configure the 802.1X guest VSI on an 802.1X-enabled port, complete the following tasks:

·     Enable L2VPN.

·     Create the VSI to be specified as the 802.1X guest VSI, and create a VXLAN for the VSI.

·     Enable MAC-based traffic match mode for dynamic ACs.

For more information, see VXLAN Configuration Guide.

Configuration procedure

To configure the 802.1X guest VSI on a port:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.     Configure the 802.1X guest VSI on the port.

dot1x guest-vsi guest-vsi-name

By default, no 802.1X guest VSI exists.

 

Enabling 802.1X guest VSI assignment delay

Overview

This feature delays assigning an 802.1X-enabled port to the 802.1X guest VSI when 802.1X authentication is triggered on the port.

This feature applies only to situations where 802.1X authentication is triggered by EAPOL-Start packets from 802.1X clients or packets from unknown MAC addresses.

To use this feature, the 802.1X-enabled port must perform MAC-based access control.

When 802.1X authentication is triggered on a port, the device performs the following operations:

1.     Sends a unicast EAP-Request/Identity packet to the MAC address that triggers the authentication.

2.     Retransmits the packet if no response is received within the username request timeout interval set by using the dot1x timer tx-period command.

3.     Assigns the port to the 802.1X guest VSI after the maximum number of request attempts set by using the dot1x retry command is reached.

This feature can work with the parallel processing of MAC authentication and 802.1X authentication feature when a port performs a combination of 802.1X and MAC authentication. The collaboration facilitates the port to perform MAC authentication before it is assigned to the 802.1X guest VSI. For information about the parallel processing of MAC authentication and 802.1X authentication feature, see "Configuring MAC authentication."

Configuration procedure

To enable 802.1X guest VSI assignment delay on a port:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.     Enable 802.1X guest VSI assignment delay on the port.

dot1x guest-vsi-delay { eapol | new-mac }

By default, 802.1X guest VSI assignment delay is disabled on a port.

 

Configuring an 802.1X Auth-Fail VSI

Configuration restrictions and guidelines

You can configure only one 802.1X Auth-Fail VSI on a port. The 802.1X Auth-Fail VSIs on different ports can be different.

Only ports that perform MAC-based access control support the 802.1X Auth-Fail VSI.

Configuration prerequisites

Before you configure the 802.1X Auth-Fail VSI on an 802.1X-enabled port, complete the following tasks:

·     Enable L2VPN.

·     Create the VSI to be specified as the 802.1X Auth-Fail VSI, and create a VXLAN for the VSI.

·     Enable MAC-based traffic match mode for dynamic ACs.

For more information, see VXLAN Configuration Guide.

Configuration procedure

To configure the 802.1X Auth-Fail VSI on a port:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.     Configure the 802.1X Auth-Fail VSI on the port.

dot1x auth-fail vsi authfail-vsi-name

By default, no 802.1X Auth-Fail VSI exists.

 

Configuring an 802.1X critical VSI

Configuration restrictions and guidelines

You can configure only one 802.1X critical VSI on a port. The 802.1X critical VSIs on different ports can be different.

Only ports that perform MAC-based access control support the 802.1X critical VSI.

Configuration prerequisites

Before you configure the 802.1X critical VSI on an 802.1X-enabled port, complete the following tasks:

·     Enable L2VPN.

·     Create the VSI to be specified as the 802.1X critical VSI, and create a VXLAN for the VSI.

·     Enable MAC-based traffic match mode for dynamic ACs.

For more information, see VXLAN Configuration Guide.

Configuration procedure

To configure the 802.1X critical VSI on a port:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.     Configure the 802.1X critical VSI on the port.

dot1x critical vsi critical-vsi-name

By default, no 802.1X critical VSI exists.

 

Specifying supported domain name delimiters

By default, the access device supports the at sign (@) as the delimiter. You can also configure the access device to accommodate 802.1X users that use other domain name delimiters. The configurable delimiters include the at sign (@), backslash (\), dot (.), and forward slash (/). Usernames that include domain names can use the format of username@domain-name, domain-name\username, username.domain-name, or username/domain-name.

If an 802.1X username string contains multiple configured delimiters, the rightmost delimiter is the domain name delimiter. For example, if you configure the backslash (\), dot (.), and forward slash (/) as delimiters, the domain name delimiter for the username string 121.123/22\@abc is the backslash (\). The username is @abc and the domain name is 121.123/22.

If a username string contains none of the delimiters, the access device authenticates the user in the mandatory or default ISP domain.

To specify a set of domain name delimiters:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Specify a set of domain name delimiters for 802.1X users.

dot1x domain-delimiter string

By default, only the at sign (@) delimiter is supported.

 

 

NOTE:

If you configure the access device to send usernames with domain names to the RADIUS server, make sure the domain delimiter can be recognized by the RADIUS server. For username format configuration, see the user-name-format command in Security Command Reference.

 

Enabling 802.1X user IP freezing

This feature works with the IP source guard feature. 802.1X-based IP source guard requires that 802.1X clients support sending user IP addresses to the access device. The device uses information such as user MAC addresses and IP addresses obtained through 802.1X to generate IPSG bindings to filter out IPv4 packets from unauthenticated 802.1X users. For information about IP source guard, see "Configuring IP source guard."

This feature prevents any authenticated 802.1X users on a port from changing their IP addresses. After you enable this feature, the port does not update the IP addresses in dynamic IPSG bindings for 802.1X users. If an 802.1X user uses an IP address different from the IP address in its IPSG binding entry, the port denies the user access.

To enable 802.1X user IP freezing:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.     Enable 802.1X user IP freezing.

dot1x user-ip freeze

By default, 802.1X user IP freezing is disabled.

 

Removing the VLAN tags of 802.1X protocol packets sent out of a port

Overview

This feature operates on a hybrid port to have it send 802.1X protocol packets with their VLAN tags removed, regardless of whether the port is a tagged or untagged member of a VLAN.

Use this feature if the 802.1X-enabled hybrid port is a tagged member of its PVID and the attached 802.1X clients cannot recognize VLAN-tagged 802.1X protocol packets.

Configuration restrictions and guidelines

This feature removes the VLAN tags of all 802.1X protocol packets sent out of the port to 802.1X clients. Do not use this feature if VLAN-aware 802.1X clients are attached to the port.

Configuration prerequisites

Set the link type of the 802.1X-enabled port to hybrid. For more information, see VLAN configuration in Layer 2 LAN Switching Configuration Guide.

Configuration procedure

To remove the VLAN tags of all 802.1X protocol packets sent out of the port to 802.1X clients:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.     Remove the VLAN tags of all 802.1X protocol packets sent out of the port to 802.1X clients.

dot1x eapol untag

By default, whether the device removes the VLAN tags of all 802.1X protocol packets sent out of a port to 802.1X clients depends on the configuration in the VLAN module.

 

Setting the maximum number of 802.1X authentication attempts for MAC authenticated users

When a port uses both 802.1X authentication and MAC authentication, the device accepts 802.1X authentication requests from MAC authenticated users. If a MAC authenticated user passes 802.1X authentication, the user will come online as an 802.1X user. If the user fails 802.1X authentication, the user continues to make 802.1X authentication attempts depending on client configuration.

Perform this task to limit the number of 802.1X authentication attempts made by a MAC authenticated user.

To set the maximum number of 802.1X authentication attempts for MAC authenticated users on a port:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.     Set the maximum number of 802.1X authentication attempts for MAC authenticated users on the port.

dot1x after-mac-auth max-attempt max-attempts

By default, the number of 802.1X authentication attempts for MAC authenticated users is not limited on a port.

 

Configuring 802.1X MAC address binding

Overview

This feature can automatically bind MAC addresses of authenticated 802.1X users to the users' access port and generate 802.1X MAC address binding entries. You can also use the dot1x mac-binding mac-address command to manually add 802.1X MAC address binding entries.

802.1X MAC address binding entries never age out. They can survive a user logoff or a device reboot. If users in the 802.1X MAC address binding entries perform 802.1X authentication on another port, they cannot pass authentication.

Configuration restrictions and guidelines

When you configure the 802.1X MAC address binding feature on a port, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·     The 802.1X MAC address binding feature takes effect only when the port performs MAC-based access control.

·     To delete an 802.1X MAC address binding entry, you must use the undo dot1x mac-binding mac-address command. An 802.1X MAC address binding entry cannot be deleted when the user in the entry is online.

·     After the number of 802.1X MAC address binding entries reaches the upper limit of concurrent 802.1X users (set by using the dot1x max-user command), the following restrictions exist:

¡     Users not in the binding entries will fail authentication even after users in the binding entries go offline.

¡     New 802.1X MAC address binding entries are not allowed.

Configuration procedure

To configure the 802.1X MAC address binding feature on a port:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

N/A

3.     Enable the 802.1X MAC address binding feature.

dot1x mac-binding enable

By default, the feature is disabled.

4.     (Optional.) Manually add an 802.1X MAC address binding entry.

dot1x mac-binding mac-address

By default, no 802.1X MAC address binding entries exist on a port.

 

Configuring the EAD assistant feature

When you configure the EAD assistant feature, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·     You must disable MAC authentication and port security globally before you enable the EAD assistant feature.

·     To make the EAD assistant feature take effect on an 802.1X-enabled port, you must set the port authorization mode to auto.

·     For the 802.1X guest VLAN or guest VSI feature to work correctly, do not enable EAD assistant together with the 802.1X guest VLAN or guest VSI feature.

·     When global MAC authentication or port security is enabled, the free IP does not take effect.

·     If you use the free IP and Auth-Fail VLAN features together, make sure the resources in the Auth-Fail VLAN are on the free IP segments.

·     To allow a user to obtain a dynamic IP address before it passes 802.1X authentication, make sure the DHCP server is on the free IP segment.

·     The server that provides the redirect URL must be on the free IP accessible to unauthenticated users.

·     To avoid using up ACL resources when a large number of EAD users exist, you can shorten the EAD rule timer.

To configure the EAD assistant feature:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Enable the EAD assistant feature.

dot1x ead-assistant enable

By default, this feature is disabled.

3.     Configure a free IP.

dot1x ead-assistant free-ip ip-address { mask-length | mask-address }

By default, no free IPs exist.

4.     (Optional.) Configure the redirect URL.

dot1x ead-assistant url url-string

By default, no redirect URL exists.

Configure the redirect URL if users will use Web browsers to access the network.

To redirect the HTTPS requests of 802.1X users, specify the HTTPS redirect listening port on the device. For more information, see HTTP redirect in Layer 3IP Services Configuration Guide.

5.     (Optional.) Set the EAD rule timer.

dot1x timer ead-timeout ead-timeout-value

The default setting is 30 minutes.

 

Enabling logging for 802.1X users

Overview

This feature enables the device to generate logs for 802.1X users and send the logs to the information center. For the logs to be output correctly, you must also configure the information center on the device. For more information about information center configuration, see Network Management and Monitoring Configuration Guide.

Configuration restrictions and guidelines

As a best practice, disable this feature to prevent excessive output of logs for 802.1X users.

Configuration procedure

To enable logging for 802.1X users:

 

Step

Command

Remarks

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

N/A

2.     Enable logging for 802.1X users.

dot1x access-user log enable [ abnormal-logoff | failed-login | normal-logoff | successful-login ] *

By default, all types of logging are disabled for 802.1X users.

If you do not specify any parameters, this command enables all types of logging for 802.1X users.

 

Displaying and maintaining 802.1X

Execute display commands in any view and reset commands in user view.

 

Task

Command

Display 802.1X session information, statistics, or configuration information of specified or all ports.

display dot1x [ sessions | statistics ] [ interface interface-type interface-number ]

(In standalone mode.) Display online 802.1X user information.

display dot1x connection [ open ] [ interface interface-type interface-number | slot slot-number | user-mac mac-address | user-name name-string ]

(In IRF mode.) Display online 802.1X user information.

display dot1x connection [ open ] [ chassis chassis-number slot slot-number | interface interface-type interface-number | user-mac mac-address | user-name name-string ]

Display MAC address information of 802.1X users in specific 802.1X VLANs or VSIs.

display dot1x mac-address { auth-fail-vlan | auth-fail-vsi | critical-vlan | critical-vsi | guest-vlan | guest-vsi } [ interface interface-type interface-number ]

Clear 802.1X statistics.

reset dot1x statistics [ interface interface-type interface-number ]

Remove users from the 802.1X guest VLAN on a port.

reset dot1x guest-vlan interface interface-type interface-number [ mac-address mac-address ]

Remove users from the 802.1X guest VSI on a port.

reset dot1x guest-vsi interface interface-type interface-number [ mac-address mac-address ]

 

802.1X authentication configuration examples

Basic 802.1X authentication configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 12, the access device performs 802.1X authentication for users that connect to GigabitEthernet 1/0/1. Implement MAC-based access control on the port, so the logoff of one user does not affect other online 802.1X users.

Use RADIUS servers to perform authentication, authorization, and accounting for the 802.1X users. If RADIUS authentication fails, perform local authentication on the access device.

Configure the RADIUS server at 10.1.1.1/24 as the primary authentication and accounting server, and the RADIUS server at 10.1.1.2/24 as the secondary authentication and accounting server. Assign all users to the ISP domain bbb.

Set the shared key to name for packets between the access device and the authentication server. Set the shared key to money for packets between the access device and the accounting server.

Figure 12 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

For information about the RADIUS commands used on the access device in this example, see Security Command Reference.

1.     Configure the RADIUS servers and add user accounts for the 802.1X users. Make sure the RADIUS servers can provide authentication, authorization, and accounting services. (Details not shown.)

2.     Assign an IP address to each interface. (Details not shown.)

3.     Configure user accounts for the 802.1X users on the access device:

# Add a local network access user with username localuser and password localpass in plaintext. (Make sure the username and password are the same as those configured on the RADIUS servers.)

<Device> system-view

[Device] local-user localuser class network

[Device-luser-network-localuser] password simple localpass

# Set the service type to lan-access.

[Device-luser-network-localuser] service-type lan-access

[Device-luser-network-localuser] quit

4.     Configure a RADIUS scheme on the access device:

# Create a RADIUS scheme named radius1 and enter RADIUS scheme view.

[Device] radius scheme radius1

# Specify the IP addresses of the primary authentication and accounting RADIUS servers.

[Device-radius-radius1] primary authentication 10.1.1.1

[Device-radius-radius1] primary accounting 10.1.1.1

# Configure the IP addresses of the secondary authentication and accounting RADIUS servers.

[Device-radius-radius1] secondary authentication 10.1.1.2

[Device-radius-radius1] secondary accounting 10.1.1.2

# Specify the shared key between the access device and the authentication server.

[Device-radius-radius1] key authentication simple name

# Specify the shared key between the access device and the accounting server.

[Device-radius-radius1] key accounting simple money

# Exclude the ISP domain names from the usernames sent to the RADIUS servers.

[Device-radius-radius1] user-name-format without-domain

[Device-radius-radius1] quit

 

 

NOTE:

The access device must use the same username format as the RADIUS server. If the RADIUS server includes the ISP domain name in the username, so must the access device.

 

5.     Configure an ISP domain on the access device:

# Create an ISP domain named bbb and enter ISP domain view.

[Device] domain bbb

# Apply RADIUS scheme radius1 to the ISP domain, and specify local authentication as the secondary authentication method.

[Device-isp-bbb] authentication lan-access radius-scheme radius1 local

[Device-isp-bbb] authorization lan-access radius-scheme radius1 local

[Device-isp-bbb] accounting lan-access radius-scheme radius1 local

[Device-isp-bbb] quit

6.     Configure 802.1X on the access device:

# Enable 802.1X on GigabitEthernet 1/0/1.

[Device] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] dot1x

# Enable MAC-based access control on the port. By default, the port uses MAC-based access control.

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] dot1x port-method macbased

# Specify ISP domain bbb as the mandatory domain.

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] dot1x mandatory-domain bbb

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit

# Enable 802.1X globally.

[Device] dot1x

7.     Configure the 802.1X client. If an iNode client is used, do not select the Carry version info option in the client configuration. (Details not shown.)

Verifying the configuration

# Verify the 802.1X configuration on GigabitEthernet 1/0/1.

[Device] display dot1x interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1

# Display the user connection information after an 802.1X user passes authentication.

[Device] display dot1x connection

802.1X guest VLAN and authorization VLAN configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 13, use RADIUS servers to perform authentication, authorization, and accounting for 802.1X users that connect to GigabitEthernet 1/0/2. Implement port-based access control on the port.

Configure VLAN 10 as the 802.1X guest VLAN on GigabitEthernet 1/0/2. The host and the update server are both in VLAN 10, and the host can access the update server and download the 802.1X client software.

After the host passes 802.1X authentication, the access device assigns the host to VLAN 5 where GigabitEthernet 1/0/3 is. The host can access the Internet.

Figure 13 Network diagram

Configuration procedure

For information about the RADIUS commands used on the access device in this example, see Security Command Reference.

1.     Configure the RADIUS server to provide authentication, authorization, and accounting services. Configure user accounts and authorization VLAN (VLAN 5 in this example) for the users. (Details not shown.)

2.     Create VLANs, and assign ports to the VLANs on the access device.

<Device> system-view

[Device] vlan 1

[Device-vlan1] port gigabitethernet 1/0/2

[Device-vlan1] quit

[Device] vlan 10

[Device-vlan10] port gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[Device-vlan10] quit

[Device] vlan 2

[Device-vlan2] port gigabitethernet 1/0/4

[Device-vlan2] quit

[Device] vlan 5

[Device-vlan5] port gigabitethernet 1/0/3

[Device-vlan5] quit

3.     Configure a RADIUS scheme on the access device:

# Create RADIUS scheme 2000 and enter RADIUS scheme view.

[Device] radius scheme 2000

# Specify the server at 10.11.1.1 as the primary authentication server, and set the authentication port to 1812.

[Device-radius-2000] primary authentication 10.11.1.1 1812

# Specify the server at 10.11.1.1 as the primary accounting server, and set the accounting port to 1813.

[Device-radius-2000] primary accounting 10.11.1.1 1813

# Set the shared key to abc in plain text for secure communication between the authentication server and the device.

[Device-radius-2000] key authentication simple abc

# Set the shared key to abc in plain text for secure communication between the accounting server and the device.

[Device-radius-2000] key accounting simple abc

# Exclude the ISP domain names from the usernames sent to the RADIUS server.

[Device-radius-2000] user-name-format without-domain

[Device-radius-2000] quit

4.     Configure an ISP domain on the access device:

# Create ISP domain bbb and enter ISP domain view.

[Device] domain bbb

# Apply RADIUS scheme 2000 to the ISP domain for authentication, authorization, and accounting.

[Device-isp-bbb] authentication lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] authorization lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] accounting lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] quit

5.     Configure 802.1X on the access device:

# Enable 802.1X on GigabitEthernet 1/0/2.

[Device] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/2

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] dot1x

# Implement port-based access control on the port.

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] dot1x port-method portbased

# Set the port authorization mode to auto. By default, the port uses the auto mode.

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] dot1x port-control auto

# Specify VLAN 10 as the 802.1X guest VLAN on GigabitEthernet 1/0/2.

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] dot1x guest-vlan 10

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] quit

# Enable 802.1X globally.

[Device] dot1x

6.     Configure the 802.1X client. Make sure the 802.1X client can update its IP address after the access port is assigned to the guest VLAN or an authorization VLAN. (Details not shown.)

Verifying the configuration

# Verify the 802.1X guest VLAN configuration on GigabitEthernet 1/0/2.

[Device] display dot1x interface gigabitethernet 1/0/2

# Verify that GigabitEthernet 1/0/2 is assigned to VLAN 10 before any user passes authentication on the port.

[Device] display vlan 10

# After a user passes authentication, display information on GigabitEthernet 1/0/2. Verify that GigabitEthernet 1/0/2 is assigned to VLAN 5.

[Device] display interface gigabitethernet 1/0/2

802.1X with ACL assignment configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 14, the host that connects to GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 must pass 802.1X authentication to access the Internet.

Perform 802.1X authentication on GigabitEthernet 1/0/1. Use the RADIUS server at 10.1.1.1 as the authentication and authorization server, and the RADIUS server at 10.1.1.2 as the accounting server.

Configure ACL assignment on GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 to deny access of 802.1X users to the FTP server from 8:00 to 18:00 on weekdays.

Figure 14 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

For information about the RADIUS commands used on the access device in this example, see Security Command Reference.

1.     Configure the RADIUS servers to provide authentication, authorization, and accounting services. Add user accounts and specify the ACL (ACL 3000 in this example) for the users. (Details not shown.)

2.     Assign an IP address to each interface, as shown in Figure 14. (Details not shown.)

3.     Configure a RADIUS scheme on the access device:

# Create RADIUS scheme 2000 and enter RADIUS scheme view.

<Device> system-view

[Device] radius scheme 2000

# Specify the server at 10.1.1.1 as the primary authentication server, and set the authentication port to 1812.

[Device-radius-2000] primary authentication 10.1.1.1 1812

# Specify the server at 10.1.1.2 as the primary accounting server, and set the accounting port to 1813.

[Device-radius-2000] primary accounting 10.1.1.2 1813

# Set the shared key to abc in plain text for secure communication between the authentication server and the device.

[Device-radius-2000] key authentication simple abc

# Set the shared key to abc in plain text for secure communication between the accounting server and the device.

[Device-radius-2000] key accounting simple abc

# Exclude the ISP domain names from the usernames sent to the RADIUS server.

[Device-radius-2000] user-name-format without-domain

[Device-radius-2000] quit

4.     Configure an ISP domain on the access device:

# Create ISP domain bbb and enter ISP domain view.

[Device] domain bbb

# Apply RADIUS scheme 2000 to the ISP domain for authentication, authorization, and accounting.

[Device-isp-bbb] authentication lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] authorization lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] accounting lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] quit

5.     Configure a time range named ftp from 8:00 to 18:00 on weekdays on the access device.

[Device] time-range ftp 8:00 to 18:00 working-day

6.     Configure ACL 3000 to deny packets destined for the FTP server at 10.0.0.1 during the specified time range on the access device.

[Device] acl advanced 3000

[Device-acl-ipv4-adv-3000] rule 0 deny ip destination 10.0.0.1 0 time-range ftp

[Device-acl-ipv4-adv-3000] quit

7.     Configure 802.1X on the access device:

# Enable 802.1X on GigabitEthernet 1/0/1.

[Device] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] dot1x

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit

# Enable 802.1X globally.

[Device] dot1x

8.     Configure the 802.1X client. Make sure the client is able to update its IP address after the access port is assigned to the 802.1X guest VLAN or an authorization VLAN. (Details not shown.)

Verifying the configuration

# Use the user account to pass authentication. (Details not shown.)

# Verify that the user cannot ping the FTP server at any time from 8:00 to 18:00 on any weekday.

C:\>ping 10.0.0.1

 

Pinging 10.0.0.1 with 32 bytes of data:

 

Request timed out.

Request timed out.

Request timed out.

Request timed out.

 

Ping statistics for 10.0.0.1:

    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 0, Lost = 4 (100% loss),

The output shows that ACL 3000 is active on the user, and the user cannot access the FTP server.

802.1X guest VSI and authorization VSI configuration example

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 15:

·     The device acts as both a VXLAN VTEP and a network access device. It uses the RADIUS server to perform authentication, authorization, and accounting for 802.1X users that connect to GigabitEthernet 1/0/2.

·     GigabitEthernet 1/0/2 uses MAC-based access control and is configured with the 802.1X guest VSI. VXLAN 10 is created on the guest VSI. Users in the guest VSI can access the update server in VXLAN 10 and download the 802.1X client software.

·     The RADIUS server assigns an authorization VSI to the host. The VSI is associated with VXLAN 5 on the device. After passing authentication, the host can access the Internet.

Figure 15 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

For information about the RADIUS commands used on the access device in this example, see Security Command Reference.

1.     Configure the RADIUS server to provide authentication, authorization, and accounting services. Configure user accounts and authorization VSI (VSI vpn5 in this example) for the users. (Details not shown.)

If an H3C ADCAM server is used for authentication and authorization, configure VSIs on the server. The server will assign these VSIs to the device. You do not need to configure VSIs on the device.

2.     Enable L2VPN on the access device.

<Device> system-view

[Device] l2vpn enable

3.     Create VSIs and the corresponding VXLANs on the access device.

[Device] vsi vpn10

[Device-vsi-vpn10] vxlan 10

[Device-vsi-vpn10-vxlan-10] quit

[Device-vsi-vpn10] quit

[Device] vsi vpn5

[Device-vsi-vpn5] vxlan 5

[Device-vsi-vpn5-vxlan-5] quit

[Device-vsi-vpn5] quit

4.     Configure a RADIUS scheme on the access device:

# Create RADIUS scheme 2000 and enter RADIUS scheme view.

[Device] radius scheme 2000

# Specify the server at 10.11.1.1 as the primary authentication server, and set the authentication port to 1812.

[Device-radius-2000] primary authentication 10.11.1.1 1812

# Specify the server at 10.11.1.1 as the primary accounting server, and set the accounting port to 1813.

[Device-radius-2000] primary accounting 10.11.1.1 1813

# Set the shared key to abc in plain text for secure communication between the authentication server and the device.

[Device-radius-2000] key authentication simple abc

# Set the shared key to abc in plain text for secure communication between the accounting server and the device.

[Device-radius-2000] key accounting simple abc

# Exclude the ISP domain names from the usernames sent to the authentication and accounting servers.

[Device-radius-2000] user-name-format without-domain

[Device-radius-2000] quit

5.     Configure an ISP domain on the access device:

# Create ISP domain bbb and enter ISP domain view.

[Device] domain bbb

# Apply RADIUS scheme 2000 to the ISP domain for authentication, authorization, and accounting of LAN users.

[Device-isp-bbb] authentication lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] authorization lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] accounting lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] quit

6.     Configure 802.1X on the access device:

# Enable 802.1X on GigabitEthernet 1/0/2.

[Device] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/2

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] dot1x

# Set the port authorization mode to auto. By default, the port uses the auto mode.

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] dot1x port-control auto

# Enable MAC-based traffic match mode for dynamic Ethernet service instances on GigabitEthernet 1/0/2.

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] mac-based ac

# Enable 802.1X unicast trigger on GigabitEthernet 1/0/2.

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] dot1x unicast-trigger

# Specify VSI vpn10 as the 802.1X guest VSI on GigabitEthernet 1/0/2.

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] dot1x guest-vsi vpn10

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] quit

# Enable 802.1X globally.

[Device] dot1x

7.     Configure the 802.1X client. Make sure the 802.1X client can update its IP address after the access port is assigned to the guest VSI or an authorization VSI. (Details not shown.)

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that GigabitEthernet 1/0/2 is assigned to VSI vpn10 if no responses are received from the client after 802.1X authentication is triggered.

[Device] display l2vpn forwarding ac verbose

# Verify that GigabitEthernet 1/0/2 is assigned to VSI vpn5 after a user passes authentication on the port.

[Device] display l2vpn forwarding ac verbose

802.1X with EAD assistant configuration example (with DHCP relay agent)

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 16:

·     The intranet 192.168.1.0/24 is attached to GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 of the access device.

·     The hosts use DHCP to obtain IP addresses.

·     A DHCP server and a Web server are deployed on the 192.168.2.0/24 subnet for users to obtain IP addresses and download client software.

Deploy an EAD solution for the intranet to meet the following requirements:

·     Allow unauthenticated users and users that have failed 802.1X authentication to access 192.168.2.0/24. The users can obtain IP addresses and download software.

·     If these users use a Web browser to access a network other than 192.168.2.0/24, redirect them to the Web server for 802.1X client downloading.

·     Allow authenticated 802.1X users to access the network.

Figure 16 Network diagram

Configuration procedure

1.     Make sure the DHCP server, the Web server, and the authentication servers have been configured correctly. (Details not shown.)

2.     Configure an IP address for each interface. (Details not shown.)

3.     Configure DHCP relay:

# Enable DHCP.

<Device> system-view

[Device] dhcp enable

# Enable the DHCP relay agent on VLAN-interface 2.

[Device] interface vlan-interface 2

[Device-Vlan-interface2] dhcp select relay

# Specify the DHCP server 192.168.2.2 on the relay agent interface VLAN-interface 2.

[Device-Vlan-interface2] dhcp relay server-address 192.168.2.2

[Device-Vlan-interface2] quit

4.     Configure a RADIUS scheme:

# Create RADIUS scheme 2000 and enter RADIUS scheme view.

[Device] radius scheme 2000

# Specify the server at 10.1.1.1 as the primary authentication server, and set the authentication port to 1812.

[Device-radius-2000] primary authentication 10.1.1.1 1812

# Specify the server at 10.1.1.2 as the primary accounting server, and set the accounting port to 1813.

[Device-radius-2000] primary accounting 10.1.1.2 1813

# Set the shared key to abc in plain text for secure communication between the authentication server and the device.

[Device-radius-2000] key authentication simple abc

# Set the shared key to abc in plain text for secure communication between the accounting server and the device.

[Device-radius-2000] key accounting simple abc

# Exclude the ISP domain names from the usernames sent to the RADIUS server.

[Device-radius-2000] user-name-format without-domain

[Device-radius-2000] quit

5.     Configure an ISP domain:

# Create ISP domain bbb and enter ISP domain view.

[Device] domain bbb

# Apply RADIUS scheme 2000 to the ISP domain for authentication, authorization, and accounting.

[Device-isp-bbb] authentication lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] authorization lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] accounting lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] quit

6.     Configure 802.1X:

# Configure the free IP.

[Device] dot1x ead-assistant free-ip 192.168.2.0 24

# Configure the redirect URL for client software download.

[Device] dot1x ead-assistant url http://192.168.2.3

# Enable the EAD assistant feature.

[Device] dot1x ead-assistant enable

# Enable 802.1X on GigabitEthernet 1/0/1.

[Device] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] dot1x

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit

# Enable 802.1X globally.

[Device] dot1x

Verifying the configuration

# Verify the 802.1X configuration.

[Device] display dot1x

# Verify that you can ping an IP address on the free IP subnet from a host.

C:\>ping 192.168.2.3

 

Pinging 192.168.2.3 with 32 bytes of data:

 

Reply from 192.168.2.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128

Reply from 192.168.2.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128

Reply from 192.168.2.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128

Reply from 192.168.2.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128

 

Ping statistics for 192.168.2.3:

    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),

Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:

    Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms

The output shows that you can access the free IP subnet before passing 802.1X authentication.

# Verify that you are redirected to the Web server when you enter in your Web browser an IP address not on the free IP. (Details not shown.)

802.1X with EAD assistant configuration example (with DHCP server)

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 17:

·     The intranet 192.168.1.0/24 is attached to GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 of the access device.

·     The hosts use DHCP to obtain IP addresses.

·     A Web server is deployed on the 192.168.2.0/24 subnet for users to download client software.

Deploy an EAD solution for the intranet to meet the following requirements:

·     Allow unauthenticated users and users that have failed 802.1X authentication to access 192.168.2.0/24. The users can download software.

·     If these users use a Web browser to access a network other than 192.168.2.0/24, redirect them to the Web server for 802.1X client downloading.

·     Allow authenticated 802.1X users to access the network.

Figure 17 Network diagram

 

Configuration procedure

1.     Make sure the Web server and the authentication servers have been configured correctly. (Details not shown.)

2.     Configure an IP address for each interface. (Details not shown.)

3.     Configure the DHCP server:

# Enable DHCP.

<Device> system-view

[Device] dhcp enable

# Enable the DHCP server on VLAN-interface 2.

[Device] interface vlan-interface 2

[Device-Vlan-interface2] dhcp select server

[Device-Vlan-interface2] quit

# Create DHCP address pool 0.

[Device] dhcp server ip-pool 0

# Specify subnet 192.168.1.0/24 in DHCP address pool 0.

[Device-dhcp-pool-0] network 192.168.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0

# Specify the gateway address 192.168.1.1 in DHCP address pool 0.

[Device-dhcp-pool-0] gateway-list 192.168.1.1

[Device-dhcp-pool-0] quit

4.     Configure a RADIUS scheme:

# Create RADIUS scheme 2000 and enter RADIUS scheme view.

[Device] radius scheme 2000

# Specify the server at 10.1.1.1 as the primary authentication server, and set the authentication port to 1812.

[Device-radius-2000] primary authentication 10.1.1.1 1812

# Specify the server at 10.1.1.2 as the primary accounting server, and set the accounting port to 1813.

[Device-radius-2000] primary accounting 10.1.1.2 1813

# Set the shared key to abc in plain text for secure communication between the authentication server and the device.

[Device-radius-2000] key authentication simple abc

# Set the shared key to abc in plain text for secure communication between the accounting server and the device.

[Device-radius-2000] key accounting simple abc

# Exclude the ISP domain names from the usernames sent to the RADIUS server.

[Device-radius-2000] user-name-format without-domain

[Device-radius-2000] quit

5.     Configure an ISP domain:

# Create ISP domain bbb and enter ISP domain view.

[Device] domain bbb

# Apply RADIUS scheme 2000 to the ISP domain for authentication, authorization, and accounting.

[Device-isp-bbb] authentication lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] authorization lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] accounting lan-access radius-scheme 2000

[Device-isp-bbb] quit

6.     Configure 802.1X:

# Configure the free IP.

[Device] dot1x ead-assistant free-ip 192.168.2.0 24

# Configure the redirect URL for client software download.

[Device] dot1x ead-assistant url http://192.168.2.3

# Enable the EAD assistant feature.

[Device] dot1x ead-assistant enable

# Enable 802.1X on GigabitEthernet 1/0/1.

[Device] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] dot1x

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit

# Enable 802.1X globally.

[Device] dot1x

Verifying the configuration

# Verify the 802.1X configuration.

[Device] display dot1x

# Verify that you can ping an IP address on the free IP subnet from a host.

C:\>ping 192.168.2.3

 

Pinging 192.168.2.3 with 32 bytes of data:

 

Reply from 192.168.2.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128

Reply from 192.168.2.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128

Reply from 192.168.2.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128

Reply from 192.168.2.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128

 

Ping statistics for 192.168.2.3:

    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),

Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:

    Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms

The output shows that you can access the free IP subnet before passing 802.1X authentication.

# Verify that you are redirected to the Web server when you enter in your Web browser an IP address not on the free IP. (Details not shown.)

Troubleshooting 802.1X

EAD assistant URL redirection failure

Symptom

Unauthenticated users are not redirected to the specified redirect URL after they enter external website addresses in their Web browsers.

Analysis

Redirection will not happen for one of the following reasons:

·     The address is in the string format. The operating system of the host regards the string as a website name and tries to resolve the string. If the resolution fails, the operating system sends an ARP request, but the target address is not in the dotted decimal notation. The redirection feature does redirect this kind of ARP request.

·     The address is within a free IP segment. No redirection will take place, even if no host is present with the address.

·     The redirect URL is not in a free IP segment.

·     No server is using the redirect URL, or the server with the URL does not provide Web services.

Solution

To resolve the issue:

1.     Enter a dotted decimal IP address that is not in any free IP segments.

2.     Verify that the access device and the server are configured correctly.

3.     If the issue persists, contact H3C Support.