01-Fundamentals Configuration Guide

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05-File system management configuration
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Managing file systems

This chapter describes how to manage file systems.

About file system management

Storage media and file systems

The device supports both fixed and hot swappable storage media. Each storage medium has one file system.

The following matrix shows the supported storage media on different devices:

 

Model

Fixed storage media

Hot-swappable storage media

WA530X

Flash memory

Not supported

WA536

Flash memory

Not supported

WA538

Flash memory

USB disk

WA5330

Flash memory

Not supported

WA5530i

Flash memory

Not supported

WA5530X

Flash memory

Not supported

Storage medium and file system naming conventions

The file system on the flash memory has the same name as the flash memory. The name has the following parts:

·           Storage medium type flash.

·           Colon (:).

A USB disk name and the file system names share the following parts:

·           Storage medium type usb.

·           Sequence number, a lower-case English letter such as a, b, or c.

·           Colon (:).

 

IMPORTANT

IMPORTANT:

File system names are case sensitive and must be entered in lower case.

Default file system

You are working with the default file system by default after you log in. To specify a file or directory on the default file system, you do not need to specify the file system name. For example, you do not need to specify any location information if you want to save the running configuration to the root directory of the default file system.

Directories

Directories in a file system are structured in a tree form.

Root directory

The root directory is represented by a forwarding slash (/). For example, flash:/ represents the root directory of the flash memory.

Working directory

The working directory is also called the current directory.

Directory naming conventions

When you specify a name for a directory, follow these conventions:

·           A directory name can contain letters, digits, and special characters except for asterisks (*), vertical bars (|), forward slashes (/), backward slashes (\), question marks (?), left angle brackets (<), right angle brackets (>), quotation marks ("), and colons (:).

·           A directory whose name starts with a dot character (.) is a hidden directory. To prevent the system from hiding a directory, make sure the directory name does not start with a dot character.

Commonly used directories

The device has some factory-default directories. The system automatically creates directories during operation. These directories include:

·           diagfile—Stores diagnostic information files.

·           logfile—Stores log files.

·           seclog—Stores security log files.

·           versionInfo—Stores software version information files.

Files

File naming conventions

When you specify a name for a file, follow these conventions:

·           A file name can contain letters, digits, and special characters except for asterisks (*), vertical bars (|), forward slashes (/), backward slashes (\), question marks (?), left angle brackets (<), right angle brackets (>), quotation marks ("), and colons (:).

·           A file whose name starts with a dot character (.) is a hidden file. To prevent the system from hiding a file, make sure the file name does not start with a dot character.

Common file types

The device has some factory-default files and might create some files automatically during operation. The types of these files include:

·           .ipe file—Compressed software image package file.

·           .bin file—Software image file.

·           .cfg file—Configuration file.

·           .mdb file—Binary configuration file.

·           .log file—Log file.

Specifying a directory name or file name

Specifying a directory name

To specify a directory, you can use the absolute path or a relative path. For example, the working directory is flash:/. To specify the test2 directory in Figure 1, you can use the following methods:

·           flash:/test/test1/test2 (absolute path)

·           flash:/test/test1/test2/ (absolute path)

·           test/test1/test2 (relative path)

·           test/test1/test2/ (relative path)

Figure 1 Sample directory hierarchy

Specifying a file name

To specify a file, use the following methods:

·           Enter the absolute path of the file and the file name in the format of filesystem/directory1/directory2//directoryn/filename, where directoryn is the directory in which the file resides.

·           Enter the relative path of the file and the file name.

For example, the working directory is flash:/. The samplefile.cfg file is in the test2 directory shown in Figure 1. To specify the file, you can use the following methods:

·           flash:/test/test1/test2/samplefile.cfg

·           test/test1/test2/samplefile.cfg

Restrictions and guidelines: File system management

To avoid file system corruption, do not install or remove storage media during file system management.

Make sure a USB disk is not write protected before an operation that requires the write right on the disk.

You cannot access a file system that is being formatted or repaired.

Before managing file systems, directories, and files, make sure you know the possible impact.

Managing storage media and file systems

Formatting a file system

Restrictions and guidelines

Formatting a file system permanently deletes all files and directories in the file system. You cannot restore the deleted files or directories.

You can format a file system only when no other users are accessing the file system.

Procedure

To format a file system, execute the following command in user view:

format filesystem

Repairing a file system

Restrictions and guidelines

If part of a file system is inaccessible, use this task to examine and repair the file system.

You can repair a file system only when no other users are accessing the file system.

Procedure

To repair a file system, execute the following command in user view:

fixdisk filesystem

Managing files and directories

Setting the operation mode for files and directories

About this task

The device supports the following operation modes:

·           alert—The system prompts for confirmation when your operation might cause problems such as file corruption or data loss. This mode provides an opportunity for you to cancel a disruptive operation.

·           quiet—The system does not prompt for confirmation when you perform a file or directory operation except the recycle bin emptying operation.

Procedure

1.      Enter system view.

system-view

2.      Set the operation mode for files and directories.

file prompt { alert | quiet }

The default mode is alert.

Displaying file and directory information

To display file and directory information, execute the following command in user view:

dir [ /all ] [ file | directory | /all-filesystems ]

If multiple users perform file operations (for example, creating or deleting files or directories) at the same time, the output from this command might be incorrect.

Displaying the contents of a text file

To display the contents of a text file, execute the following command in user view:

more file

Displaying the working directory

To display the working directory, execute the following command in user view:

pwd

Changing the working directory

About this task

The default working directory is the root directory of the default file system.

Procedure

To change the working directory, execute the following command in user view:

cd { directory | .. }

Creating a directory

To create a directory, execute the following command in user view:

mkdir directory

Renaming a file or directory

To rename a file or directory, execute the following command in user view:

rename { source-file | source-directory } { dest-file | dest-directory }

Copying a file

To copy a file, execute the command in user view.

copy source-file { dest-file | dest-directory } [ source interface interface-type interface-number ]

Moving a file

To move a file, execute the following command in user view:

move source-file { dest-file | dest-directory }

Deleting and restoring files

About this task

You can delete a file permanently or move it to the recycle bin of the file system. A file moved to the recycle bin can be restored, but a permanently deleted file cannot.

Each file system has a recycle bin. A recycle bin is a directory named .trash in the root directory of the file system.

Restrictions and guidelines

Files in the recycle bin occupy storage space. To release the occupied storage space, delete files from the recycle bin.

To delete files from the recycle bin, use the reset recycle-bin command. If you use the delete command, the recycle bin might not be able to operate correctly.

To display files in a recycle bin, use one of the following methods:

·           Access the root directory of the file system and execute the dir /all .trash command.

·           Access the recycle bin directory of the file system and execute the dir command.

Deleting a file

To delete a file, execute one of the following commands in user view:

·           Delete a file by moving it to the recycle bin.

delete file

·           Delete a file permanently.

delete /unreserved file

·           Delete files from the recycle bin.

reset recycle-bin [ /force ]

Restoring a file

To restore a file from the recycle bin, execute the following command in user view:

undelete file

Deleting a directory

Restrictions and guidelines

To delete a directory, you must delete all files and subdirectories in the directory.

Deleting a directory permanently deletes all its files in the recycle bin, if any.

Procedure

To delete a directory, execute the following command in user view:

rmdir directory

Archiving files and directories

About this task

You can archive files and directories to a single file for purposes such as file backup. The original files and directories still exist.

When you archive files and directories, you can choose to compress the archive files so the archive files use less storage space.

Procedure

To archive files and directories, execute the following command in user view:

tar create [ gz ] archive-file dest-file [ verbose ] source { source-file | source-directory }&<1-5>

Extracting files and directories

About this task

Use this feature to extract files and directories from archive files.

Restrictions and guidelines

To specify the screen keyword for the tar extract command, first use the tar list command to identify the types of the archived files. As a best practice, specify the keyword only if all archived files are text files. Displaying the content of an archived non-text file that contains terminal control characters might result in garbled characters and even cause the terminal unable to operate correctly. To use the terminal again, you must close the current connection and log in to the device again.

Procedure

To extract files and directories, execute the following commands in user view:

1.      (Optional.) Display archived files and directories.

tar list archive-file file

2.      Extract files and directories.

tar extract archive-file file [ verbose ] [ screen | to directory ]

Compressing a file

To compress a file, execute the following command in user view:

gzip file

Decompressing a file

To decompress a file, execute the following command in user view:

gunzip file

Calculating the file digest

About this task

File digests are used to verify file integrity.

Procedure

To calculate the digest of a file, execute one of the following commands in user view:

·           Use the SHA-256 algorithm.

sha256sum file

·           Use the MD5 algorithm.

md5sum file