09-Security Configuration Guide

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01-AAA configuration
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Contents

Configuring AAA·· 1

About AAA· 1

AAA implementation· 1

AAA network diagram·· 1

RADIUS· 2

HWTACACS· 5

LDAP· 8

User management based on ISP domains and user access types· 11

Authentication, authorization, and accounting methods· 11

AAA for VPNs· 12

Protocols and standards· 13

AAA tasks at a glance· 13

Configuring local users· 14

About local users· 14

Local user configuration tasks at a glance· 14

Configuring attributes for device management users· 15

Configuring user group attributes· 16

Display and maintenance commands for local users and local user groups· 17

Configuring RADIUS· 17

RADIUS tasks at a glance· 17

Configuring a test profile for RADIUS server status detection· 18

Creating a RADIUS scheme· 19

Specifying RADIUS authentication servers· 19

Specifying the RADIUS accounting servers· 20

Specifying the shared keys for secure RADIUS communication· 21

Specifying the MPLS L3VPN instance for a RADIUS scheme· 21

Setting the status of RADIUS servers· 21

Setting RADIUS timers· 23

Specifying the source IP address of outgoing RADIUS packets· 24

Setting the username format and traffic statistics units· 25

Setting the maximum number of RADIUS request transmission attempts· 26

Setting the maximum number of real-time accounting attempts· 26

Setting the DSCP priority for RADIUS packets· 27

Specifying the NAS IP address of RADIUS packets· 27

Configuring the Login-Service attribute check method for SSH, FTP, and terminal users· 28

Interpreting the RADIUS class attribute as CAR parameters· 28

Configuring the MAC address format of RADIUS attribute 31· 29

Setting the data measurement unit for the Remanent_Volume attribute· 29

Configuring the RADIUS attribute translation feature· 29

Configuring RADIUS stop-accounting packet buffering· 31

Enabling forcibly sending RADIUS stop-accounting packets· 32

Enabling the RADIUS server load sharing feature· 32

Configuring the RADIUS accounting-on feature· 33

Configuring the RADIUS session-control feature· 34

Configuring the RADIUS DAS feature· 34

Enabling SNMP notifications for RADIUS· 35

Display and maintenance commands for RADIUS· 36

Configuring HWTACACS· 37

HWTACACS tasks at a glance· 37

Creating an HWTACACS scheme· 37

Specifying the HWTACACS authentication servers· 37

Specifying the HWTACACS authorization servers· 38

Specifying the HWTACACS accounting servers· 39

Specifying the shared keys for secure HWTACACS communication· 39

Specifying an MPLS L3VPN instance for the scheme· 40

Setting HWTACACS timers· 40

Specifying the source IP address of outgoing HWTACACS packets· 41

Setting the username format and traffic statistics units· 42

Configuring HWTACACS stop-accounting packet buffering· 43

Display and maintenance commands for HWTACACS· 43

Configuring LDAP· 44

LDAP tasks at a glance· 44

Creating an LDAP server 44

Configuring the IP address of the LDAP server 44

Specifying the LDAP version· 45

Setting the LDAP server timeout period· 45

Configuring administrator attributes· 46

Configuring LDAP user attributes· 46

Configuring an LDAP attribute map· 47

Creating an LDAP scheme· 47

Specifying the LDAP authentication server 48

Specifying the LDAP authorization server 48

Specifying an LDAP attribute map for LDAP authorization· 48

Display and maintenance commands for LDAP· 48

Creating an ISP domain· 49

About ISP domains· 49

Restrictions and guidelines for ISP domain configuration· 49

Creating an ISP domain· 49

Specifying the default system ISP domain· 50

Specifying an ISP domain for users that are assigned to nonexistent domains· 50

Configuring ISP domain attributes· 50

Setting ISP domain status· 50

Configuring authorization attributes for an ISP domain· 51

Configuring AAA methods for an ISP domain· 51

Configuring authentication methods for an ISP domain· 51

Configuring authorization methods for an ISP domain· 52

Configuring accounting methods for an ISP domain· 53

Display and maintenance commands for ISP domains· 54

Setting the maximum number of concurrent login users· 55

Configuring a NAS-ID·· 55

About NAS-IDs· 55

Configuring a NAS-ID profile· 55

Setting the NAS-ID in an ISP domain· 56

Configuring the device ID·· 56

Enabling password change prompt logging· 56

AAA configuration examples· 57

Example: Configuring authentication and authorization for SSH users by a RADIUS server 57

Example: Configuring local authentication and authorization for SSH users· 61

Example: Configuring AAA for SSH users by an HWTACACS server 62

Example: Configuring authentication for SSH users by an LDAP server 64

Troubleshooting RADIUS· 68

RADIUS authentication failure· 68

RADIUS packet delivery failure· 69

RADIUS accounting error 70

Troubleshooting HWTACACS· 70

LDAP authentication failure· 70

Appendixes· 71

Appendix A Commonly used RADIUS attributes· 71

Appendix B Descriptions for commonly used standard RADIUS attributes· 72

Appendix C RADIUS subattributes (vendor ID 25506) 74

 


Configuring AAA

About AAA

AAA implementation

Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) provides a uniform framework for implementing network access management. This feature specifies the following security functions:

·     Authentication—Identifies users and verifies their validity.

·     Authorization—Grants different users different rights, and controls the users' access to resources and services. For example, you can permit office users to read and print files and prevent guests from accessing files on the device.

·     Accounting—Records network usage details of users, including the service type, start time, and traffic. This function enables time-based and traffic-based charging and user behavior auditing.

AAA network diagram

AAA uses a client/server model. The client runs on the access device, or the network access server (NAS), which authenticates user identities and controls user access. The server maintains user information centrally. See Figure 1.

Figure 1 AAA network diagram

 

To access networks or resources beyond the NAS, a user sends its identity information to the NAS. The NAS transparently passes the user information to AAA servers and waits for the authentication, authorization, and accounting result. Based on the result, the NAS determines whether to permit or deny the access request.

AAA has various implementations, including RADIUS, LDAP, and HWTACACS. RADIUS is most often used.

You can use different servers to implement different security functions. For example, you can use an HWTACACS server for authentication and authorization, and use a RADIUS server for accounting.

You can choose the security functions provided by AAA as needed. For example, if your company wants employees to be authenticated before they access specific resources, you would deploy an authentication server. If network usage information is needed, you would also configure an accounting server.

The device performs dynamic password authentication.

RADIUS

Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) is a distributed information interaction protocol that uses a client/server model. The protocol can protect networks against unauthorized access and is often used in network environments that require both high security and remote user access.

The RADIUS authorization process is combined with the RADIUS authentication process, and user authorization information is piggybacked in authentication responses. RADIUS uses UDP port 1812 for authentication and UDP port 1813 for accounting.

RADIUS was originally designed for dial-in user access, and has been extended to support additional access methods, such as Ethernet and ADSL.

Client/server model

The RADIUS client runs on the NASs located throughout the network. It passes user information to RADIUS servers and acts on the responses to, for example, reject or accept user access requests.

The RADIUS server runs on the computer or workstation at the network center and maintains information related to user authentication and network service access.

The RADIUS server operates using the following process:

1.     Receives authentication, authorization, and accounting requests from RADIUS clients.

2.     Performs user authentication, authorization, or accounting.

3.     Returns user access control information (for example, rejecting or accepting the user access request) to the clients.

The RADIUS server can also act as the client of another RADIUS server to provide authentication proxy services.

The RADIUS server maintains the following databases:

·     Users—Stores user information, such as the usernames, passwords, applied protocols, and IP addresses.

·     Clients—Stores information about RADIUS clients, such as shared keys and IP addresses.

·     Dictionary—Stores RADIUS protocol attributes and their values.

Figure 2 RADIUS server databases

 

Information exchange security mechanism

The RADIUS client and server exchange information between them with the help of shared keys, which are preconfigured on the client and server. A RADIUS packet has a 16-byte field called Authenticator. This field includes a signature generated by using the MD5 algorithm, the shared key, and some other information. The receiver of the packet verifies the signature and accepts the packet only when the signature is correct. This mechanism ensures the security of information exchanged between the RADIUS client and server.

The shared keys are also used to encrypt user passwords that are included in RADIUS packets.

User authentication methods

The RADIUS server supports multiple user authentication methods, such as PAP, CHAP, and EAP.

Basic RADIUS packet exchange process

Figure 3 illustrates the interactions between a user host, the RADIUS client, and the RADIUS server.

Figure 3 Basic RADIUS packet exchange process

 

RADIUS uses in the following workflow:

1.     The host sends a connection request that includes the user's username and password to the RADIUS client.

2.     The RADIUS client sends an authentication request (Access-Request) to the RADIUS server. The request includes the user's password, which has been processed by the MD5 algorithm and shared key.

3.     The RADIUS server authenticates the username and password. If the authentication succeeds, the server sends back an Access-Accept packet that contains the user's authorization information. If the authentication fails, the server returns an Access-Reject packet.

4.     The RADIUS client permits or denies the user according to the authentication result. If the result permits the user, the RADIUS client sends a start-accounting request (Accounting-Request) packet to the RADIUS server.

5.     The RADIUS server returns an acknowledgment (Accounting-Response) packet and starts accounting.

6.     The user accesses the network resources.

7.     The host requests the RADIUS client to tear down the connection.

8.     The RADIUS client sends a stop-accounting request (Accounting-Request) packet to the RADIUS server.

9.     The RADIUS server returns an acknowledgment (Accounting-Response) and stops accounting for the user.

10.     The RADIUS client notifies the user of the termination.

RADIUS packet format

RADIUS uses UDP to transmit packets. The protocol also uses a series of mechanisms to ensure smooth packet exchange between the RADIUS server and the client. These mechanisms include the timer mechanism, the retransmission mechanism, and the backup server mechanism.

Figure 4 RADIUS packet format

 

Descriptions of the fields are as follows:

·     The Code field (1 byte long) indicates the type of the RADIUS packet. Table 1 gives the main values and their meanings.

Table 1 Main values of the Code field

Code

Packet type

Description

1

Access-Request

From the client to the server. A packet of this type includes user information for the server to authenticate the user. It must contain the User-Name attribute and can optionally contain the attributes of NAS-IP-Address, User-Password, and NAS-Port.

2

Access-Accept

From the server to the client. If all attribute values included in the Access-Request are acceptable, the authentication succeeds, and the server sends an Access-Accept response.

3

Access-Reject

From the server to the client. If any attribute value included in the Access-Request is unacceptable, the authentication fails, and the server sends an Access-Reject response.

4

Accounting-Request

From the client to the server. A packet of this type includes user information for the server to start or stop accounting for the user. The Acct-Status-Type attribute in the packet indicates whether to start or stop accounting.

5

Accounting-Response

From the server to the client. The server sends a packet of this type to notify the client that it has received the Accounting-Request and has successfully recorded the accounting information.

 

·     The Identifier field (1 byte long) is used to match response packets with request packets and to detect duplicate request packets. The request and response packets of the same exchange process for the same purpose (such as authentication or accounting) have the same identifier.

·     The Length field (2 bytes long) indicates the length of the entire packet (in bytes), including the Code, Identifier, Length, Authenticator, and Attributes fields. Bytes beyond this length are considered padding and are ignored by the receiver. If the length of a received packet is less than this length, the packet is dropped.

·     The Authenticator field (16 bytes long) is used to authenticate responses from the RADIUS server and to encrypt user passwords. There are two types of authenticators: request authenticator and response authenticator.

·     The Attributes field (variable in length) includes authentication, authorization, and accounting information. This field can contain multiple attributes, each with the following subfields:

¡     Type—Type of the attribute.

¡     Length—Length of the attribute in bytes, including the Type, Length, and Value subfields.

¡     Value—Value of the attribute. Its format and content depend on the Type subfield.

Extended RADIUS attributes

The RADIUS protocol features excellent extensibility. The Vendor-Specific attribute (attribute 26) allows a vendor to define extended attributes. The extended attributes can implement functions that the standard RADIUS protocol does not provide.

A vendor can encapsulate multiple subattributes in the TLV format in attribute 26 to provide extended functions. As shown in Figure 5, a subattribute encapsulated in attribute 26 consists of the following parts:

·     Vendor-ID—ID of the vendor. The most significant byte is 0. The other three bytes contains a code compliant to RFC 1700.

·     Vendor-Type—Type of the subattribute.

·     Vendor-Length—Length of the subattribute.

·     Vendor-Data—Contents of the subattribute.

The device supports RADIUS subattributes with a vendor ID of 25506. For more information, see "Appendix C RADIUS subattributes (vendor ID 25506)."

Figure 5 Format of attribute 26

 

HWTACACS

HW Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (HWTACACS) is an enhanced security protocol based on TACACS (RFC 1492). HWTACACS is similar to RADIUS, and uses a client/server model for information exchange between the NAS and the HWTACACS server.

HWTACACS typically provides AAA services for VPDN and terminal users. In a typical HWTACACS scenario, terminal users need to log in to the NAS. Working as the HWTACACS client, the NAS sends users' usernames and passwords to the HWTACACS server for authentication. After passing authentication and obtaining authorized rights, a user logs in to the device and performs operations. The HWTACACS server records the operations that each user performs.

Differences between HWTACACS and RADIUS

HWTACACS and RADIUS have many features in common, such as using a client/server model, using shared keys for data encryption, and providing flexibility and scalability. Table 2 lists the primary differences between HWTACACS and RADIUS.

Table 2 Primary differences between HWTACACS and RADIUS

HWTACACS

RADIUS

Uses TCP, which provides reliable network transmission.

Uses UDP, which provides high transport efficiency.

Encrypts the entire packet except for the HWTACACS header.

Encrypts only the user password field in an authentication packet.

Protocol packets are complicated and authorization is independent of authentication. Authentication and authorization can be deployed on different HWTACACS servers.

Protocol packets are simple and the authorization process is combined with the authentication process.

Supports authorization of configuration commands. Access to commands depends on both the user's roles and authorization. A user can use only commands that are permitted by the user roles and authorized by the HWTACACS server.

Does not support authorization of configuration commands. Access to commands solely depends on the user's roles. For more information about user roles, see Fundamentals Configuration Guide.

 

Basic HWTACACS packet exchange process

Figure 6 describes how HWTACACS performs user authentication, authorization, and accounting for a Telnet user.

Figure 6 Basic HWTACACS packet exchange process for a Telnet user

 

HWTACACS operates using in the following workflow:

1.     A Telnet user sends an access request to the HWTACACS client.

2.     The HWTACACS client sends a start-authentication packet to the HWTACACS server when it receives the request.

3.     The HWTACACS server sends back an authentication response to request the username.

4.     Upon receiving the response, the HWTACACS client asks the user for the username.

5.     The user enters the username.

6.     After receiving the username from the user, the HWTACACS client sends the server a continue-authentication packet that includes the username.

7.     The HWTACACS server sends back an authentication response to request the login password.

8.     Upon receipt of the response, the HWTACACS client prompts the user for the login password.

9.     The user enters the password.

10.     After receiving the login password, the HWTACACS client sends the HWTACACS server a continue-authentication packet that includes the login password.

11.     If the authentication succeeds, the HWTACACS server sends back an authentication response to indicate that the user has passed authentication.

12.     The HWTACACS client sends a user authorization request packet to the HWTACACS server.

13.     If the authorization succeeds, the HWTACACS server sends back an authorization response, indicating that the user is now authorized.

14.     Knowing that the user is now authorized, the HWTACACS client pushes its CLI to the user and permits the user to log in.

15.     The HWTACACS client sends a start-accounting request to the HWTACACS server.

16.     The HWTACACS server sends back an accounting response, indicating that it has received the start-accounting request.

17.     The user logs off.

18.     The HWTACACS client sends a stop-accounting request to the HWTACACS server.

19.     The HWTACACS server sends back a stop-accounting response, indicating that the stop-accounting request has been received.

LDAP

The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) provides standard multiplatform directory service. LDAP was developed on the basis of the X.500 protocol. It improves the following functions of X.500:

·     Read/write interactive access.

·     Browse.

·     Search.

LDAP is suitable for storing data that does not often change. The protocol is used to store user information. For example, LDAP server software Active Directory Server is used in Microsoft Windows operating systems. The software stores the user information and user group information for user login authentication and authorization.

LDAP directory service

LDAP uses directories to maintain the organization information, personnel information, and resource information. The directories are organized in a tree structure and include entries. An entry is a set of attributes with distinguished names (DNs). The attributes are used to store information such as usernames, passwords, emails, computer names, and phone numbers.

LDAP uses a client/server model, and all directory information is stored in the LDAP server. Commonly used LDAP server products include Microsoft Active Directory Server, IBM Tivoli Directory Server, and Sun ONE Directory Server.

LDAP authentication and authorization

AAA can use LDAP to provide authentication and authorization services for users. LDAP defines a set of operations to implement its functions. The main operations for authentication and authorization are the bind operation and search operation.

·     The bind operation allows an LDAP client to perform the following operations:

¡     Establish a connection with the LDAP server.

¡     Obtain the access rights to the LDAP server.

¡     Check the validity of user information.

·     The search operation constructs search conditions and obtains the directory resource information of the LDAP server.

In LDAP authentication, the client completes the following tasks:

1.     Uses the LDAP server administrator DN to bind with the LDAP server. After the binding is created, the client establishes a connection to the server and obtains the right to search.

2.     Constructs search conditions by using the username in the authentication information of a user. The specified root directory of the server is searched and a user DN list is generated.

3.     Binds with the LDAP server by using each user DN and password. If a binding is created, the user is considered legal.

In LDAP authorization, the client performs the same tasks as in LDAP authentication. When the client constructs search conditions, it obtains both authorization information and the user DN list.

Basic LDAP authentication process

The following example illustrates the basic LDAP authentication process for a Telnet user.

Figure 7 Basic LDAP authentication process for a Telnet user

 

The following shows the basic LDAP authentication process:

1.     A Telnet user initiates a connection request and sends the username and password to the LDAP client.

2.     After receiving the request, the LDAP client establishes a TCP connection with the LDAP server.

3.     To obtain the right to search, the LDAP client uses the administrator DN and password to send an administrator bind request to the LDAP server.

4.     The LDAP server processes the request. If the bind operation is successful, the LDAP server sends an acknowledgment to the LDAP client.

5.     The LDAP client sends a user DN search request with the username of the Telnet user to the LDAP server.

6.     After receiving the request, the LDAP server searches for the user DN by the base DN, search scope, and filtering conditions. If a match is found, the LDAP server sends a response to notify the LDAP client of the successful search. There might be one or more user DNs found.

7.     The LDAP client uses the obtained user DN and the entered user password as parameters to send a user DN bind request to the LDAP server. The server will check whether the user password is correct.

8.     The LDAP server processes the request, and sends a response to notify the LDAP client of the bind operation result. If the bind operation fails, the LDAP client uses another obtained user DN as the parameter to send a user DN bind request to the LDAP server. This process continues until a DN is bound successfully or all DNs fail to be bound. If all user DNs fail to be bound, the LDAP client notifies the user of the login failure and denies the user's access request.

9.     The LDAP client saves the user DN that has been bound and exchanges authorization packets with the authorization server.

¡     If LDAP authorization is used, see the authorization process shown in Figure 8.

¡     If another method is expected for authorization, the authorization process of that method applies.

10.     After successful authorization, the LDAP client notifies the user of the successful login.

Basic LDAP authorization process

The following example illustrates the basic LDAP authorization process for a Telnet user.

Figure 8 Basic LDAP authorization process for a Telnet user

 

The following shows the basic LDAP authorization process:

1.     A Telnet user initiates a connection request and sends the username and password to the device. The device will act as the LDAP client during authorization.

2.     After receiving the request, the device exchanges authentication packets with the authentication server for the user:

¡     If LDAP authentication is used, see the authentication process shown in Figure 7.

-     If the device (the LDAP client) uses the same LDAP server for authentication and authorization, skip to step 6.

-     If the device (the LDAP client) uses different LDAP servers for authentication and authorization, skip to step 4.

¡     If another authentication method is used, the authentication process of that method applies. The device acts as the LDAP client. Skip to step 3.

3.     The LDAP client establishes a TCP connection with the LDAP authorization server.

4.     To obtain the right to search, the LDAP client uses the administrator DN and password to send an administrator bind request to the LDAP server.

5.     The LDAP server processes the request. If the bind operation is successful, the LDAP server sends an acknowledgment to the LDAP client.

6.     The LDAP client sends an authorization search request with the username of the Telnet user to the LDAP server. If the user uses the same LDAP server for authentication and authorization, the client sends the request with the saved user DN of the Telnet user to the LDAP server.

7.     After receiving the request, the LDAP server searches for the user information by the base DN, search scope, filtering conditions, and LDAP attributes. If a match is found, the LDAP server sends a response to notify the LDAP client of the successful search.

8.     After successful authorization, the LDAP client notifies the user of the successful login.

User management based on ISP domains and user access types

AAA manages users based on the users' ISP domains and access types.

On a NAS, each user belongs to one ISP domain. Typically, the NAS determines the ISP domain to which a user belongs based on the username entered by the user at login. For flexible access management, the NAS also supports ISP domain assignment. The ISP domains to be assigned to users can be specified in access modules, in interface view, or in system view.

AAA manages users in the same ISP domain based on the users' access types. The device supports the following user access types:

·     Login—Login users include SSH, Telnet, FTP, and terminal users that log in to the device. Terminal users can access through a console port.

·     HTTP/HTTPS—Web users log in to the Web interface of the device through HTTP or HTTPS.

Authentication, authorization, and accounting methods

AAA supports configuring different authentication, authorization, and accounting methods for different types of users in an ISP domain. The NAS determines the ISP domain and access type of a user. The NAS also uses the methods configured for the access type in the domain to control the user's access.

AAA also supports configuring a set of default methods for an ISP domain. These default methods are applied to users for whom no AAA methods are configured.

Authentication methods

The device supports the following authentication methods:

·     No authentication—This method trusts all users and does not perform authentication. For security purposes, do not use this method.

·     Local authentication—The NAS authenticates users by itself, based on the locally configured user information including the usernames, passwords, and attributes. Local authentication allows high speed and low cost, but the amount of information that can be stored is limited by the size of the storage space.

·     Remote authentication—The NAS works with a RADIUS, LDAP, or HWTACACS server to authenticate users. The server manages user information in a centralized manner. Remote authentication provides high capacity, reliable, and centralized authentication services for multiple NASs. You can configure backup methods to be used when the remote server is not available.

Authorization methods

The device supports the following authorization methods:

·     No authorization—The NAS performs no authorization exchange. The following default authorization information applies after users pass authentication:

¡     Login users obtain the level-0 user role. For more information about the level-0 user role, see RBAC configuration in Fundamentals Configuration Guide.

¡     The working directory for FTP, SFTP, and SCP login users is the root directory of the NAS. However, the users do not have permission to access the root directory.

·     Local authorization—The NAS performs authorization according to the user attributes locally configured for users.

·     Remote authorization—The NAS works with a server to authorize users. RADIUS authorization is bound with RADIUS authentication. RADIUS authorization can work only after RADIUS authentication is successful, and the authorization information is included in the Access-Accept packet. HWTACACS authorization is separate from HWTACACS authentication, and the authorization information is included in the authorization response after successful authentication. You can configure backup methods to be used when the remote server is not available.

Accounting methods

The device supports the following accounting methods:

·     No accounting—The NAS does not perform accounting for the users.

·     Local accounting—Local accounting is implemented on the NAS. It counts and controls the number of concurrent users that use the same local user account, but does not provide statistics for charging.

·     Remote accounting—The NAS works with a RADIUS server or HWTACACS server for accounting. You can configure backup methods to be used when the remote server is not available.

AAA extended functions

The device provides the following login services to enhance device security:

·     Command authorization—Enables the NAS to let the authorization server determine whether a command entered by a login user is permitted. Login users can execute only commands permitted by the authorization server. For more information about command authorization, see Fundamentals Configuration Guide.

·     Command accounting—When command authorization is disabled, command accounting enables the accounting server to record all valid commands executed on the device. When command authorization is enabled, command accounting enables the accounting server to record all authorized commands. For more information about command accounting, see Fundamentals Configuration Guide.

·     User role authentication—Authenticates each user that wants to obtain another user role without logging out or getting disconnected. For more information about user role authentication, see Fundamentals Configuration Guide.

AAA for VPNs

You can deploy AAA across VPNs to enable forwarding of authentication, authorization, and accounting packets across VPNs. For example, as shown in Figure 9, the PE at the left side of the MPLS backbone acts as a NAS. The NAS transparently delivers the AAA packets of private users in VPN 1 and VPN 2 to the AAA servers in VPN 3 for centralized authentication. Authentication packets of private users in different VPNs do not affect each other.

Figure 9 Network diagram

Protocols and standards

·     RFC 2865, Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)

·     RFC 2866, RADIUS Accounting

·     RFC 2867, RADIUS Accounting Modifications for Tunnel Protocol Support

·     RFC 2868, RADIUS Attributes for Tunnel Protocol Support

·     RFC 2869, RADIUS Extensions

·     RFC 3576, Dynamic Authorization Extensions to Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)

·     RFC 4818, RADIUS Delegated-IPv6-Prefix Attribute

·     RFC 5176, Dynamic Authorization Extensions to Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)

·     RFC 1492, An Access Control Protocol, Sometimes Called TACACS

·     RFC 1777, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

·     RFC 2251, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (v3)

AAA tasks at a glance

To configure AAA, perform the following tasks:

1.     Configuring AAA schemes

If local authentication is used, configure local users and the related attributes. If remote authentication is used, configure the required RADIUS, LDAP, or HWTACACS schemes.

¡     Configuring local users

¡     Configuring RADIUS

¡     Configuring HWTACACS

¡     Configuring LDAP

2.     Configuring an ISP domain

a.     Creating an ISP domain

b.     Configuring ISP domain attributes

3.     Configuring AAA methods for an ISP domain

Configure authentication, authorization, and accounting methods for an ISP domain as needed. These methods use existing AAA schemes.

¡     Configuring authentication methods for an ISP domain

¡     Configuring authorization methods for an ISP domain

¡     Configuring accounting methods for an ISP domain

4.     (Optional.) Configuring advanced AAA features

¡     Setting the maximum number of concurrent login users

¡     Configuring a NAS-ID

¡     Configuring the device ID

¡     Enabling password change prompt logging

Configuring local users

About local users

To implement local authentication, authorization, and accounting, create local users and configure user attributes on the device. The local users and attributes are stored in the local user database on the device. A local user is uniquely identified by the combination of a username and a user type.

The following shows the configurable local user attributes:

·     Service type—Services that the user can use. Local authentication checks the service types of a local user. If none of the service types is available, the user cannot pass authentication.

·     User state—Whether or not a local user can request network services. There are two user states: active and blocked. A user in active state can request network services, but a user in blocked state cannot.

·     Upper limit of concurrent logins using the same user name—Maximum number of users that can concurrently access the device by using the same user name. When the number reaches the upper limit, no more local users can access the device by using the user name.

·     User group—Each local user belongs to a local user group and has all attributes of the group. The attributes include the password control attributes and authorization attributes. For more information about local user group, see "Configuring user group attributes."

·     Authorization attributes—Authorization attributes indicate the user's rights after it passes local authentication.

Configure the authorization attributes based on the service type of local users.

You can configure an authorization attribute in user group view or local user view. The setting of an authorization attribute in local user view takes precedence over the attribute setting in user group view.

¡     The attribute configured in user group view takes effect on all local users in the user group.

¡     The attribute configured in local user view takes effect only on the local user.

·     Password control attributes—Password control attributes help control password security for device management users. Password control attributes include password aging time, minimum password length, password composition checking, password complexity checking, and login attempt limit.

You can configure a password control attribute in system view, user group view, or local user view. A password control attribute with a smaller effective range has a higher priority. For more information about password management and global password configuration, see "Configuring password control."

Local user configuration tasks at a glance

To configure local users, perform the following tasks:

5.     Configuring attributes for device management users

6.     (Optional.) Configuring user group attributes

Configuring attributes for device management users

Restrictions and guidelines

If password control is enabled globally by using the password-control enable command, the device does not display local user passwords or retain them in the running configuration. When you globally disable the password control feature, local user passwords are automatically restored to the running configuration. To display the running configuration, use the display current-configuration command.

You can configure authorization attributes and password control attributes in local user view or user group view. The setting in local user view takes precedence over the setting in user group view.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Add a device management user and enter device management user view.

local-user user-name class manage

3.     Configure a password for the local user.

password [ { hash | simple } string ]

A non-password-protected user passes authentication if the user provides the correct username and passes attribute checks. To enhance security, configure a password for each device management user.

4.     Assign services to the local user.

service-type { ftp | { http | https | ssh | telnet | terminal } * }

By default, no services are authorized to a local user.

5.     (Optional.) Set the status of the local user.

state { active | block }

By default, a local user is in active state and can request network services.

6.     (Optional.) Set the upper limit of concurrent logins using the local user name.

access-limit max-user-number

By default, the number of concurrent logins is not limited for the local user.

This command takes effect only when local accounting is configured for the local user. This command does not apply to FTP, SFTP, or SCP users that do not support accounting.

7.     (Optional.) Configure authorization attributes for the local user.

authorization-attribute { idle-cut minutes | user-role role-name | work-directory directory-name } *

The following default settings apply:

¡     The working directory for FTP, SFTP, and SCP users is the root directory of the NAS. However, the users do not have permission to access the root directory.

¡     The network-operator user role is assigned to local users that are created by a network-admin or level-15 user.

8.     (Optional.) Configure password control attributes for the local user. Choose the following tasks as needed:

¡     Set the password aging time.

password-control aging aging-time

¡     Set the minimum password length.

password-control length length

¡     Configure the password composition policy.

password-control composition type-number type-number [ type-length type-length ]

¡     Configure the password complexity checking policy.

password-control complexity { same-character | user-name } check

¡     Configure the maximum login attempts and the action to take if there is a login failure.

password-control login-attempt login-times [ exceed { lock | lock-time time | unlock } ]

By default, a local user uses password control attributes of the user group to which the local user belongs.

9.     (Optional.) Assign the local user to a user group.

group group-name

By default, a local user belongs to user group system.

Configuring user group attributes

About this task

User groups simplify local user configuration and management. A user group contains a group of local users and has a set of local user attributes. You can configure local user attributes for a user group to implement centralized user attributes management for the local users in the group. Local user attributes that are manageable include authorization attributes.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create a user group and enter user group view.

user-group group-name

By default, a system-defined user group exists. The group name is system.

3.     Configure authorization attributes for the user group.

authorization-attribute { idle-cut minutes | work-directory directory-name } *

By default, no authorization attributes are configured for a user group.

4.     (Optional.) Configure password control attributes for the user group. Choose the following tasks as needed:

¡     Set the password aging time.

password-control aging aging-time

¡     Set the minimum password length.

password-control length length

¡     Configure the password composition policy.

password-control composition type-number type-number [ type-length type-length ]

¡     Configure the password complexity checking policy.

password-control complexity { same-character | user-name } check

¡     Configure the maximum login attempts and the action to take for login failures.

password-control login-attempt login-times [ exceed { lock | lock-time time | unlock } ]

By default, a user group uses the global password control settings. For more information, see "Configuring password control."

Password control attributes are applicable only to device management users.

Display and maintenance commands for local users and local user groups

Execute display commands in any view.

 

Task

Command

Display the local user configuration and online user statistics.

display local-user [ class manage | idle-cut { disable | enable } | service-type { ftp | http | https | ssh | telnet | terminal } | state { active | block } | user-name user-name class  manage | vlan vlan-id ]

Display user group configuration.

display user-group { all | name group-name }

 

Configuring RADIUS

RADIUS tasks at a glance

To configure RADIUS, perform the following tasks:

1.     Configuring a test profile for RADIUS server status detection

To detect the RADIUS server status, you must configure a test profile and configure the RADIUS server to use the test profile in a RADIUS scheme.

2.     Creating a RADIUS scheme

3.     Specifying RADIUS authentication servers

4.     Specifying the RADIUS accounting servers

5.     Specifying the shared keys for secure RADIUS communication

Perform this task if no shared keys are specified when configuring RADIUS authentication or accounting servers.

6.     Specifying the MPLS L3VPN instance for a RADIUS scheme

Perform this task if no MPLS L3VPN instances are specified when configuring RADIUS authentication or accounting servers.

7.     (Optional.) Setting the status of RADIUS servers

8.     (Optional.) Setting RADIUS timers

9.     (Optional.) Configuring parameters for RADIUS packets

¡     Specifying the source IP address of outgoing RADIUS packets

¡     Setting the username format and traffic statistics units

¡     Setting the maximum number of RADIUS request transmission attempts

¡     Setting the maximum number of real-time accounting attempts

¡     Setting the DSCP priority for RADIUS packets

10.     (Optional.) Configuring parameters for RADIUS attributes

¡     Specifying the NAS IP address of RADIUS packets

¡     Configuring the Login-Service attribute check method for SSH, FTP, and terminal users

¡     Interpreting the RADIUS class attribute as CAR parameters

¡     Configuring the MAC address format of RADIUS attribute 31

¡     Setting the data measurement unit for the Remanent_Volume attribute

¡     Configuring the RADIUS attribute translation feature

11.     (Optional.) Configuring extended RADIUS features

¡     Configuring RADIUS stop-accounting packet buffering

¡     Enabling forcibly sending RADIUS stop-accounting packets

¡     Enabling the RADIUS server load sharing feature

¡     Configuring the RADIUS accounting-on feature

¡     Configuring the RADIUS session-control feature

¡     Configuring the RADIUS DAS feature

¡     Enabling SNMP notifications for RADIUS

Configuring a test profile for RADIUS server status detection

About this task

Use a test profile to detect whether a RADIUS authentication server is reachable at a detection interval. To detect the RADIUS server status, you must configure the RADIUS server to use this test profile in a RADIUS scheme.

With the test profile specified, the device sends a detection packet to the RADIUS server within each detection interval. The detection packet is a simulated authentication request that includes the specified user name in the test profile.

·     If the device receives a response from the server within the interval, it sets the server to the active state.

·     If the device does not receive any response from the server within the interval, it sets the server to the blocked state.

The device refreshes the RADIUS server status at each detection interval according to the detection result.

Restrictions and guidelines

You can configure multiple test profiles in the system.

The device starts detecting the status of the RADIUS server only if an existing test profile is specified for the RADIUS authentication server.

The device stops detecting the status of the RADIUS server when one of the following operations is performed:

·     The RADIUS server is removed from the RADIUS scheme.

·     The test profile configuration is removed for the RADIUS server in RADIUS scheme view.

·     The test profile is deleted.

·     The RADIUS server is manually set to the blocked state.

·     The RADIUS scheme is deleted.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Configure a test profile for detecting the status of RADIUS authentication servers.

radius-server test-profile profile-name username name [ interval [ second ] interval ]

Creating a RADIUS scheme

Restrictions and guidelines

You can configure a maximum of 16 RADIUS schemes. A RADIUS scheme can be used by multiple ISP domains.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create a RADIUS scheme and enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

Specifying RADIUS authentication servers

About this task

A RADIUS authentication server completes authentication and authorization together, because authorization information is piggybacked in authentication responses sent to RADIUS clients.

You can specify one primary authentication server and a maximum of 16 secondary authentication servers for a RADIUS scheme. Secondary servers provide AAA services when the primary server becomes unreachable. The device searches for an active server in the order the secondary servers are configured.

When RADIUS server load sharing is enabled, the device distributes the workload over all servers without considering the primary and secondary server roles. The device checks the weight value and number of currently served users for each active server, and then determines the most appropriate server in performance to receive an authentication request.

Restrictions and guidelines

If redundancy is not required, specify only the primary server.

A RADIUS authentication server can function as the primary authentication server for one scheme and a secondary authentication server for another scheme at the same time.

Two authentication servers in a scheme, primary or secondary, cannot have the same combination of IP address, VPN instance, and port number.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Specify the primary RADIUS authentication server.

primary authentication { ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | key { cipher | simple } string | test-profile profile-name | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name | weight weight-value ] *

By default, no primary RADIUS authentication server is specified.

The weight keyword takes effect only when the RADIUS server load sharing feature is enabled for the RADIUS scheme.

4.     (Optional.) Specify a secondary RADIUS authentication server.

secondary authentication { ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | key { cipher | simple } string | test-profile profile-name | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name | weight weight-value ] *

By default, no secondary RADIUS authentication servers are specified.

The weight keyword takes effect only when the RADIUS server load sharing feature is enabled for the RADIUS scheme.

Specifying the RADIUS accounting servers

About this task

You can specify one primary accounting server and a maximum of 16 secondary accounting servers for a RADIUS scheme. Secondary servers provide AAA services when the primary server becomes unavailable. The device searches for an active server in the order the secondary servers are configured.

When RADIUS server load sharing is enabled, the device distributes the workload over all servers without considering the primary and secondary server roles. The device checks the weight value and number of currently served users for each active server, and then determines the most appropriate server in performance to receive an accounting request.

Restrictions and guidelines

If redundancy is not required, specify only the primary server.

A RADIUS accounting server can function as the primary accounting server for one scheme and a secondary accounting server for another scheme at the same time.

Two accounting servers in a scheme, primary or secondary, cannot have the same combination of IP address, VPN instance, and port number.

RADIUS does not support accounting for FTP, SFTP, and SCP users.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Specify the primary RADIUS accounting server.

primary accounting { ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | key { cipher | simple } string | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name | weight weight-value ] *

By default, no primary RADIUS accounting server is specified.

The weight keyword takes effect only when the RADIUS server load sharing feature is enabled for the RADIUS scheme.

4.     (Optional.) Specify a secondary RADIUS accounting server.

secondary accounting { ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | key { cipher | simple } string | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name | weight weight-value ] *

By default, no secondary RADIUS accounting servers are specified.

The weight keyword takes effect only when the RADIUS server load sharing feature is enabled for the RADIUS scheme.

Specifying the shared keys for secure RADIUS communication

About this task

The RADIUS client and server use the MD5 algorithm and shared keys to generate the Authenticator value for packet authentication and user password encryption. The client and server must use the same key for each type of communication.

A key configured in this task is for all servers of the same type (accounting or authentication) in the scheme. The key has a lower priority than a key configured individually for a RADIUS server.

Restrictions and guidelines

The shared key configured on the device must be the same as the shared key configured on the RADIUS server.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Specify a shared key for secure RADIUS communication.

key { accounting | authentication } { cipher | simple } string

By default, no shared key is specified for secure RADIUS communication.

Specifying the MPLS L3VPN instance for a RADIUS scheme

About this task

The VPN instance specified for a RADIUS scheme applies to all authentication and accounting servers in that scheme. If a VPN instance is also configured for an individual RADIUS server, the VPN instance specified for the RADIUS scheme does not take effect on that server.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Specify a VPN instance for the RADIUS scheme.

vpn-instance vpn-instance-name

By default, a RADIUS scheme belongs to the public network.

Setting the status of RADIUS servers

About this task

To control the RADIUS servers with which the device communicates when the current servers are no longer available, set the status of RADIUS servers to blocked or active. You can specify one primary RADIUS server and multiple secondary RADIUS servers. The secondary servers function as the backup of the primary server.

When the RADIUS server load sharing feature is enabled, the device chooses servers based on the following rules in a RADIUS scheme:

·     If active servers exist, the device checks the workload on each active server, and then selects the most appropriate active server in performance for communication.

·     If all authentication servers are blocked, the device first tries to send an authentication request to the authentication server that has the largest weight value. If multiple servers have the largest weight value, the device selects a server from these servers in the order they are configured. The last configured server is selected.

If the authentication request times out, the device starts a 1-minute timer. If no authentication server becomes active before the timer expires, the device does not try to communicate with any other authentication server. If an active authentication server is available before the timer expires, the device tries to communicate with that active server.

·     If all accounting servers are blocked, the device only tries to communicate with the accounting server that has the largest weight value. If multiple accounting servers have the largest weight value, the device selects a server from these servers in the order they are configured. The last configured server is selected.

When the RADIUS server load sharing feature is disabled, the device chooses servers based on the following rules in a RADIUS scheme:

·     When the primary server is in active state, the device first tries to communicate with the primary server. If the primary server is unreachable, the device searches for an active secondary server in the order the servers are configured.

·     When one or more servers are in active state, the device tries to communicate with these active servers only, even if the servers are unavailable.

·     If all authentication servers are blocked, the device first tries to send an authentication request to the primary authentication server. If no primary authentication server is configured, the device searches for a secondary authentication server in the order the servers are configured. The first configured server is selected. If the authentication request times out, the device starts a 1-minute timer. If no authentication server becomes active before the timer expires, the device does not try to communicate with any other authentication server. If an active authentication server is available before the timer expires, the device tries to communicate with that active server.

·     If all accounting servers are blocked, the device tries to communicate with the primary accounting server. If no primary accounting server is configured, the device searches for a secondary accounting server in the order the servers are configured. The first configured server is selected.

·     If a server is unreachable, the device performs the following operations:

¡     Changes the server status to blocked.

¡     Starts a quiet timer for the server.

¡     Tries to communicate with the next secondary server in active state that has the highest priority.

·     When the quiet timer of a server expires or you manually set the server to the active state, the status of the server changes back to active. The device does not check the server again during the authentication or accounting process.

·     The search process continues until the device finds an available secondary server or has checked all secondary servers in active state. If no server is reachable, the device considers the authentication or accounting attempt a failure.

·     When you remove a server in use, communication with the server times out. The device looks for a server in active state by first checking the primary server, and then checking secondary servers in the order they are configured.

·     When a RADIUS server's status changes automatically, the device changes this server's status accordingly in all RADIUS schemes in which this server is specified.

·     When a RADIUS server is manually set to blocked, server detection is disabled for the server, regardless of whether a test profile has been specified for the server. When the RADIUS server is set to active state, server detection is enabled for the server on which an existing test profile is specified.

By default, the device sets the status of all RADIUS servers to active. However, in some situations, you must change the status of a server. For example, if a server fails, you can change the status of the server to blocked to avoid communication attempts to the server.

Restrictions and guidelines

The configured server status cannot be saved to any configuration file, and can only be viewed by using the display radius scheme command.

After the device restarts, all servers are restored to the active state.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Set the RADIUS server status. Choose the following tasks as needed:

¡     Set the status of the primary RADIUS authentication server.

state primary authentication { active | block }

¡     Set the status of the primary RADIUS accounting server.

state primary accounting { active | block }

¡     Set the status of a secondary RADIUS authentication server.

state secondary authentication  [ { ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] * ] { active | block }

¡     Set the status of a secondary RADIUS accounting server.

state secondary accounting [ { ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] * ] { active | block }

By default, a RADIUS server is in active state.

Setting RADIUS timers

About this task

The device uses the following types of timers to control communication with a RADIUS server:

·     Server response timeout timer (response-timeout)—Defines the RADIUS request retransmission interval. The timer starts immediately after a RADIUS request is sent. If the device does not receive a response from the RADIUS server before the timer expires, it resends the request.

·     Server quiet timer (quiet)—Defines the duration to keep an unreachable server in blocked state. If one server is not reachable, the device changes the server status to blocked, starts this timer for the server, and tries to communicate with another server in active state. After the server quiet timer expires, the device changes the status of the server back to active.

·     Real-time accounting timer (realtime-accounting)—Defines the interval at which the device sends real-time accounting packets to the RADIUS accounting server for online users.

Restrictions and guidelines

Consider the number of secondary servers when you configure the maximum number of RADIUS packet transmission attempts and the RADIUS server response timeout timer. If the RADIUS scheme includes many secondary servers, the retransmission process might be too long and the client connection in the access module, such as Telnet, can time out.

When the client connections have a short timeout period, a large number of secondary servers can cause the initial authentication or accounting attempt to fail. In this case, reconnect the client rather than adjusting the RADIUS packet transmission attempts and server response timeout timer. Typically, the next attempt will succeed, because the device has blocked the unreachable servers to shorten the time to find a reachable server.

Make sure the server quiet timer is set correctly. A timer that is too short might result in frequent authentication or accounting failures. This is because the device will continue to attempt to communicate with an unreachable server that is in active state. A timer that is too long might temporarily block a reachable server that has recovered from a failure. This is because the server will remain in blocked state until the timer expires.

A short real-time accounting interval helps improve accounting precision but requires many system resources. When there are 1000 or more users, set the interval to 15 minutes or longer.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Set RADIUS timers. Choose the following tasks as needed:

¡     Set the RADIUS server response timeout timer.

timer response-timeout seconds

The default setting is 3 seconds.

¡     Set the quiet timer for the servers.

timer quiet minutes

The default setting is 5 minutes.

¡     Set the real-time accounting timer.

timer realtime-accounting interval [ second ]

The default setting is 12 minutes.

Specifying the source IP address of outgoing RADIUS packets

About this task

A RADIUS server identifies a NAS by its IP address and processes a RADIUS packet only when the source IP address of the packet is the IP address of a managed NAS. You must make sure the source IP address of RADIUS packets that a NAS sends matches the IP address of the NAS configured on the RADIUS server.

When the device acts as a NAS, it selects a source IP address for outgoing RADIUS packets in the following order:

1.     The source IP address specified by using the source-ip command in RADIUS scheme view.

2.     The source IP address specified by using the radius source-ip command in system view.

3.     The NAS IP address specified by using the nas-ip command in RADIUS scheme view.

4.     The NAS IP address specified by using the radius nas-ip command in system view.

5.     The IP address of the outbound interface for the outgoing RADIUS packets.

Restrictions and guidelines for source IP address configuration

As a best practice to avoid RADIUS packet loss caused by physical port errors, specify a loopback interface address as the source IP address of outgoing RADIUS packets.

Specifying a source IP address for outgoing RADIUS packets in system view

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Specify a source IP address for outgoing RADIUS packets.

radius source-ip { ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

By default, no IP address is specified as the source IP address of outgoing RADIUS packets.

Specifying a source IP address for outgoing RADIUS packets in RADIUS scheme view

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Specify a source IP address for outgoing RADIUS packets.

source-ip { ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address }

By default, the source IP address specified by using the radius source-ip command in system view is used.

Setting the username format and traffic statistics units

About this task

A username is in the userid@isp-name format, where the isp-name part represents the user's ISP domain name. By default, the ISP domain name is included in a username. However, older RADIUS servers might not recognize usernames that contain the ISP domain names. In this case, you can configure the device to remove the domain name of each username to be sent.

The device reports online user traffic statistics in accounting packets. The traffic measurement units are configurable.

Restrictions and guidelines

If two or more ISP domains use the same RADIUS scheme, configure the RADIUS scheme to keep the ISP domain name in usernames for domain identification.

For accounting accuracy, make sure the traffic statistics units configured on the device and on the RADIUS accounting servers are the same.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Set the format for usernames sent to the RADIUS servers.

user-name-format { keep-original | with-domain | without-domain }

By default, the ISP domain name is included in a username.

4.     Set the data flow and packet measurement units for traffic statistics.

data-flow-format { data { byte | giga-byte | kilo-byte | mega-byte } | packet { giga-packet | kilo-packet | mega-packet | one-packet } }*

By default, traffic is counted in bytes and packets.

Setting the maximum number of RADIUS request transmission attempts

About this task

RADIUS uses UDP packets to transfer data. Because UDP communication is not reliable, RADIUS uses a retransmission mechanism to improve reliability. A RADIUS request is retransmitted if the NAS does not receive a server response for the request within the response timeout timer. For more information about the RADIUS server response timeout timer, see "Setting the status of RADIUS servers."

You can set the maximum number for the NAS to retransmit a RADIUS request to the same server. When the maximum number is reached, the NAS tries to communicate with other RADIUS servers in active state. If no other servers are in active state at the time, the NAS considers the authentication or accounting attempt a failure.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Set the maximum number of RADIUS request transmission attempts.

retry retries

By default, the maximum number is 3 for RADIUS request transmission attempts.

Setting the maximum number of real-time accounting attempts

About this task

If you set the maximum number of real-time accounting attempts, the device will disconnect users from whom no accounting responses are received within the permitted attempts.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Set the maximum number of real-time accounting attempts.

retry realtime-accounting retries

By default, the maximum number is 5 for real-time accounting attempts.

Setting the DSCP priority for RADIUS packets

About this task

The DSCP priority in the ToS field determines the transmission priority of RADIUS packets. A larger value represents a higher priority.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Set the DSCP priority for RADIUS packets.

radius [ ipv6 ] dscp dscp-value

By default, the DSCP priority is 0 for RADIUS packets.

Specifying the NAS IP address of RADIUS packets

About this task

The NAS IP address refers to the IP address carried in the NAS-IP-Address or NAS-IPv6-Address attribute in RADIUS packets. The NAS IP address must be unique for a RADIUS server to identify the NAS.

Use this feature to specify a NAS IP address for the NAS to carry in the NAS-IP-Address or NAS-IPv6-Address attribute in outgoing RADIUS requests. In addition, the NAS uses the NAS IP address as a criterion to match users by matching the NAS IP address in incoming RADIUS DAE packets. For more information about user matching, see "Configuring the RADIUS DAS feature."

Restrictions and guidelines for NAS IP address configuration

You can specify the NAS IP address in interface view, RADIUS scheme view, and system view.

·     The NAS IP address specified by using the aaa nas-ip command in interface view applies only to users that access the network through the interface.

·     The NAS IP address specified by using the nas-ip command in RADIUS scheme view applies only to the RADIUS scheme.

·     The NAS IP address specified by using the radius nas-ip command in system view applies to all RADIUS schemes.

The priority order is as follows:

1.     The NAS IP address specified in interface view.

2.     The NAS IP address specified in RADIUS scheme view.

3.     The NAS IP address specified in system view.

Specifying a NAS IP address for RADIUS packets in system view

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Specify a NAS IP address for RADIUS packets.

radius nas-ip { ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

By default, the NAS IP address of RADIUS packets is the primary IPv4 address or the IPv6 address of the outbound interface.

Specifying a NAS IP address for RADIUS packets in RADIUS scheme view

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Specify a NAS IP address for RADIUS packets.

nas-ip { ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address }

By default, the NAS IP address specified by using the radius nas-ip command in system view is used.

Configuring the Login-Service attribute check method for SSH, FTP, and terminal users

About this task

The device supports the following check methods for the Login-Service attribute (RADIUS attribute 15) of SSH, FTP, and terminal users:

·     Strict—Matches Login-Service attribute values 50, 51, and 52 for SSH, FTP, and terminal services, respectively.

·     Loose—Matches the standard Login-Service attribute value 0 for SSH, FTP, and terminal services.

An Access-Accept packet received for a user must contain the matching attribute value. Otherwise, the user cannot log in to the device.

Restrictions and guidelines

Use the loose check method only when the server does not issue Login-Service attribute values 50, 51, and 52 for SSH, FTP, and terminal users.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Configure the Login-Service attribute check method for SSH, FTP, and terminal users.

attribute 15 check-mode { loose | strict }

The default check method is strict.

Interpreting the RADIUS class attribute as CAR parameters

About this task

A RADIUS server may deliver CAR parameters for user-based traffic monitoring and control by using the RADIUS class attribute (attribute 25) in RADIUS packets. You can configure the device to interpret the class attribute to CAR parameters.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Interpret the RADIUS class attribute as CAR parameters.

attribute 25 car

By default, the RADIUS class attribute is not interpreted as CAR parameters.

Configuring the MAC address format of RADIUS attribute 31

Restrictions and guidelines

RADIUS servers of different types might have different requirements for the MAC address format in RADIUS attribute 31. Configure the MAC address format of RADIUS attribute 31 to meet the requirements of the RADIUS servers.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Configure the MAC address format of RADIUS attribute 31.

attribute 31 mac-format section { six | three } separator separator-character { lowercase | uppercase }

By default, a MAC address is in the format of HH-HH-HH-HH-HH-HH. The MAC address is separated by hyphen (-) into six sections with letters in upper case.

Setting the data measurement unit for the Remanent_Volume attribute

About this task

The RADIUS server uses the Remanent_Volume attribute in authentication or real-time accounting responses to notify the device of the current amount of data available for online users.

Restrictions and guidelines

Make sure the configured measurement unit is the same as the user data measurement unit on the RADIUS server.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Set the data measurement unit for the Remanent_Volume attribute.

attribute remanent-volume unit { byte | giga-byte | kilo-byte | mega-byte }

By default, the data measurement unit is kilobyte.

Configuring the RADIUS attribute translation feature

About this task

The RADIUS attribute translation feature enables the device to work correctly with the RADIUS servers of different vendors that support RADIUS attributes incompatible with the device.

RADIUS attribute translation has the following implementations:

·     Attribute conversion—Converts source RADIUS attributes into destination RADIUS attributes based on RADIUS attribute conversion rules.

·     Attribute rejection—Rejects RADIUS attributes based on RADIUS attribute rejection rules.

When the RADIUS attribute translation feature is enabled, the device processes RADIUS packets as follows:

·     For the sent RADIUS packets:

¡     Deletes the rejected attributes from the packets.

¡     Uses the destination RADIUS attributes to replace the attributes that match RADIUS attribute conversion rules in the packets.

·     For the received RADIUS packets:

¡     Ignores the rejected attributes in the packets.

¡     Interprets the attributes that match RADIUS attribute conversion rules as the destination RADIUS attributes.

To identify proprietary RADIUS attributes, you can define the attributes as extended RADIUS attributes, and then convert the extended RADIUS attributes to device-supported attributes.

Restrictions and guidelines for RADIUS attribute translation configuration

Configure either conversion rules or rejection rules for a RADIUS attribute.

Configure either direction-based rules or packet type-based rules for a RADIUS attribute.

For direction-based translation of a RADIUS attribute, you can configure a rule for each direction (inbound or outbound). For packet type-based translation of a RADIUS attribute, you can configure a rule for each RADIUS packet type (RADIUS Access-Accept, RADIUS Access-Request, or RADIUS accounting).

Configuring the RADIUS attribute translation feature for a RADIUS scheme

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     (Optional.) Define an extended RADIUS attribute.

radius attribute extended attribute-name [ vendor vendor-id ] code attribute-code type { binary | date | integer | interface-id | ip | ipv6 | ipv6-prefix | octets | string }

3.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

4.     Enable the RADIUS attribute translation feature.

attribute translate

By default, this feature is disabled.

5.     Configure a RADIUS attribute conversion rule or a RADIUS attribute reject rule. Choose the following tasks as needed:

¡     Configure a RADIUS attribute conversion rule.

attribute convert src-attr-name to dest-attr-name { { access-accept | access-request | accounting } * | { received | sent } * }

By default, no RADIUS attribute conversion rules are configured.

¡     Configure a RADIUS attribute rejection rule.

attribute reject attr-name { { access-accept | access-request | accounting } * | { received | sent } * }

By default, no RADIUS attribute rejection rules are configured.

Configuring the RADIUS attribute translation feature for a RADIUS DAS

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     (Optional.) Define an extended RADIUS attribute.

radius attribute extended attribute-name [ vendor vendor-id ] code attribute-code type { binary | date | integer | interface-id | ip | ipv6 | ipv6-prefix | octets | string }

3.     Enter RADIUS DAS view.

radius dynamic-author server

4.     Enable the RADIUS attribute translation feature.

attribute translate

By default, this feature is disabled.

5.     Configure a RADIUS attribute conversion rule or a RADIUS attribute rejection rule. Choose the following tasks as needed:

¡     Configure a RADIUS attribute conversion rule.

attribute convert src-attr-name to dest-attr-name { { coa-ack | coa-request } * | { received | sent } * }

By default, no RADIUS attribute conversion rules are configured.

¡     Configure a RADIUS attribute rejection rule.

attribute reject attr-name { { coa-ack | coa-request } * | { received | sent } * }

By default, no RADIUS attribute rejection rules are configured.

Configuring RADIUS stop-accounting packet buffering

About this task

The device sends RADIUS stop-accounting requests when it receives connection teardown requests from hosts or connection teardown commands from an administrator. However, the device might fail to receive a response for a stop-accounting request in a single transmission. Enable the device to buffer RADIUS stop-accounting requests that have not received responses from the accounting server. The device will resend the requests until responses are received.

To limit the transmission times, set a maximum number of transmission attempts that can be made for individual RADIUS stop-accounting requests. When the maximum attempts are made for a request, the device discards the buffered request.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Enable buffering of RADIUS stop-accounting requests to which no responses have been received.

stop-accounting-buffer enable

By default, the buffering feature is enabled.

4.     (Optional.) Set the maximum number of transmission attempts for individual RADIUS stop-accounting requests.

retry stop-accounting retries

The default setting is 500.

Enabling forcibly sending RADIUS stop-accounting packets

About this task

Typically, if the device does not send a RADIUS start-accounting packet to the RADIUS server for an authenticated user, it does not send a RADIUS stop-accounting packet when the user goes offline. If the RADIUS server has generated a user entry for the user without start-accounting packets, it does not release the user entry when the user goes offline. This feature forces the device to send RADIUS stop-accounting packets to the RADIUS server when the user goes offline for timely releasing the user entry on the server.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Enable the device to send RADIUS stop-accounting packets when users for which no RADIUS start-accounting packets are sent go offline.

stop-accounting-packet send-force

By default, forcibly sending RADIUS stop-accounting packets is disabled. The device does not send RADIUS stop-accounting packets when users for which no RADIUS start-accounting packets are sent go offline.

Enabling the RADIUS server load sharing feature

About this task

By default, the device communicates with RADIUS servers based on the server roles. It first attempts to communicate with the primary server, and, if the primary server is unreachable, it then searches for the secondary servers in the order they are configured. The first secondary server in active state is used for communication. In this process, the workload is always placed on one active server.

Use the RADIUS server load sharing feature to dynamically distribute the workload over multiple servers based on their weight values and number of currently served users.

The device supports the following load sharing modes for RADIUS authentication servers:

·     Session-based mode—The device forwards a RADIUS authentication request to the most appropriate server among all servers in the scheme after it compares their weights and number of concurrent active sessions.

Each time the device sends an authentication request to a server, the number of concurrent sessions to that server increases by one. Each time the device receives an authentication response from a server, the number of concurrent sessions to that server decreases by one.

This mode is applicable if the number of concurrent sessions on the network is large and the servers have similar performance.

·     Packet-based mode—The device forwards a RADIUS authentication request to the most appropriate server among all servers in the scheme after it compares their weights and number of received authentication requests.

Each time the device sends an authentication request to a server, the number of received packets to that server increases by one.

To evenly distribute authentication requests to all active servers in the scheme, specify the packet-based RADIUS server load sharing mode.

In RADIUS server load sharing, once the device sends a start-accounting request to a server for a user, it forwards all subsequent accounting requests of the user to the same server. If the accounting server is unreachable, the device returns an accounting failure message rather than searching for another active accounting server.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Enable the RADIUS server load sharing feature.

server-load-sharing enable

By default, this feature is disabled.

4.     Specify the RADIUS authentication server load sharing mode.

server-load-sharing mode { packet-based | session-based }

By default, the session-based RADIUS authentication server load sharing mode is used.

Configuring the RADIUS accounting-on feature

About this task

When the accounting-on feature is enabled, the device automatically sends an accounting-on packet to the RADIUS server after the entire device reboots. Upon receiving the accounting-on packet, the RADIUS server logs out all online users so they can log in again through the device. Without this feature, users cannot log in again after the reboot, because the RADIUS server considers them to come online.

You can configure the interval for which the device waits to resend the accounting-on packet and the maximum number of retries.

The extended accounting-on feature enhances the accounting-on feature in a distributed architecture.

Restrictions and guidelines

For the extended accounting-on feature to take effect, the RADIUS server must run on IMC and the accounting-on feature must be enabled.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter RADIUS scheme view.

radius scheme radius-scheme-name

3.     Enable accounting-on.

accounting-on enable [ interval interval | send send-times ] *

By default, the accounting-on feature is disabled.

4.     (Optional.) Enable extended accounting-on.

accounting-on extended

By default, extended accounting-on is disabled.

Configuring the RADIUS session-control feature

About this task

Enable this feature for the RADIUS server to dynamically change the user authorization information or forcibly disconnect users by using session-control packets. This task enables the device to receive RADIUS session-control packets on UDP port 1812.

To verify the session-control packets sent from a RADIUS server, specify the RADIUS server as a session-control client to the device.

Restrictions and guidelines

The RADIUS session-control feature can only work with RADIUS servers running on IMC. The session-control client configuration takes effect only when the session-control feature is enabled.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enable the session-control feature.

radius session-control enable

By default, the session-control feature is disabled.

3.     Specify a session-control client.

radius session-control client { ip ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ key { cipher | simple } string | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] *

By default, no session-control clients are specified.

Configuring the RADIUS DAS feature

About this task

Dynamic Authorization Extensions (DAE) to RADIUS, defined in RFC 5176, can log off online users, change their authorization information, or shut down and then bring up their access interfaces. DAE uses the client/server model.

In a RADIUS network, the RADIUS server typically acts as the DAE client (DAC) and the NAS acts as the DAE server (DAS).

DAE defines the following types of packets:

·     Disconnect Messages (DMs)—The DAC sends DM requests to the DAS to log off specific online users.

·     Change of Authorization Messages (CoA Messages)—The DAC sends CoA requests to the DAS for the following purposes:

¡     Change the authorization information of specific online users.

¡     Shut down and then bring up the access interfaces of users.

When the RADIUS DAS feature is enabled, the NAS performs the following operations:

1.     Listens to the default or specified UDP port to receive DAE requests.

2.     Searches for matching users.

3.     Logs off matching online users, changes their authorization information, or shuts down and then brings up their access interfaces.

4.     Sends DAE responses to the DAC.

The NAS searches for matching users based on the user identification information in DAE requests. (The user identification information includes the username, user IP address, Acct-Session-Id, EDSG policy name, and Acct-Multi-Session-Id.) If matching users are found, the NAS logs out the users or changes the authorization information for the users. If no matching users are found, the NAS replies with a NAK message. When DAE loose check is enabled, the NAS checks only part of the user identification information (including the user IP address, Acct-Session-Id, and Acct-Multi-Session-Id) in a DAE request.

Restrictions and guidelines

When the device acts as both the DAS and the DAE proxy, make sure different UDP port numbers are used by the DAS and the DAE proxy to listen for DAE requests from DACs. This restriction ensures that DAE requests from DACs are correctly received and processed by the DAS or the DAE proxy. For more information about the DAE proxy, see "Configuring DAE proxy."

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enable the RADIUS DAS feature and enter RADIUS DAS view.

radius dynamic-author server

By default, the RADIUS DAS feature is disabled.

3.     Specify a RADIUS DAC.

client { ip ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ key { cipher | simple } string | vendor-id 2011 version { 1.0 | 1.1 } | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] *

By default, no RADIUS DACs are specified.

4.     (Optional.) Specify the RADIUS DAS port.

port port-number

By default, the RADIUS DAS port is 3799.

5.     (Optional.) Configure a trusted DAC.

IPv4:

trust ip ipv4-address [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

IPv6:

trust ipv6 ipv6-address [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

By default, no trusted DACs are configured.

6.     (Optional.) Enable DAE loose check.

dae-loose-check enable

By default, DAE loose check is disabled.

As a best practice to avoid unnecessary drop of DAE requests, enable this feature when the user and device identification information on DACs are inconsistent with those on the DAS.

Enabling SNMP notifications for RADIUS

About this task

When SNMP notifications are enabled for RADIUS, the SNMP agent supports the following notifications generated by RADIUS:

·     RADIUS server unreachable notification—The RADIUS server cannot be reached. RADIUS generates this notification if it does not receive a response to an accounting or authentication request within the specified number of RADIUS request transmission attempts.

·     RADIUS server reachable notification—The RADIUS server can be reached. RADIUS generates this notification for a previously blocked RADIUS server after the quiet timer expires.

·     Excessive authentication failures notification—The number of authentication failures compared to the total number of authentication attempts exceeds the specified threshold.

For RADIUS SNMP notifications to be sent correctly, you must also configure SNMP on the device. For more information about SNMP configuration, see Network Management and Monitoring Configuration Guide.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enable SNMP notifications for RADIUS.

snmp-agent trap enable radius [ accounting-server-down | accounting-server-up | authentication-error-threshold | authentication-server-down | authentication-server-up ] *

By default, all SNMP notifications are disabled for RADIUS.

Display and maintenance commands for RADIUS

Execute display commands in any view and reset commands in user view.

 

Task

Command

Display the RADIUS scheme configuration.

display radius scheme [ radius-scheme-name ]

Display authentication and accounting load statistics for all RADIUS servers.

display radius server-load statistics

Display RADIUS packet statistics.

display radius statistics [ server { ip ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] [ port port-number ] { accounting | authentication } ]

Display information about buffered RADIUS stop-accounting requests to which no responses have been received.

display stop-accounting-buffer { radius-scheme radius-scheme-name | session-id session-id | time-range start-time end-time | user-name user-name }

Clear history authentication and accounting load statistics for all RADIUS servers.

reset radius server-load statistics

Clear RADIUS packet statistics.

reset radius statistics [ server { ip ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] [ port port-number ] { accounting | authentication } ]

Clear the buffered RADIUS stop-accounting requests to which no responses have been received.

reset stop-accounting-buffer { radius-scheme radius-scheme-name | session-id session-id | time-range start-time end-time | user-name user-name }

 

Configuring HWTACACS

HWTACACS tasks at a glance

To configure HWTACACS, perform the following tasks:

1.     Creating an HWTACACS scheme

2.     Specifying the HWTACACS authentication servers

3.     Specifying the HWTACACS authorization servers

4.     Specifying the HWTACACS accounting servers

5.     Specifying the shared keys for secure HWTACACS communication

Perform this task if no shared keys are specified when configuring HWTACACS servers.

6.     Specifying an MPLS L3VPN instance for the scheme

Perform this task if no MPLS L3VPN instances are specified when configuring HWTACACS servers.

7.     (Optional.) Setting HWTACACS timers

8.     (Optional.) Configuring parameters for HWTACACS packets

¡     Specifying the source IP address of outgoing HWTACACS packets

¡     Setting the username format and traffic statistics units

9.     (Optional.) Configuring HWTACACS stop-accounting packet buffering

Creating an HWTACACS scheme

Restrictions and guidelines

You can configure a maximum of 16 HWTACACS schemes. An HWTACACS scheme can be used by multiple ISP domains.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create an HWTACACS scheme and enter HWTACACS scheme view.

hwtacacs scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

Specifying the HWTACACS authentication servers

About this task

You can specify one primary authentication server and a maximum of 16 secondary authentication servers for an HWTACACS scheme. When the primary server is unreachable, the device searches for the secondary servers in the order they are configured. The first secondary server in active state is used for communication.

Restrictions and guidelines

If redundancy is not required, specify only the primary server.

An HWTACACS server can function as the primary authentication server in one scheme and as the secondary authentication server in another scheme at the same time.

Two HWTACACS authentication servers in a scheme, primary or secondary, cannot have the same combination of IP address, VPN instance, and port number.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter HWTACACS scheme view.

hwtacacs scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

3.     Specify the primary HWTACACS authentication server.

primary authentication { ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | key { cipher | simple } string | single-connection | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] *

By default, no primary HWTACACS authentication server is specified.

4.     (Optional.) Specify a secondary HWTACACS authentication server.

secondary authentication { ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | key { cipher | simple } string | single-connection | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] *

By default, no secondary HWTACACS authentication servers are specified.

Specifying the HWTACACS authorization servers

About this task

You can specify one primary authorization server and a maximum of 16 secondary authorization servers for an HWTACACS scheme. When the primary server is not available, the device searches for the secondary servers in the order they are configured. The first secondary server in active state is used for communication.

Restrictions and guidelines

If redundancy is not required, specify only the primary server.

An HWTACACS server can function as the primary authorization server of one scheme and as the secondary authorization server of another scheme at the same time.

Two HWTACACS authorization servers in a scheme, primary or secondary, cannot have the same combination of IP address, VPN instance, and port number.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter HWTACACS scheme view.

hwtacacs scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

3.     Specify the primary HWTACACS authorization server.

primary authorization { ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | key { cipher | simple } string | single-connection | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] *

By default, no primary HWTACACS authorization server is specified.

4.     (Optional.) Specify a secondary HWTACACS authorization server.

secondary authorization { ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | key { cipher | simple } string | single-connection | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] *

By default, no secondary HWTACACS authorization servers are specified.

Specifying the HWTACACS accounting servers

About this task

You can specify one primary accounting server and a maximum of 16 secondary accounting servers for an HWTACACS scheme. When the primary server is not available, the device searches for the secondary servers in the order they are configured. The first secondary server in active state is used for communication.

Restrictions and guidelines

If redundancy is not required, specify only the primary server.

An HWTACACS server can function as the primary accounting server of one scheme and as the secondary accounting server of another scheme at the same time.

Two HWTACACS accounting servers in a scheme, primary or secondary, cannot have the same combination of IP address, VPN instance, and port number.

HWTACACS does not support accounting for FTP, SFTP, and SCP users.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter HWTACACS scheme view.

hwtacacs scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

3.     Specify the primary HWTACACS accounting server.

primary accounting { ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | key { cipher | simple } string | single-connection | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] *

By default, no primary HWTACACS accounting server is specified.

4.     (Optional.) Specify a secondary HWTACACS accounting server.

secondary accounting { ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port-number | key { cipher | simple } string | single-connection | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] *

By default, no secondary HWTACACS accounting servers are specified.

Specifying the shared keys for secure HWTACACS communication

About this task

The HWTACACS client and server use the MD5 algorithm and shared keys to generate the Authenticator value for packet authentication and user password encryption. The client and server must use the same key for each type of communication.

Perform this task to configure shared keys for servers in an HWTACACS scheme. The keys take effect on all servers for which a shared key is not individually configured.

Restrictions and guidelines

Make sure the shared key configured on the device is the same as the shared key configured on the HWTACACS server.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter HWTACACS scheme view.

hwtacacs scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

3.     Specify a shared key for secure HWTACACS authentication, authorization, or accounting communication.

key { accounting | authentication | authorization } { cipher | simple } string

By default, no shared key is specified for secure HWTACACS communication.

Specifying an MPLS L3VPN instance for the scheme

About this task

The VPN instance specified for an HWTACACS scheme applies to all servers in that scheme. If a VPN instance is also configured for an individual HWTACACS server, the VPN instance specified for the HWTACACS scheme does not take effect on that server.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter HWTACACS scheme view.

hwtacacs scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

3.     Specify a VPN instance for the HWTACACS scheme.

vpn-instance vpn-instance-name

By default, an HWTACACS scheme belongs to the public network.

Setting HWTACACS timers

About this task

The device uses the following timers to control communication with an HWTACACS server:

·     Server response timeout timer (response-timeout)—Defines the HWTACACS server response timeout timer. The device starts this timer immediately after an HWTACACS authentication, authorization, or accounting request is sent. If the device does not receive a response from the server within the timer, it sets the server to blocked. Then, the device sends the request to another HWTACACS server.

·     Real-time accounting timer (realtime-accounting)—Defines the interval at which the device sends real-time accounting packets to the HWTACACS accounting server for online users.

·     Server quiet timer (quiet)—Defines the duration to keep an unreachable server in blocked state. If a server is not reachable, the device changes the server status to blocked, starts this timer for the server, and tries to communicate with another server in active state. After the server quiet timer expires, the device changes the status of the server back to active.

The server quiet timer setting affects the status of HWTACACS servers. If the scheme includes one primary HWTACACS server and multiple secondary HWTACACS servers, the device communicates with the HWTACACS servers based on the following rules:

·     When the primary server is in active state, the device communicates with the primary server. When the primary server is unreachable, the device researches a secondary server in active status in the order they are configured.

·     When one or more servers are in active state, the device tries to communicate with these servers only, even if they are unreachable.

·     When all servers are in blocked state, the device only tries to communicate with the primary server.

·     If the primary server is unreachable, the device changes the server status to blocked and starts a quiet timer for the server. When the quiet timer of the server expires, the status of the server changes back to active. The device does not check the server again during the authentication, authorization, or accounting process.

·     The search process continues until the device finds an available secondary server or has checked all secondary servers in active state. If no server is available, the device considers the authentication, authorization, or accounting attempt a failure.

·     When you remove a server in use, communication with the server times out. The device looks for a server in active state by first checking the primary server, and then checking secondary servers in the order they are configured.

·     When an HWTACACS server's status changes automatically, the device changes this server's status accordingly in all HWTACACS schemes in which this server is specified.

Restrictions and guidelines

A short real-time accounting interval helps improve accounting precision but requires many system resources. When there are 1000 or more users, set a real-time accounting interval longer than 15 minutes.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter HWTACACS scheme view.

hwtacacs scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

3.     Set the HWTACACS timers. Choose the following tasks as needed:

¡     Set the HWTACACS server response timeout timer.

timer response-timeout seconds

By default, the HWTACACS server response timeout timer is 5 seconds.

¡     Set the real-time accounting interval.

timer realtime-accounting minutes

By default, the real-time accounting interval is 12 minutes.

¡     Set the server quiet timer.

timer quiet minutes

By default, the server quiet timer is 5 minutes.

Specifying the source IP address of outgoing HWTACACS packets

About this task

The source IP address of HWTACACS packets that a NAS sends must match the IP address of the NAS configured on the HWTACACS server. An HWTACACS server identifies a NAS by IP address. When the HWTACACS server receives a packet, it checks the source IP address of the packet.

·     If the IP address belongs to a managed NAS, the server processes the packet.

·     If the IP address does not belong to a managed NAS, the server drops the packet.

Before sending an HWTACACS packet, the NAS selects a source IP address in the following order:

1.     The source IP address specified for the HWTACACS scheme.

2.     The source IP address specified in system view for the VPN or public network, depending on where the HWTACACS server resides.

3.     The IP address of the outbound interface specified by the route.

Restrictions and guidelines for source IP address configuration

You can specify the source IP address of outgoing HWTACACS packets in HWTACACS scheme view or in system view.

·     The IP address specified in HWTACACS scheme view applies to one HWTACACS scheme.

·     The IP address specified in system view applies to all HWTACACS schemes whose servers are in a VPN or the public network.

The source IP address of HWTACACS packets that a NAS sends must match the IP address of the NAS that is configured on the HWTACACS server.

As a best practice to avoid HWTACACS packet loss caused by physical port errors, specify a loopback interface address as the source IP address of outgoing HWTACACS packets.

To communicate with the HWTACACS server, the source address of outgoing HWTACACS packets is typically the IP address of an egress interface on the NAS. However, in some situations, you must change the source IP address. For example, when VRRP is configured for stateful failover, configure the virtual IP of the uplink VRRP group as the source address.

Specifying a source IP address for outgoing HWTACACS packets in system view

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Specify a source IP address for outgoing HWTACACS packets.

hwtacacs nas-ip { ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

By default, the primary IP address of the HWTACACS packet outbound interface is used as the source IP address.

Specifying a source IP address for outgoing HWTACACS packets in HWTACACS scheme view

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter HWTACACS scheme view.

hwtacacs scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

3.     Specify the source IP address of outgoing HWTACACS packets.

nas-ip { ipv4-address | ipv6 ipv6-address }

By default, the source IP address specified by using the hwtacacs nas-ip command in system view is used. If the source IP address is not specified, the primary IP address of the outbound interface is used.

Setting the username format and traffic statistics units

About this task

A username is typically in the userid@isp-name format, where the isp-name part represents the user's ISP domain name. By default, the ISP domain name is included in a username. If HWTACACS servers do not recognize usernames that contain ISP domain names, you can configure the device to send usernames without domain names to the servers.

The device reports online user traffic statistics in accounting packets.

Restrictions and guidelines

If two or more ISP domains use the same HWTACACS scheme, configure the HWTACACS scheme to keep the ISP domain name in usernames for domain identification.

For accounting accuracy, make sure the traffic measurement units configured on the device are the same as the traffic measurement units configured on the HWTACACS accounting servers.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter HWTACACS scheme view.

hwtacacs scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

3.     Set the format of usernames sent to the HWTACACS servers.

user-name-format { keep-original | with-domain | without-domain }

By default, the ISP domain name is included in a username.

4.     Set the data flow and packet measurement units for traffic statistics.

data-flow-format { data { byte | giga-byte | kilo-byte | mega-byte } | packet { giga-packet | kilo-packet | mega-packet | one-packet } }*

By default, traffic is counted in bytes and packets.

Configuring HWTACACS stop-accounting packet buffering

About this task

The device sends HWTACACS stop-accounting requests when it receives connection teardown requests from hosts or connection teardown commands from an administrator. However, the device might fail to receive a response for a stop-accounting request in a single transmission. Enable the device to buffer HWTACACS stop-accounting requests that have not received responses from the accounting server. The device will resend the requests until responses are received.

To limit the transmission times, set a maximum number of attempts that can be made for transmitting individual HWTACACS stop-accounting requests. When the maximum attempts are made for a request, the device discards the buffered request.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter HWTACACS scheme view.

hwtacacs scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

3.     Enable buffering of HWTACACS stop-accounting requests to which no responses have been received.

stop-accounting-buffer enable

By default, the buffering feature is enabled.

4.     (Optional.) Set the maximum number of transmission attempts for individual HWTACACS stop-accounting requests.

retry stop-accounting retries

The default setting is 100.

Display and maintenance commands for HWTACACS

Execute display commands in any view and reset commands in user view.

 

Task

Command

Display the configuration or server statistics of HWTACACS schemes.

display hwtacacs scheme [ hwtacacs-scheme-name [ statistics ] ]

Display information about buffered HWTACACS stop-accounting requests to which no responses have been received.

display stop-accounting-buffer hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

Clear HWTACACS statistics.

reset hwtacacs statistics { accounting | all | authentication | authorization }

Clear the buffered HWTACACS stop-accounting requests to which no responses have been received.

reset stop-accounting-buffer hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

 

Configuring LDAP

LDAP tasks at a glance

To configure LDAP, perform the following tasks:

1.     Configuring an LDAP server

a.     Creating an LDAP server

b.     Configuring the IP address of the LDAP server

c.     (Optional.) Specifying the LDAP version

d.     (Optional.) Setting the LDAP server timeout period

e.     Configuring administrator attributes

f.     Configuring LDAP user attributes

2.     (Optional.) Configuring an LDAP attribute map

3.     Creating an LDAP scheme

4.     Specifying the LDAP authentication server

5.     (Optional.) Specifying the LDAP authorization server

6.     (Optional.) Specifying an LDAP attribute map for LDAP authorization

Creating an LDAP server

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create an LDAP server and enter LDAP server view.

ldap server server-name

Configuring the IP address of the LDAP server

Restrictions and guidelines

You can configure either an IPv4 address or an IPv6 address for an LDAP server. If you configure the IP address for an LDAP server multiple times, the most recent configuration takes effect.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter LDAP server view.

ldap server server-name

3.     Configure the IP address of the LDAP server.

{ ip ip-address | ipv6 ipv6-address } [ port port-number ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

By default, an LDAP server does not have an IP address.

Specifying the LDAP version

Restrictions and guidelines

The device supports LDAPv2 and LDAPv3.

A Microsoft LDAP server supports only LDAPv3.

The LDAP version specified on the device must be consistent with the version specified on the LDAP server.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter LDAP server view.

ldap server server-name

3.     Specify the LDAP version.

protocol-version { v2 | v3 }

By default, LDAPv3 is used.

Setting the LDAP server timeout period

About this task

If the device sends a bind or search request to an LDAP server without receiving the server's response within the server timeout period, the authentication or authorization request times out. Then, the device tries the backup authentication or authorization method. If no backup method is configured in the ISP domain, the device considers the authentication or authorization attempt a failure.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter LDAP server view.

ldap server server-name

3.     Set the LDAP server timeout period.

server-timeout time-interval

By default, the LDAP server timeout period is 10 seconds.

Configuring administrator attributes

About this task

To configure the administrator DN and password for binding with the LDAP server during LDAP authentication:

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter LDAP server view.

ldap server server-name

3.     Specify the administrator DN.

login-dn dn-string

By default, no administrator DN is specified.

The administrator DN specified on the device must be the same as the administrator DN configured on the LDAP server.

4.     Configure the administrator password.

login-password { cipher | simple } string

By default, no administrator password is specified.

Configuring LDAP user attributes

About this task

To authenticate a user, an LDAP client must complete the following operations:

1.     Establish a connection to the LDAP server.

2.     Obtain the user DN from the LDAP server.

3.     Use the user DN and the user's password to bind with the LDAP server.

LDAP provides a DN search mechanism for obtaining the user DN. According to the mechanism, an LDAP client sends search requests to the server based on the search policy determined by the LDAP user attributes of the LDAP client.

The LDAP user attributes include:

·     Search base DN.

·     Search scope.

·     Username attribute.

·     Username format.

·     User object class.

Restrictions and guidelines

If the LDAP server contains many directory levels, a user DN search starting from the root directory can take a long time. To improve efficiency, you can change the start point by specifying the search base DN.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter LDAP server view.

ldap server server-name

3.     Specify the user search base DN.

search-base-dn base-dn

By default, no user search base DN is specified.

4.     (Optional.) Specify the user search scope.

search-scope { all-level | single-level }

By default, the user search scope is all-level.

5.     (Optional.) Specify the username attribute.

user-parameters user-name-attribute { name-attribute | cn | uid }

By default, the username attribute is cn.

6.     (Optional.) Specify the username format.

user-parameters user-name-format { with-domain | without-domain }

By default, the username format is without-domain.

7.     (Optional.) Specify the user object class.

user-parameters user-object-class object-class-name

By default, no user object class is specified, and the default user object class on the LDAP server is used. The default user object class for this command varies by server model.

Configuring an LDAP attribute map

About this task

Configure an LDAP attribute map to define a list of LDAP-AAA attribute mapping entries. To apply the LDAP attribute map, specify the name of the LDAP attribute map in the LDAP scheme used for authorization.

The LDAP attribute map feature enables the device to convert LDAP attributes obtained from an LDAP authorization server to device-recognizable AAA attributes based on the mapping entries. Because the device ignores unrecognized LDAP attributes, configure the mapping entries to include important LDAP attributes that should not be ignored.

An LDAP attribute can be mapped only to one AAA attribute. Different LDAP attributes can be mapped to the same AAA attribute.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create an LDAP attribute map and enter LDAP attribute map view.

ldap attribute-map map-name

3.     Configure a mapping entry.

map ldap-attribute ldap-attribute-name [ prefix prefix-value delimiter delimiter-value ] aaa-attribute { user-group | user-profile }

Creating an LDAP scheme

Restrictions and guidelines

You can configure a maximum of 16 LDAP schemes. An LDAP scheme can be used by multiple ISP domains.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create an LDAP scheme and enter LDAP scheme view.

ldap scheme ldap-scheme-name

Specifying the LDAP authentication server

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter LDAP scheme view.

ldap scheme ldap-scheme-name

3.     Specify the LDAP authentication server.

authentication-server server-name

By default, no LDAP authentication server is specified.

Specifying the LDAP authorization server

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter LDAP scheme view.

ldap scheme ldap-scheme-name

3.     Specify the LDAP authorization server.

authorization-server server-name

By default, no LDAP authorization server is specified.

Specifying an LDAP attribute map for LDAP authorization

About this task

Specify an LDAP attribute map for LDAP authorization to convert LDAP attributes obtained from the LDAP authorization server to device-recognizable AAA attributes.

Restrictions and guidelines

You can specify only one LDAP attribute map in an LDAP scheme.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter LDAP scheme view.

ldap scheme ldap-scheme-name

3.     Specify an LDAP attribute map.

attribute-map map-name

By default, no LDAP attribute map is specified.

Display and maintenance commands for LDAP

Execute display commands in any view.

 

Task

Command

Display the configuration of LDAP schemes.

display ldap scheme [ ldap-scheme-name ]

 

Creating an ISP domain

About ISP domains

In a networking scenario with multiple ISPs, the device can connect to users of different ISPs. These users can have different user attributes, such as different username and password structures, different service types, and different rights. To manage users of different ISPs, configure authentication, authorization, and accounting methods and domain attributes for each ISP domain as needed.

The device supports a maximum of 1024 ISP domains, including the system-defined ISP domain system. The system ISP domain contains a set of default authentication, authorization, and accounting methods, which are local authentication, local authorization, and local accounting. By default, the system ISP domain is the default system ISP domain. However, you can specify another ISP domain as the default system ISP domain.

On the device, each user belongs to an ISP domain. If a user does not provide an ISP domain name at login, the device determines that the user belongs to the default system ISP domain.

Each ISP domain has a set of system-defined AAA methods, which are local authentication, local authorization, and local accounting. If you do not configure any AAA methods for an ISP domain, the device uses the system-defined AAA methods for users in the domain.

Typically, the device chooses an authentication domain for each user in the following order:

1.     The authentication domain specified by the access module.

2.     The ISP domain in the username.

3.     The default system ISP domain.

If the chosen domain does not exist on the device, the device searches for the ISP domain that accommodates users assigned to nonexistent domains.

Restrictions and guidelines for ISP domain configuration

An ISP domain cannot be deleted when it is the default system ISP domain. Before you use the undo domain command, change the domain to a non-default ISP domain by using the undo domain default enable command.

You can modify the settings of the system-defined ISP domain system, but you cannot delete the domain.

To avoid RADIUS authentication, authorization, or accounting failures, use short domain names to ensure that usernames containing a domain name do not exceed 253 characters.

To avoid RADIUS accounting failures, make sure the domain name contained in usernames sent to the RADIUS server does not exceed 247 characters.

Creating an ISP domain

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create an ISP domain and enter ISP domain view.

domain name isp-name

By default, a system-defined ISP domain exists. The domain name is system.

Specifying the default system ISP domain

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Specify the default system ISP domain.

domain default enable isp-name

By default, the default system ISP domain is the system-defined ISP domain system.

Specifying an ISP domain for users that are assigned to nonexistent domains

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Specify the ISP domain to accommodate users that are assigned to nonexistent domains.

domain if-unknown isp-name

By default, no ISP domain is specified to accommodate users that are assigned to nonexistent domains.

Configuring ISP domain attributes

Setting ISP domain status

About this task

By setting the state of an ISP domain, you can allow or deny network service requests from users in the domain.

·     Active—The device allows network service requests from users in the domain.

·     Blocked—The device denies network service requests from users in the domain. To deny user network service requests during specific time, you can configure the device to place the domain in blocked state during the specified time ranges.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter ISP domain view.

domain name isp-name

3.     Set the status of the ISP domain.

state { active | block [ time-range ][ offline ] }

By default, an ISP domain is in active state, and users in the domain can request network services.

To log out users () when the state of the ISP domain changes to blocked, specify the offline keyword.

4.     Specify time ranges during which the ISP domain is placed in blocked state.

state block time-range name time-range-name

By default, no time ranges are specified during which an ISP domain is placed in blocked state.

Configuring authorization attributes for an ISP domain

About this task

The device supports only the user group authorization attribute. If you assign an authorization user group to authenticated users in an ISP domain, the users obtain all attributes of the user group.

The device assigns the authorization attributes in the ISP domain to the authenticated users that do not receive these attributes from the server.

Restrictions and guidelines

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter ISP domain view.

domain name isp-name

3.     Configure authorization attributes for authenticated users in the ISP domain.

authorization-attribute  user-group user-group-name

Configuring AAA methods for an ISP domain

Configuring authentication methods for an ISP domain

Restrictions and guidelines

When you configure remote authentication, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·     If the authentication method uses a RADIUS scheme and the authorization method does not use a RADIUS scheme, AAA accepts only the authentication result from the RADIUS server. The Access-Accept message from the RADIUS server also includes the authorization information, but the device ignores the information.

·     If an HWTACACS scheme is specified, the device uses the entered username for role authentication. If a RADIUS scheme is specified, the device uses username $enabn$ on the RADIUS server for role authentication. The variable n represents a user role level. For more information about user role authentication, see Fundamentals Configuration Guide.

When the primary authentication method is local, the following rules apply to the authentication of a user:

·     The device uses the backup authentication methods in sequence only if local authentication is invalid for one of the following reasons:

¡     An exception occurs in the local authentication process.

¡     The user account is not configured on the device or the user is not allowed to use the access service.

·     The device does not turn to the backup authentication methods if local authentication is invalid because of any other reason. Authentication fails for the user.

Prerequisites

Before configuring authentication methods, complete the following tasks:

1.     Determine the access type or service type to be configured. With AAA, you can configure an authentication method for each access type and service type.

2.     Determine whether to configure the default authentication method for all access types or service types. The default authentication method applies to all access users. However, the method has a lower priority than the authentication method that is specified for an access type or service type.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter ISP domain view.

domain name isp-name

3.     (Optional.) Specify default authentication methods for all types of users.

authentication default { hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name [ radius-scheme radius-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] | ldap-scheme ldap-scheme-name [ local ] [ none ] | local [ radius-scheme radius-scheme-name | hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name ] * [ none ] | local [ ldap-scheme ldap-scheme-name ] [ none ] | none | radius-scheme radius-scheme-name [ hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] }

By default, the default authentication method is local.

4.     Specify authentication methods for a user type or a service.

¡     Specify authentication methods for login users.

authentication login { hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name [ radius-scheme radius-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] | ldap-scheme ldap-scheme-name [ local ] [ none ] | local [ radius-scheme radius-scheme-name | hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name ] * [ none ] | local [ ldap-scheme ldap-scheme-name ] [ none ] | none | radius-scheme radius-scheme-name [ hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] }

By default, the default authentication methods are used for login users.

¡     Specify authentication methods for obtaining a temporary user role.

authentication super { hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name | radius-scheme radius-scheme-name } *

By default, the default authentication methods are used for obtaining a temporary user role.

Configuring authorization methods for an ISP domain

Restrictions and guidelines

When configuring authorization methods, follow these guidelines:

·     The device supports HWTACACS authorization but not LDAP authorization.

·     To use a RADIUS scheme as the authorization method, specify the name of the RADIUS scheme that is configured as the authentication method for the ISP domain. If an invalid RADIUS scheme is specified as the authorization method, RADIUS authentication and authorization fail.

When the primary authorization method is local, the following rules apply to the authorization of a user:

·     The device uses the backup authorization methods in sequence only if local authorization is invalid for one of the following reasons:

¡     An exception occurs in the local authorization process.

¡     The user account is not configured on the device or the user is not allowed to use the access service.

·     The device does not turn to the backup authorization methods if local authorization is invalid because of any other reason. Authorization fails for the user.

Prerequisites

Before configuring authorization methods, complete the following tasks:

1.     Determine the access type or service type to be configured. With AAA, you can configure an authorization scheme for each access type and service type.

2.     Determine whether to configure the default authorization method for all access types or service types. The default authorization method applies to all access users. However, the method has a lower priority than the authorization method that is specified for an access type or service type.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter ISP domain view.

domain name isp-name

3.     (Optional.) Specify default authorization methods for all types of users.

authorization default { hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name [ radius-scheme radius-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] | local [ radius-scheme radius-scheme-name | hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name ] * [ none ] | none | radius-scheme radius-scheme-name [ hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] }

By default, the authorization method is local.

4.     Specify authorization methods for a user type or a service.

¡     Specify command authorization methods.

authorization command { hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name [ local ] [ none ] | local [ none ] | none }

By default, the default authorization methods are used for command authorization.

¡     Specify authorization methods for login users.

authorization login { hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name [ radius-scheme radius-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] | local [ radius-scheme radius-scheme-name | hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name ] * [ none ] | none | radius-scheme radius-scheme-name [ hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] }

By default, the default authorization methods are used for login users.

Configuring accounting methods for an ISP domain

Restrictions and guidelines

FTP, SFTP, and SCP users do not support accounting.

Local accounting does not provide statistics for charging. It only counts and controls the number of concurrent users that use the same local user account. The threshold is configured by using the access-limit command.

When the primary accounting method is local, the following rules apply to the accounting of a user:

·     The device uses the backup accounting methods in sequence only if local accounting is invalid for one of the following reasons:

¡     An exception occurs in the local accounting process.

¡     The user account is not configured on the device or the user is not allowed to use the access service.

·     The device does not turn to the backup accounting methods if local accounting is invalid because of any other reason. Accounting fails for the user.

Prerequisites

Before configuring accounting methods, complete the following tasks:

1.     Determine the access type or service type to be configured. With AAA, you can configure an accounting method for each access type and service type.

2.     Determine whether to configure the default accounting method for all access types or service types. The default accounting method applies to all access users. However, the method has a lower priority than the accounting method that is specified for an access type or service type.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter ISP domain view.

domain name isp-name

3.     (Optional.) Specify default accounting methods for all types of users.

accounting default { hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name [ radius-scheme radius-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] | local [ radius-scheme radius-scheme-name | hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name ] * [ none ] | none | radius-scheme radius-scheme-name [ hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] }

By default, the accounting method is local.

4.     Specify accounting methods for a user type.

¡     Specify the command accounting method.

accounting command hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name

By default, the default accounting methods are used for command accounting.

¡     Specify accounting methods for login users.

accounting login { hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name [ radius-scheme radius-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] | local [ radius-scheme radius-scheme-name | hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name ] * [ none ] | none | radius-scheme radius-scheme-name [ hwtacacs-scheme hwtacacs-scheme-name ] [ local ] [ none ] }

By default, the default accounting methods are used for login users.

Display and maintenance commands for ISP domains

Execute display commands in any view.

 

Task

Command

Display configuration information about an ISP domain or all ISP domains.

display domain [ name isp-name ]

Display statistics for online access users in ISP domains.

display domain [ name isp-name ] access-user statistics

 

Setting the maximum number of concurrent login users

About this task

Perform this task to set the maximum number of concurrent users that can log on to the device through a specific protocol, regardless of their authentication methods. The authentication methods include no authentication, local authentication, and remote authentication.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Set the maximum number of concurrent login users.

aaa session-limit { ftp | http | https | ssh | telnet } max-sessions

By default, the maximum number of concurrent login users is 32 for each user type.

Configuring a NAS-ID

About NAS-IDs

During RADIUS authentication, the device uses a NAS-ID to set the NAS-Identifier attribute of RADIUS packets so that the RADIUS server can identify the access location of users. You can configure NAS-IDs in different views. The device selects the NAS-ID for the NAS-Identifier attribute in the following order:

3.     NAS-ID bound with VLANs for a NAS-ID profile in NAS-ID profile view.

4.     NAS-ID configured for an ISP domain in ISP domain view.

If no NAS-ID is configured, the device uses the device name (set by using the sysname command) as the NAS-ID.

Configuring a NAS-ID profile

About this task

Configure a NAS-ID profile to maintain NAS-ID and VLAN bindings on the device so that the device can send different NAS-Identifier attribute strings in RADIUS requests from different VLANs.

Restrictions and guidelines

You can configure multiple NAS-ID and VLAN bindings in a NAS-ID profile.

A NAS-ID can be bound with more than one VLAN, but a VLAN can be bound with only one NAS-ID. If you configure multiple bindings for the same VLAN, the most recent configuration takes effect.

The device selects a NAS-ID and VLAN binding for double-tagged packets in the following order:

1.     NAS-ID with both matching outer VLAN ID and inner VLAN ID.

2.     NAS-ID with a matching outer VLAN ID.

3.     NAS-ID with a matching inner VLAN ID.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Create a NAS-ID profile and enter NAS-ID profile view.

aaa nas-id profile profile-name

3.     Configure a NAS-ID and VLAN binding in the profile.

nas-id nas-identifier bind  vlan vlan-id

 

Setting the NAS-ID in an ISP domain

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enter ISP domain view.

domain name isp-name

3.     Set the NAS-ID in the ISP domain.

nas-id nas-identifier

By default, no NAS-ID is set in an ISP domain.

Configuring the device ID

About this task

RADIUS uses the value of the Acct-Session-ID attribute as the accounting ID for a user. The device generates an Acct-Session-ID value for each online user based on the system time, random digits, and device ID.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Configure the device ID.

aaa device-id device-id

By default, the device ID is 0.

Enabling password change prompt logging

About this task

Use this feature to enhance the protection of passwords for Telnet, SSH, HTTP, HTTPS, NETCONF over SSH, and NETCONF over SOAP users and improve the system security.

This feature enables the device to generate logs to prompt users to change their weak passwords at an interval of 24 hours and at the users' login.

A password is a weak password if it does not meet the following requirements:

·     Password composition restriction configured by using the password-control composition command.

·     Minimum password length restriction set by using the password-control length command.

·     It cannot contain the username or the reverse letters of the username.

For a NETCONF over SSH or NETCONF over SOAP user, the device also generates a password change prompt log if any of the following conditions exists:

·     The current password of the user is the default password or has expired.

·     The user logs in to the device for the first time or uses a new password to log in after global password control is enabled.

The device will no longer generate password change prompt logs for a user when one of the following conditions exists:

·     The password change prompt logging feature is disabled.

·     The user has changed the password and the new password meets the password control requirements.

·     The enabling status of a related password control feature has changed so the current password of the user meets the password control requirements.

·     The password composition policy or the minimum password length has changed.

Restrictions and guidelines

You can use the display password-control command to display password control configuration. For more information about password control commands, see password control commands in Security Command Reference.

Procedure

3.     Enter system view.

system-view

4.     Enable password change prompt logging.

local-server log change-password-prompt

By default, password change prompt logging is enabled.

 

AAA configuration examples

Example: Configuring authentication and authorization for SSH users by a RADIUS server

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 10, configure the router to meet the following requirements:

·     Use the RADIUS server for SSH user authentication and authorization.

·     Include domain names in the usernames sent to the RADIUS server.

·     Assign the network-admin user role to SSH users after they pass authentication.

The RADIUS server runs IMC PLAT 7.3 (E0605) and IMC UAM 7.3 (E0512). Add an account with username hello@bbb on the RADIUS server.

The RADIUS server and the router use expert as the shared key for secure RADIUS communication. The ports for authentication and accounting are 1812 and 1813, respectively.

Figure 10 Network diagram

IMPORTANT

IMPORTANT:

By default, interfaces on the device are disabled (in ADM or Administratively Down state). To have an interface operate, you must use the undo shutdown command to enable that interface.

Prerequisites

# Configure IP addresses for interfaces, and make sure the network connections are available. (Details not shown.)

Configuring the RADIUS server

1.     Add the router to the IMC Platform as an access device:

a.     Log in to IMC.

b.     Click the User tab.

c.     From the navigation tree, select User Access Policy > Access Device Management > Access Device.

d.     Click Add.

The Add Access Device page opens.

e.     In the Access Configuration area, configure the following parameters, as shown in Figure 11:

-     Set the authentication port and accounting port to 1812 and 1813, respectively.

-     Select Device Management Service from the Service Type list.

-     Select H3C (General) from the Access Device Type list.

-     Set the shared key for secure RADIUS communication to expert.

-     Use the default values for other parameters.

f.     In the Device List area, click Select or Add Manually to add the device at 10.1.1.2 as an access device.

 

IMPORTANT

IMPORTANT:

You must specify the source IP address of outgoing RADIUS packets on the router as the IP address of the access device on the server.

On the router, the source IP address configured by using the source-ip command has higher priority than the source IP address configured by using the radius source-ip command. If no IP address is specified as the source IP address, the IP address of the packet outbound interface is used as the source IP address.

In this example, no source IP address is specified on the router. The IP address of the packet outbound interface on the router is specified as the IP address of the access device on the server, which is 10.1.1.2.

 

g.     Click OK.

Figure 11 Adding the router as an access device

 

2.     Add an account for device management:

a.     Click the User tab.

b.     From the navigation tree, select Device User > Device User.

c.     Click Add.

d.     On the Add Device User page, configure the following parameters, as shown in Figure 12:

-     Enter account name hello@bbb and specify the password.

-     Select SSH from the Login Type list.

-     Enter network-admin in the Role Name field.

-     In the IP Address List of Managed Devices area, click Add to specify an IP segment (from 10.1.1.0 to 10.1.1.255) for management.

 

IMPORTANT

IMPORTANT:

The managed IP segment must contain the NAS IP address of the router.

On the router, the priority of the NAS IP addresses configured by using the aaa nas-ip, nas-ip, and radius nas-ip commands are in descending order. If no IP address is specified as the NAS IP address, the IP address of the packet outbound interface is used as the NAS IP address.

In this example, no NAS IP address is specified on the router. The IP address (10.1.1.2) of the packet outbound interface on the router must be contained in the managed IP segment.

 

e.     Click OK.

Figure 12 Adding an account for device management

 

Configuring the router

# Configure the IP addresses for interfaces. (Details not shown.)

# Create local RSA and DSA key pairs.

<Router> system-view

[Router] public-key local create rsa

[Router] public-key local create dsa

# Enable the Stelnet server.

[Router] ssh server enable

# Enable scheme authentication for user lines VTY 0 through VTY 63.

[Router] line vty 0 63

[Router-line-vty0-63] authentication-mode scheme

[Router-line-vty0-63] quit

# Create a RADIUS scheme.

[Router] radius scheme rad

# Specify the primary authentication server.

[Router-radius-rad] primary authentication 10.1.1.1 1812

# Set the shared key to expert in plaintext form for secure communication with the server.

[Router-radius-rad] key authentication simple expert

# Include domain names in the usernames sent to the RADIUS server.

[Router-radius-rad] user-name-format with-domain

[Router-radius-rad] quit

# Create an ISP domain named bbb and configure authentication, authorization, and accounting methods for login users. Because RADIUS user authorization information is piggybacked in authentication responses, the authentication and authorization methods must use the same RADIUS scheme.

[Router] domain name bbb

[Router-isp-bbb] authentication login radius-scheme rad

[Router-isp-bbb] authorization login radius-scheme rad

[Router-isp-bbb] accounting login none

[Router-isp-bbb] quit

Verifying the configuration

# Initiate an SSH connection to the router, and enter username hello@bbb and the correct password. The user logs in to the router. (Details not shown.)

# Verify that the user can use the commands permitted by the network-admin user role. (Details not shown.)

Example: Configuring local authentication and authorization for SSH users

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 13, configure the router to meet the following requirements:

·     Perform local authentication and authorization for SSH users.

·     Assign the network-admin user role to SSH users after they pass authentication.

Figure 13 Network diagram

IMPORTANT

IMPORTANT:

By default, interfaces on the device are disabled (in ADM or Administratively Down state). To have an interface operate, you must use the undo shutdown command to enable that interface.

Prerequisites

# Configure IP addresses for interfaces, and make sure the network connections are available. (Details not shown.)

Procedure

# Create local RSA and DSA key pairs.

<Router> system-view

[Router] public-key local create rsa

[Router] public-key local create dsa

# Enable the Stelnet server.

[Router] ssh server enable

# Enable scheme authentication for user lines VTY 0 through VTY 63.

[Router] line vty 0 63

[Router-line-vty0-63] authentication-mode scheme

[Router-line-vty0-63] quit

# Create a device management user.

[Router] local-user ssh class manage

# Assign the SSH service to the local user.

[Router-luser-manage-ssh] service-type ssh

# Set the password to 123456TESTplat&! in plaintext form for the local user.

[Router-luser-manage-ssh] password simple 123456TESTplat&!

# Specify the user role for the user as network-admin.

[Router-luser-manage-ssh] authorization-attribute user-role network-admin

[Router-luser-manage-ssh] quit

# Create an ISP domain named bbb and configure the domain to use local authentication and authorization for login users.

[Router] domain name bbb

[Router-isp-bbb] authentication login local

[Router-isp-bbb] authorization login local

[Router-isp-bbb] quit

Verifying the configuration

# Initiate an SSH connection to the router, and enter username ssh@bbb and the correct password. The user logs in to the router. (Details not shown.)

# Verify that the user can use the commands permitted by the network-admin user role. (Details not shown.)

Example: Configuring AAA for SSH users by an HWTACACS server

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 14, configure the router to meet the following requirements:

·     Use the HWTACACS server for SSH user authentication, authorization, and accounting.

·     Assign the default user role network-operator to SSH users after they pass authentication.

·     Exclude domain names from the usernames sent to the HWTACACS server.

·     Use expert as the shared keys for secure HWTACACS communication.

Figure 14 Network diagram

IMPORTANT

IMPORTANT:

By default, interfaces on the device are disabled (in ADM or Administratively Down state). To have an interface operate, you must use the undo shutdown command to enable that interface.

Prerequisites

# Configure IP addresses for interfaces, and make sure the network connections are available. (Details not shown.)

Configuring the HWTACACS server

# Set the shared keys to expert for secure communication with the router, add an account for the SSH user, and specify the password. (Details not shown.)

Configuring the router

# Create an HWTACACS scheme.

<Router> system-view

[Router] hwtacacs scheme hwtac

# Specify the primary authentication server.

[Router-hwtacacs-hwtac] primary authentication 10.1.1.1 49

# Specify the primary authorization server.

[Router-hwtacacs-hwtac] primary authorization 10.1.1.1 49

# Specify the primary accounting server.

[Router-hwtacacs-hwtac] primary accounting 10.1.1.1 49

# Set the shared keys to expert in plaintext form for secure HWTACACS communication.

[Router-hwtacacs-hwtac] key authentication simple expert

[Router-hwtacacs-hwtac] key authorization simple expert

[Router-hwtacacs-hwtac] key accounting simple expert

# Exclude domain names from the usernames sent to the HWTACACS server.

[Router-hwtacacs-hwtac] user-name-format without-domain

[Router-hwtacacs-hwtac] quit

# Create an ISP domain and configure the domain to use the HWTACACS scheme for authentication, authorization, and accounting of login users.

[Router] domain name bbb

[Router-isp-bbb] authentication login hwtacacs-scheme hwtac

[Router-isp-bbb] authorization login hwtacacs-scheme hwtac

[Router-isp-bbb] accounting login hwtacacs-scheme hwtac

[Router-isp-bbb] quit

# Create local RSA and DSA key pairs.

[Router] public-key local create rsa

[Router] public-key local create dsa

# Enable the Stelnet server.

[Router] ssh server enable

# Enable the default user role feature to assign authenticated SSH users the default user role network-operator.

[Router] role default-role enable

# Enable scheme authentication for user lines VTY 0 through VTY 63.

[Router] line vty 0 63

[Router-line-vty0-63] authentication-mode scheme

[Router-line-vty0-63] quit

Verifying the configuration

# Initiate an SSH connection to the router, and enter the correct username and password. The user logs in to the router. (Details not shown.)

# Verify that the user can use the commands permitted by the network-operator user role. (Details not shown.)

Example: Configuring authentication for SSH users by an LDAP server

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 15, the LDAP server uses domain ldap.com and runs Microsoft Windows 2003 Server Active Directory.

Configure the router to meet the following requirements:

·     Use the LDAP server to authenticate SSH users.

·     Assign the level-0 user role to SSH users after they pass authentication.

On the LDAP server, set the administrator password to admin!123456, add a user named aaa, and set the user's password to ldap!123456.

Figure 15 Network diagram

IMPORTANT

IMPORTANT:

By default, interfaces on the device are disabled (in ADM or Administratively Down state). To have an interface operate, you must use the undo shutdown command to enable that interface.

Prerequisites

# Configure IP addresses for interfaces, and make sure the network connections are available. (Details not shown.)

Configuring the LDAP server

1.     Add a user named aaa and set the password to ldap!123456:

a.     On the LDAP server, select Start > Control Panel > Administrative Tools.

b.     Double-click Active Directory Users and Computers.

The Active Directory Users and Computers window is displayed.

c.     From the navigation tree, click Users under the ldap.com node.

d.     Select Action > New > User from the menu to display the dialog box for adding a user.

e.     Enter logon name aaa and click Next.

Figure 16 Adding user aaa

 

f.     In the dialog box, enter password ldap!123456, select options as needed, and click Next.

Figure 17 Setting the user's password

 

g.     Click OK.

2.     Add user aaa to group Users:

a.     From the navigation tree, click Users under the ldap.com node.

b.     In the right pane, right-click user aaa and select Properties.

c.     In the dialog box, click the Member Of tab and click Add.

Figure 18 Modifying user properties

 

d.     In the Select Groups dialog box, enter Users in the Enter the object names to select field, and click OK.

User aaa is added to group Users.

Figure 19 Adding user aaa to group Users

 

3.     Set the administrator password to admin!123456:

a.     In the right pane, right-click user Administrator and select Set Password.

b.     In the dialog box, enter the administrator password. (Details not shown.)

Configuring the router

# Create the local DSA key pair and RSA key pairs.

<Router> system-view

[Router] public-key local create dsa

[Router] public-key local create rsa

# Enable the Stelnet server.

[Router] ssh server enable

# Enable scheme authentication for user lines VTY 0 through VTY 63.

[Router] line vty 0 63

[Router-line-vty0-63] authentication-mode scheme

[Router-line-vty0-63] quit

# Configure an LDAP server.

[Router] ldap server ldap1

# Specify the IP address of the LDAP authentication server.

[Router-ldap-server-ldap1] ip 10.1.1.1

# Specify the administrator DN.

[Router-ldap-server-ldap1] login-dn cn=administrator,cn=users,dc=ldap,dc=com

# Specify the administrator password.

[Router-ldap-server-ldap1] login-password simple admin!123456

# Configure the base DN for user search.

[Router-ldap-server-ldap1] search-base-dn dc=ldap,dc=com

[Router-ldap-server-ldap1] quit

# Create an LDAP scheme.

[Router] ldap scheme ldap1-shml

# Specify the LDAP authentication server.

[Router-ldap-ldap-shml] authentication-server ldap1

[Router-ldap-ldap1-shml] quit

# Create an ISP domain named bbb and configure the authentication, authorization, and accounting methods for login users.

[Router] domain name bbb

[Router-isp-bbb] authentication login ldap-scheme ldap1-shml

[Router-isp-bbb] authorization login none

[Router-isp-bbb] accounting login none

[Router-isp-bbb] quit

Verifying the configuration

# Initiate an SSH connection to the router, and enter username aaa@bbb and password ldap!123456. The user logs in to the router. (Details not shown.)

# Verify that the user can use the commands permitted by the level-0 user role. (Details not shown.)

Troubleshooting RADIUS

RADIUS authentication failure

Symptom

User authentication always fails.

Analysis

Possible reasons include:

·     A communication failure exists between the NAS and the RADIUS server.

·     The username is not in the userid@isp-name format, or the ISP domain is not correctly configured on the NAS.

·     The user is not configured on the RADIUS server.

·     The password entered by the user is incorrect.

·     The RADIUS server and the NAS are configured with different shared keys.

Solution

To resolve the problem:

1.     Verify the following items:

¡     The NAS and the RADIUS server can ping each other.

¡     The username is in the userid@isp-name format and the ISP domain is correctly configured on the NAS.

¡     The user is configured on the RADIUS server.

¡     The correct password is entered.

¡     The same shared key is configured on both the RADIUS server and the NAS.

2.     If the problem persists, contact H3C Support.

RADIUS packet delivery failure

Symptom

RADIUS packets cannot reach the RADIUS server.

Analysis

Possible reasons include:

·     A communication failure exists between the NAS and the RADIUS server.

·     The NAS is not configured with the IP address of the RADIUS server.

·     The authentication and accounting UDP ports configured on the NAS are incorrect.

·     The RADIUS server's authentication and accounting port numbers are being used by other applications.

Solution

To resolve the problem:

1.     Verify the following items:

¡     The link between the NAS and the RADIUS server works well at both the physical and data link layers.

¡     The IP address of the RADIUS server is correctly configured on the NAS.

¡     The authentication and accounting UDP port numbers configured on the NAS are the same as those of the RADIUS server.

¡     The RADIUS server's authentication and accounting port numbers are available.

2.     If the problem persists, contact H3C Support.

RADIUS accounting error

Symptom

A user is authenticated and authorized, but accounting for the user is not normal.

Analysis

The accounting server configuration on the NAS is not correct. Possible reasons include:

·     The accounting port number configured on the NAS is incorrect.

·     The accounting server IP address configured on the NAS is incorrect. For example, the NAS is configured to use a single server to provide authentication, authorization, and accounting services, but in fact the services are provided by different servers.

Solution

To resolve the problem:

1.     Verify the following items:

¡     The accounting port number is correctly configured.

¡     The accounting server IP address is correctly configured on the NAS.

2.     If the problem persists, contact H3C Support.

Troubleshooting HWTACACS

Similar to RADIUS troubleshooting. See "Troubleshooting RADIUS."

LDAP authentication failure

Symptom

User authentication fails.

Analysis

Possible reasons include:

·     A communication failure exists between the NAS and the LDAP server.

·     The LDAP server IP address or port number configured on the NAS is not correct.

·     The username is not in the userid@isp-name format, or the ISP domain is not correctly configured on the NAS.

·     The user is not configured on the LDAP server.

·     The password entered by the user is incorrect.

·     The administrator DN or password is not configured.

·     Some user attributes (for example, the username attribute) configured on the NAS are not consistent with those configured on the server.

·     No user search base DN is specified for the LDAP scheme.

Solution

To resolve the problem:

1.     Verify the following items:

¡     The NAS and the LDAP server can ping each other.

¡     The IP address and port number of the LDAP server configured on the NAS match those of the server.

¡     The username is in the correct format and the ISP domain for the user authentication is correctly configured on the NAS.

¡     The user is configured on the LDAP server.

¡     The correct password is entered.

¡     The administrator DN and the administrator password are correctly configured.

¡     The user attributes (for example, the username attribute) configured on the NAS are consistent with those configured on the LDAP server.

¡     The user search base DN for authentication is specified.

2.     If the problem persists, contact H3C Support.

Appendixes

Appendix A Commonly used RADIUS attributes

Commonly used RADIUS attributes are defined in RFC 2865, RFC 2866, RFC 2867, and RFC 2868.

Table 3 Commonly used RADIUS attributes

No.

Attribute

No.

Attribute

1

User-Name

45

Acct-Authentic

2

User-Password

46

Acct-Session-Time

3

CHAP-Password

47

Acct-Input-Packets

4

NAS-IP-Address

48

Acct-Output-Packets

5

NAS-Port

49

Acct-Terminate-Cause

6

Service-Type

50

Acct-Multi-Session-Id

7

Framed-Protocol

51

Acct-Link-Count

8

Framed-IP-Address

52

Acct-Input-Gigawords

9

Framed-IP-Netmask

53

Acct-Output-Gigawords

10

Framed-Routing

54

(unassigned)

11

Filter-ID

55

Event-Timestamp

12

Framed-MTU

56-59

(unassigned)

13

Framed-Compression

60

CHAP-Challenge

14

Login-IP-Host

61

NAS-Port-Type

15

Login-Service

62

Port-Limit

16

Login-TCP-Port

63

Login-LAT-Port

17

(unassigned)

64

Tunnel-Type

18

Reply-Message

65

Tunnel-Medium-Type

19

Callback-Number

66

Tunnel-Client-Endpoint

20

Callback-ID

67

Tunnel-Server-Endpoint

21

(unassigned)

68

Acct-Tunnel-Connection

22

Framed-Route

69

Tunnel-Password

23

Framed-IPX-Network

70

ARAP-Password

24

State

71

ARAP-Features

25

Class

72

ARAP-Zone-Access

26

Vendor-Specific

73

ARAP-Security

27

Session-Timeout

74

ARAP-Security-Data

28

Idle-Timeout

75

Password-Retry

29

Termination-Action

76

Prompt

30

Called-Station-Id

77

Connect-Info

31

Calling-Station-Id

78

Configuration-Token

32

NAS-Identifier

79

EAP-Message

33

Proxy-State

80

Message-Authenticator

34

Login-LAT-Service

81

Tunnel-Private-Group-ID

35

Login-LAT-Node

82

Tunnel-Assignment-id

36

Login-LAT-Group

83

Tunnel-Preference

37

Framed-AppleTalk-Link

84

ARAP-Challenge-Response

38

Framed-AppleTalk-Network

85

Acct-Interim-Interval

39

Framed-AppleTalk-Zone

86

Acct-Tunnel-Packets-Lost

40

Acct-Status-Type

87

NAS-Port-Id

41

Acct-Delay-Time

88

Framed-Pool

42

Acct-Input-Octets

89

(unassigned)

43

Acct-Output-Octets

90

Tunnel-Client-Auth-id

44

Acct-Session-Id

91

Tunnel-Server-Auth-id

 

Appendix B Descriptions for commonly used standard RADIUS attributes

No.

Attribute

Description

1

User-Name

Name of the user to be authenticated.

2

User-Password

User password for PAP authentication, only present in Access-Request packets when PAP authentication is used.

3

CHAP-Password

Digest of the user password for CHAP authentication, only present in Access-Request packets when CHAP authentication is used.

4

NAS-IP-Address

IP address for the server to use to identify the client. Typically, a client is identified by the IP address of its access interface.

5

NAS-Port

Physical port of the NAS that the user accesses.

6

Service-Type

Type of service that the user has requested or type of service to be provided.

7

Framed-Protocol

Encapsulation protocol for framed access.

8

Framed-IP-Address

IP address assigned to the user.

11

Filter-ID

Name of the filter list. This attribute is parsed as follows:

·     If the name is a string of all digits, it indicates an ACL number.

·     If the name is not a string of all digits, it indicates a user profile name.

12

Framed-MTU

MTU for the data link between the user and NAS. For example, this attribute can be used to define the maximum size of EAP packets allowed to be processed in 802.1X EAP authentication.

14

Login-IP-Host

IP address of the NAS interface that the user accesses.

15

Login-Service

Type of service that the user uses for login.

18

Reply-Message

Text to be displayed to the user, which can be used by the server to communicate information, for example, the cause of the authentication failure.

26

Vendor-Specific

Vendor-specific proprietary attribute. A packet can contain one or more proprietary attributes, each of which can contain one or more subattributes.

27

Session-Timeout

Maximum service duration for the user before termination of the session.

Value 0 indicates that the device will log out the user. Value 4294967295 indicates that no limit is placed on the online duration of the user.

28

Idle-Timeout

Maximum idle time permitted for the user before termination of the session.

31

Calling-Station-Id

User identification that the NAS sends to the server. For the LAN access service provided by an H3C device, this attribute includes the MAC address of the user in the format HHHH-HHHH-HHHH.

32

NAS-Identifier

Identification that the NAS uses to identify itself to the RADIUS server.

40

Acct-Status-Type

Type of the Accounting-Request packet. Possible values include:

·     1—Start.

·     2—Stop.

·     3—Interim-Update.

·     4—Reset-Charge.

·     7—Accounting-On. (Defined in the 3rd Generation Partnership Project.)

·     8—Accounting-Off. (Defined in the 3rd Generation Partnership Project.)

·     9 to 14—Reserved for tunnel accounting.

·     15—Reserved for failed.

45

Acct-Authentic

Authentication method used by the user. Possible values include:

·     1—RADIUS.

·     2—Local.

·     3—Remote.

60

CHAP-Challenge

CHAP challenge generated by the NAS for MD5 calculation during CHAP authentication.

61

NAS-Port-Type

Type of the physical port of the NAS that is authenticating the user. Possible values include:

·     15—Ethernet.

·     16—Any type of ADSL.

·     17—Cable. (With cable for cable TV.)

·     19—WLAN-IEEE 802.11.

·     201—VLAN.

·     202—ATM.

If the port is an Ethernet one and VLANs are implemented on it, the value of this attribute is 201.

64

Tunnel-Type

Tunneling protocols used.

The value 13 represents VLAN. If the value is 13, the device interprets the Tunnel-Type, Tunnel-Medium-Type, and Tunnel-Private-Group-ID attributes as attributes to assign VLANs.

65

Tunnel-Medium-Type

Transport medium type to use for creating a tunnel.

For VLAN assignment, the value must be 6 to indicate the 802 media plus Ethernet.

67

Tunnel-Server-Endpoint

IP address of the LNS.

69

Tunnel-Password

Password to authenticate a remote server during tunnel establishment.

79

EAP-Message

Used to encapsulate EAP packets to allow RADIUS to support EAP authentication.

80

Message-Authenticator

Used for authentication and verification of authentication packets to prevent spoofing Access-Requests. This attribute is present when EAP authentication is used.

81

Tunnel-Private-Group-ID

Group ID for a tunnel session. To assign VLANs, the NAS conveys VLAN IDs by using this attribute.

82

Tunnel-Assignment-id

ID of the tunnel that carries the session.

87

NAS-Port-Id

String for describing the port of the NAS that is authenticating the user.

In the forwarding-control separation solution, if a CP is configured to manage DPs, it can add the NAS_UpIdentifier field to this attribute for identifying the DP that holds the authentication port. Support for the NAS_UpIdentifier field depends on the NAS-Port-Id format of each access module. At present, the NAS_UpIdentifier field can be added to the NAS-Port-Id attribute only when the attribute uses the YDT 2275-2011 standard or the China Telecom format.

90

Tunnel-Client-Auth-id

Name used by the LAC during tunnel establishment.

95

NAS-IPv6-Address

IPv6 address of the NAS.

 

Appendix C RADIUS subattributes (vendor ID 25506)

Table 4 lists all RADIUS subattributes with a vendor ID of 25506. Support for these subattributes depends on the device model.

Table 4 RADIUS subattributes (vendor ID 25506)

No.

Subattribute

Description

1

Input-Peak-Rate

Peak rate in the direction from the user to the NAS, in bps.

2

Input-Average-Rate

Average rate in the direction from the user to the NAS, in bps.

3

Input-Basic-Rate

Basic rate in the direction from the user to the NAS, in bps.

4

Output-Peak-Rate

Peak rate in the direction from the NAS to the user, in bps.

5

Output-Average-Rate

Average rate in the direction from the NAS to the user, in bps.

6

Output-Basic-Rate

Basic rate in the direction from the NAS to the user, in bps.

15

Remanent_Volume

Total amount of data available for the connection, in different units for different server types.

17

ISP-ID

ISP domain where the user obtains authorization information.

20

Command

Operation for the session, used for session control. Possible values include:

·     1—Trigger-Request.

·     2—Terminate-Request.

·     3—SetPolicy.

·     4—Result.

·     5—PortalClear.

25

Result_Code

Result of the Trigger-Request or SetPolicy operation, zero for success and any other value for failure.

26

Connect_ID

Index of the user connection.

27

PortalURL

PADM redirect URL assigned to PPPoE users.

28

Ftp_Directory

FTP, SFTP, or SCP user working directory.

When the RADIUS client acts as the FTP, SFTP, or SCP server, this attribute is used to set the working directory for an FTP, SFTP, or SCP user on the RADIUS client.

29

Exec_Privilege

EXEC user priority.

32

NAT-IP-Address

Public IP address assigned to the user when the source IP address and port are translated.

33

NAT-Start-Port

Start port number of the port range assigned to the user when the source IP address and port are translated.

34

NAT-End-Port

End port number of the port range assigned to the user when the source IP address and port are translated.

59

NAS_Startup_Timestamp

Startup time of the NAS in seconds, which is represented by the time elapsed after 00:00:00 on Jan. 1, 1970 (UTC).

60

Ip_Host_Addr

User IP address and MAC address included in authentication and accounting requests, in the format A.B.C.D hh:hh:hh:hh:hh:hh. A space is required between the IP address and the MAC address.

61

User_Notify

Information that must be sent from the server to the client transparently.

62

User_HeartBeat

Hash value assigned after an 802.1X user passes authentication, which is a 32-byte string. This attribute is stored in the user list on the NAS and verifies the handshake packets from the 802.1X user. This attribute only exists in Access-Accept and Accounting-Request packets.

98

Multicast_Receive_Group

IP address of the multicast group that the user's host joins as a receiver. This subattribute can appear multiple times in a multicast packet to indicate that the user belongs to multiple multicast groups.

100

IP6_Multicast_Receive_Group

IPv6 address of the multicast group that the user's host joins as a receiver. This subattribute can appear multiple times in a multicast packet to indicate that the user belongs to multiple multicast groups.

101

MLD-Access-Limit

Maximum number of MLD multicast groups that the user can join concurrently.

102

local-name

L2TP local tunnel name.

103

IGMP-Access-Limit

Maximum number of IGMP multicast groups that the user can join concurrently.

104

VPN-Instance

MPLS L3VPN instance to which a user belongs.

105

ANCP-Profile

ANCP profile name.

106

Up-Priority

User priority of incoming packets, in the range of 0 to 7 and 15. The value of 15 indicates cancelling the authorization of the user priority.

107

Down-Priority

User priority of outgoing packets, in the range of 0 to 7 and 15. The value of 15 indicates cancelling the authorization of the user priority.

135

Client-Primary-DNS

IP address of the primary DNS server.

136

Client-Secondary-DNS

IP address of the secondary DNS server.

140

User_Group

User groups assigned after the user passes authentication.

Typically, a user can belong to only one user group. An SSL VPN user can belong to multiple user groups that are separated by semicolons.

144

Acct_IPv6_Input_Octets

Bytes of IPv6 packets in the inbound direction. The measurement unit depends on the configuration on the device.

145

Acct_IPv6_Output_Octets

Bytes of IPv6 packets in the outbound direction. The measurement unit depends on the configuration on the device.

146

Acct_IPv6_Input_Packets

Number of IPv6 packets in the inbound direction. The measurement unit depends on the configuration on the device.

147

Acct_IPv6_Output_Packets

Number of IPv6 packets in the outbound direction. The measurement unit depends on the configuration on the device.

148

Acct_IPv6_Input_Gigawords

Bytes of IPv6 packets in the inbound direction. The measurement unit is 4G bytes.

149

Acct_IPv6_Output_Gigawords

Bytes of IPv6 packets in the outbound direction. The measurement unit is 4G bytes.

155

User-Roles

List of space-separated user roles.

158

Framed-IPv6-Address

IPv6 address of the user.

180

Auth-Type

Authentication type:

·     1—PPP.

·     2—IPoE.

·     3—Portal.

·     4—802.1X.

·     5—MAC authentication.

·     6—Web.

·     7—Login.

181

Acct-Terminate-Subcause

Subcause code for user going offline.

210

Av-Pair

User-defined attribute pair. Available attribute pairs include:

·     Server-assigned dynamic WEP key in the format of leap:session-key=xxx.

·     Server-assigned voice VLAN in the format of device-traffic-class=voice.

·     Server-assigned user role in the format of shell:role=xxx.

·     Server-assigned EDSG service policy list, in the format of edsg-policy:activelist=policyname1;policyname2;…;policynameN.

·     Server-assigned list of EDSG service policies to be deactivated, in the format of edsg-policy:deactivelist=policyname1;policyname2;…;policynameN.

·     Server-assigned EDSG service policy that carries a username, in the format of edsg-policy:username=[policyname]username.

·     Server-assigned EDSG service policy that carries a password, in the format of edsg-policy:password=[policyname]password.

215

Accounting-Level

ITA traffic level in the range of 1 to 8.

216

Ita-Policy

ITA policy name.

217

Nat-Port-Range-Update

NAT port range change for the user:

·     1—Delete a port range.

·     2—Add a port range.

220

H3C-HTTP-User-Agent

HTTP user agent information for the user endpoint.

230

Nas-Port

Interface through which the user is connected to the NAS.

246

Auth_Detail_Result

Accounting details. The server sends Access-Accept packets with subattributes 246 and 250 in the following situations:

·     1—The subscriber charge is overdue. The subscriber is allowed to access network resources in the whitelist. If the subscriber accesses other network resources, the device redirects it to the URL specified by subattribute 250.

·     2—The broadband lease of the subscriber expires. The device redirects the subscriber to the URL specified by subattribute 250 when the subscriber requests to access webpages for the first time.

247

Input-Committed-Burst-Size

Committed burst size from the user to the NAS, in bits. The total length cannot exceed 4 bytes for this field.

This subattribute must be assigned together with the Input-Average-Rate attribute.

248

Output-Committed-Burst-Size

Committed burst size from the NAS to the user, in bits. The total length cannot exceed 4 bytes for this field.

This subattribute must be assigned together with the Output-Average-Rate attribute.

249

authentication-type

Authentication type. The value can be:

·     1—Intranet access authentication.

·     2—Internet access authentication.

If the packet does not contain this subattribute, common authentication applies.

250

WEB-URL

Redirect URL for users.

251

Subscriber-ID

Family plan ID.

252

Subscriber-Profile

QoS policy name for the family plan of the subscriber.

255

Product_ID

Product name.

 

 

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