05-Layer 3-IP Routing Configuration Guide

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08-IPv6 static routing configuration
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Configuring IPv6 static routing

About IPv6 static routing

Static routes are manually configured and cannot adapt to network topology changes. If a fault or a topological change occurs in the network, the network administrator must modify the static routes manually. IPv6 static routing works well in a simple IPv6 network.

Configuring an IPv6 static route

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Configure an IPv6 static route.

Public network:

ipv6 route-static ipv6-address prefix-length { interface-type interface-number [ next-hop-address ] | next-hop-address [ recursive-lookup host-route ] | vpn-instance d-vpn-instance-name next-hop-address [ recursive-lookup host-route ] } [ permanent | track track-entry-number ] [ preference preference ] [ tag tag-value ] [ description text ]

By default, no IPv6 static route is configured.

VPN:

ipv6 route-static vpn-instance s-vpn-instance-name ipv6-address prefix-length { interface-type interface-number [ next-hop-address ] | next-hop-address [ recursive-lookup host-route ] [ public ] | vpn-instance d-vpn-instance-name next-hop-address [ recursive-lookup host-route ] } [ permanent | track track-entry-number ] [ preference preference ] [ tag tag-value ] [ description text ]

By default, no IPv6 static route is configured.

3.     (Optional.) Set the default preference for IPv6 static routes.

ipv6 route-static default-preference default-preference

The default setting is 60.

Deleting IPv6 static routes

About this task

To delete an IPv6 static route, use the undo ipv6 route-static command. To delete all IPv6 static routes including the default route, use the delete ipv6 static-routes all command.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Delete all IPv6 static routes, including the default route.

delete ipv6 [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] static-routes all

Configuring BFD for IPv6 static routes

About BFD for IPv6 static routes

BFD provides a general purpose, standard, and medium- and protocol-independent fast failure detection mechanism. It can uniformly and quickly detect the failures of the bidirectional forwarding paths between two routers for protocols, such as routing protocols and MPLS. BFD for IPv6 static routes tests the reachability of the next hop for each IPv6 static route. If a next hop is unreachable, BFD deletes the associated IPv6 static route.

For more information about BFD, see High Availability Configuration Guide.

Restrictions and guidelines for BFD

When you configure BFD for IPv6 static routes, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·     If you specify a source IPv6 address for BFD packets on the local device, you must specify that IPv6 address as the next hop IPv6 address on the peer device.

·     If you specify a non-P2P output interface and a direct next hop, specify the bfd-source ipv6-address option as a best practice. Make sure the source IPv6 address of BFD packets meets the following requirements:

¡     The address is the same as the IPv6 address of the output interface.

¡     The address is on the same network segment as the next hop IPv6 address of the same type.

For example, if the next hop IPv6 address is a link-local address, the source IPv6 address of BFD packets must also be a link-local address.

·     Enabling BFD for a flapping route could worsen the situation.

Configuring BFD control packet mode

About this task

This mode uses BFD control packets to detect the status of a link bidirectionally at a millisecond level.

BFD control packet mode can be applied to IPv6 static routes with a direct next hop or with an indirect next hop.

Restrictions and guidelines for BFD control packet mode

If you configure BFD control packet mode at the local end, you must also configure this mode at the peer end.

Configuring BFD control packet mode for an IPv6 static route (direct next hop)

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Configure BFD control packet mode for an IPv6 static route.

ipv6 route-static [ vpn-instance s-vpn-instance-name ] ipv6-address prefix-length interface-type interface-number next-hop-address bfd control-packet [ bfd-source ipv6-address ] [ preference preference ] [ tag tag-value ] [ description text ]

By default, BFD control packet mode for an IPv6 static route is not configured.

Configuring BFD control packet mode for an IPv6 static route (indirect next hop)

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Configure BFD control packet mode for an IPv6 static route.

ipv6 route-static [ vpn-instance s-vpn-instance-name ] ipv6-address prefix-length [ vpn-instance d-vpn-instance-name ] { next-hop-address [ recursive-lookup host-route ] bfd control-packet bfd-source ipv6-address } [ preference preference ] [ tag tag-value ] [ description text ]

By default, BFD control packet mode for an IPv6 static route is not configured.

Configuring BFD echo packet mode

About this task

With BFD echo packet mode enabled for a static route, the output interface sends BFD echo packets to the destination device, which loops the packets back to test the link reachability.

Restrictions and guidelines

You do not need to configure BFD echo packet mode at the peer end.

Do not use BFD for a static route with the output interface in spoofing state.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Configure the source address of echo packets.

bfd echo-source-ipv6 ipv6-address

By default, the source address of echo packets is not configured.

The source address of echo packets must be a global unicast address.

For more information about this command, see High Availability Command Reference.

3.     Configure BFD echo packet mode for an IPv6 static route.

ipv6 route-static [ vpn-instance s-vpn-instance-name ] ipv6-address prefix-length interface-type interface-number next-hop-address bfd echo-packet [ bfd-source ipv6-address ] [ preference preference ] [ tag tag-value ] [ description text ]

By default, BFD echo packet mode for an IPv6 static route is not configured.

The next hop IPv6 address must be a global unicast address.

Enabling periodic sending of ND requests to the next hops of IPv6 static routes

About this task

When the following conditions exist, a recursive IPv6 static route becomes inactive:

·     The IPv6 static route uses a host route to reach its direct next hop.

·     The host route is obtained either by specifying the recursive-lookup host-route keyword in the ipv6 route-static command or by routing policy-based recursive lookup.

·     The host route is unavailable because no ND entry exists for that host route on the device.

To resolve this issue, you can perform this task to enable the device to periodically send ND requests to the direct next hop. When the device receives an ND response from the direct next hop, it stops sending ND requests and activates the recursive IPv6 static route.

This task applies only to a recursive IPv6 static route that meets the following requirements:

·     The IPv6 static route has no output interface specified.

·     The IPv6 static route fails the next-hop recursion.

For more information about ND, see IPv6 neighbor discovery in Layer 3—IP Services Configuration Guide.

Procedure

1.     Enter system view.

system-view

2.     Enable periodic sending of ND requests to the next hops of IPv6 static routes.

ipv6 route-static nd-request [ interval interval ]

By default, periodic sending of ND requests to the next hops of IPv6 static routes is disabled.

Display and maintenance commands for IPv6 static routing

Execute display commands in any view.

 

Task

Command

Display IPv6 static route next hop information.

display ipv6 route-static nib [ nib-id ] [ verbose ]

Display IPv6 static routing table information.

display ipv6 route-static routing-table [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] [ ipv6-address prefix-length ]

Display IPv6 static route information.

display ipv6 routing-table protocol static [ inactive | verbose ]

 

IPv6 static routing configuration examples

Example: Configuring basic IPv6 static route

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 1, configure IPv6 static routes so that hosts can reach one another.

Figure 1 Network diagram

 

Procedure

1.     Configure the IPv6 addresses for all VLAN interfaces. (Details not shown.)

2.     Configure IPv6 static routes:

# Configure a default IPv6 static route on Switch A.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] ipv6 route-static :: 0 4::2

# Configure two IPv6 static routes on Switch B.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] ipv6 route-static 1:: 64 4::1

[SwitchB] ipv6 route-static 3:: 64 5::1

# Configure a default IPv6 static route on Switch C.

<SwitchC> system-view

[SwitchC] ipv6 route-static :: 0 5::2

3.     Configure the IPv6 addresses for all the hosts and configure the default gateway of Host A, Host B, and Host C as 1::1, 2::1, and 3::1.

Verifying the configuration

# Display the IPv6 static route information on Switch A.

[SwitchA] display ipv6 routing-table protocol static

 

Summary count : 1

 

Static Routing table status : <Active>

Summary count : 1

 

Destination: ::/0                                        Protocol  : Static

NextHop    : 4::2                                        Preference: 60

Interface  : Vlan200                                     Cost      : 0

 

Static Routing table status : <Inactive>

Summary count : 0

# Display the IPv6 static route information on Switch B.

[SwitchB] display ipv6 routing-table protocol static

 

Summary count : 2

 

Static Routing table status : <Active>

Summary count : 2

 

Destination: 1::/64                                      Protocol  : Static

NextHop    : 4::1                                        Preference: 60

Interface  : Vlan200                                     Cost      : 0

 

Destination: 3::/64                                      Protocol  : Static

NextHop    : 5::1                                        Preference: 60

Interface  : Vlan300                                     Cost      : 0

 

Static Routing table status : <Inactive>

Summary count : 0

# Use the ping command to test the reachability.

[SwitchA] ping ipv6 3::1

Ping6(56 data bytes) 4::1 --> 3::1, press CTRL+C to break

56 bytes from 3::1, icmp_seq=0 hlim=62 time=0.700 ms

56 bytes from 3::1, icmp_seq=1 hlim=62 time=0.351 ms

56 bytes from 3::1, icmp_seq=2 hlim=62 time=0.338 ms

56 bytes from 3::1, icmp_seq=3 hlim=62 time=0.373 ms

56 bytes from 3::1, icmp_seq=4 hlim=62 time=0.316 ms

 

--- Ping6 statistics for 3::1 ---

5 packet(s) transmitted, 5 packet(s) received, 0.0% packet loss

round-trip min/avg/max/std-dev = 0.316/0.416/0.700/0.143 ms

Example: Configuring BFD for IPv6 static routes (direct next hop)

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 2:

·     Configure an IPv6 static route to subnet 120::/64 on Switch A.

·     Configure an IPv6 static route to subnet 121::/64 on Switch B.

·     Enable BFD for both routes.

·     Configure an IPv6 static route to subnet 120::/64 and an IPv6 static route to subnet 121::/64 on Switch C.

When the link between Switch A and Switch B through the Layer 2 switch fails, BFD can detect the failure immediately, and Switch A and Switch B can communicate through Switch C.

Figure 2 Network diagram

 

Table 1 Interface and IP address assignment

Device

Interface

IPv6 address

Switch A

Vlan-int10

12::1/64

Switch A

Vlan-int11

10::102/64

Switch B

Vlan-int10

12::2/64

Switch B

Vlan-int13

13::1/64

Switch C

Vlan-int11

10::100/64

Switch C

Vlan-int13

13::2/64

 

Procedure

1.     Configure IPv6 addresses for interfaces. (Details not shown.)

2.     Configure IPv6 static routes and BFD:

# Configure IPv6 static routes on Switch A and enable BFD control packet mode for the static route that traverses the Layer 2 switch.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 10

[SwitchA-vlan-interface10] bfd min-transmit-interval 500

[SwitchA-vlan-interface10] bfd min-receive-interval 500

[SwitchA-vlan-interface10] bfd detect-multiplier 9

[SwitchA-vlan-interface10] quit

[SwitchA] ipv6 route-static 120:: 64 vlan-interface 10 12::2 bfd control-packet

[SwitchA] ipv6 route-static 120:: 64 10::100 preference 65

[SwitchA] quit

# Configure IPv6 static routes on Switch B and enable BFD control packet mode for the static route that traverses the Layer 2 switch.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 10

[SwitchB-vlan-interface10] bfd min-transmit-interval 500

[SwitchB-vlan-interface10] bfd min-receive-interval 500

[SwitchB-vlan-interface10] bfd detect-multiplier 9

[SwitchB-vlan-interface10] quit

[SwitchB] ipv6 route-static 121:: 64 vlan-interface 10 12::1 bfd control-packet

[SwitchB] ipv6 route-static 121:: 64 vlan-interface 13 13::2 preference 65

[SwitchB] quit

# Configure IPv6 static routes on Switch C.

<SwitchC> system-view

[SwitchC] ipv6 route-static 120:: 64 13::1

[SwitchC] ipv6 route-static 121:: 64 10::102

Verifying the configuration

# Display the BFD sessions on Switch A.

<SwitchA> display bfd session

 

 Total Session Num: 1     Up Session Num: 1     Init Mode: Active

 

 IPv6 Session Working Under Ctrl Mode:

 

       Local Discr: 513                 Remote Discr: 33

         Source IP: 12::1

    Destination IP: 12::2

     Session State: Up                      Interface: Vlan10

         Hold Time: 2012ms

The output shows that the BFD session has been created.

# Display IPv6 static routes on Switch A.

<SwitchA> display ipv6 routing-table protocol static

 

Summary count : 1

 

Static Routing table status : <Active>

Summary count : 1

 

Destination: 120::/64                                    Protocol  : Static

NextHop    : 12::2                                       Preference: 60

Interface  : Vlan10                                      Cost      : 0

 

Direct Routing table status : <Inactive>

Summary count : 0

The output shows that Switch A communicates with Switch B through VLAN-interface 10. The link over VLAN-interface 10 fails.

# Display IPv6 static routes on Switch A again.

<SwitchA> display ipv6 routing-table protocol static

 

Summary count : 1

 

Static Routing table status : <Active>

Summary count : 1

 

Destination: 120::/64                                    Protocol  : Static

NextHop    : 10::100                                     Preference: 65

Interface  : Vlan11                                      Cost      : 0

 

Static Routing table status : < Inactive>

Summary count : 0

The output shows that Switch A communicates with Switch B through VLAN-interface 11.

Example: Configuring BFD for IPv6 static routes (indirect next hop)

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 3:

·     Switch A has a route to interface Loopback 1 (2::9/128) on Switch B, and the output interface is VLAN-interface 10.

·     Switch B has a route to interface Loopback 1 (1::9/128) on Switch A, and the output interface is VLAN-interface 12.

·     Switch D has a route to 1::9/128, and the output interface is VLAN-interface 10. It also has a route to 2::9/128, and the output interface is VLAN-interface 12.

Configure the following:

·     Configure an IPv6 static route to subnet 120::/64 on Switch A.

·     Configure an IPv6 static route to subnet 121::/64 on Switch B.

·     Enable BFD for both routes.

·     Configure an IPv6 static route to subnet 120::/64 and an IPv6 static route to subnet 121::/64 on both Switch C and Switch D.

When the link between Switch A and Switch B through Switch D fails, BFD can detect the failure immediately and Switch A and Switch B can communicate through Switch C.

Figure 3 Network diagram

 

Table 2 Interface and IP address assignment

Device

Interface

IPv6 address

Switch A

Vlan-int10

12::1/64

Switch A

Vlan-int11

10::102/64

Switch A

Loop1

1::9/128

Switch B

Vlan-int12

11::2/64

Switch B

Vlan-int13

13::1/64

Switch B

Loop1

2::9/128

Switch C

Vlan-int11

10::100/64

Switch C

Vlan-int13

13::2/64

Switch D

Vlan-int10

12::2/64

Switch D

Vlan-int12

11::1/64

 

Procedure

1.     Configure IPv6 addresses for interfaces. (Details not shown.)

2.     Configure IPv6 static routes and BFD:

# Configure IPv6 static routes on Switch A and enable BFD control packet mode for the IPv6 static route that traverses Switch D.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] bfd multi-hop min-transmit-interval 500

[SwitchA] bfd multi-hop min-receive-interval 500

[SwitchA] bfd multi-hop detect-multiplier 9

[SwitchA] ipv6 route-static 120:: 64 2::9 bfd control-packet bfd-source 1::9

[SwitchA] ipv6 route-static 120:: 64 10::100 preference 65

[SwitchA] ipv6 route-static 2::9 128 12::2

[SwitchA] quit

# Configure IPv6 static routes on Switch B and enable BFD control packet mode for the static route that traverses Switch D.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] bfd multi-hop min-transmit-interval 500

[SwitchB] bfd multi-hop min-receive-interval 500

[SwitchB] bfd multi-hop detect-multiplier 9

[SwitchB] ipv6 route-static 121:: 64 1::9 bfd control-packet bfd-source 2::9

[SwitchB] ipv6 route-static 121:: 64 13::2 preference 65

[SwitchB] ipv6 route-static 1::9 128 11::1

[SwitchB] quit

# Configure IPv6 static routes on Switch C.

<SwitchC> system-view

[SwitchC] ipv6 route-static 120:: 64 13::1

[SwitchC] ipv6 route-static 121:: 64 10::102

# Configure IPv6 static routes on Switch D.

<SwitchD> system-view

[SwitchD] ipv6 route-static 120:: 64 11::2

[SwitchD] ipv6 route-static 121:: 64 12::1

[SwitchD] ipv6 route-static 2::9 128 11::2

[SwitchD] ipv6 route-static 1::9 128 12::1

Verifying the configuration

# Display the BFD sessions on Switch A.

<SwitchA> display bfd session

 

 Total Session Num: 1     Up Session Num: 1     Init Mode: Active

 

 IPv6 Session Working Under Ctrl Mode:

 

       Local Discr: 513                 Remote Discr: 33

         Source IP: 1::9

    Destination IP: 2::9

     Session State: Up                      Interface: N/A

         Hold Time: 2012ms

The output shows that the BFD session has been created.

# Display the IPv6 static routes on Switch A.

<SwitchA> display ipv6 routing-table protocol static

 

Summary count : 1

 

Static Routing table status : <Active>

Summary count : 1

 

Destination: 120::/64                                    Protocol  : Static

NextHop    : 2::9                                        Preference: 60

Interface  : Vlan10                                      Cost      : 0

 

Static Routing table status : <Inactive>

Summary count : 0

The output shows that Switch A communicates Switch B through VLAN-interface 10. The link over VLAN-interface 10 fails.

# Display IPv6 static routes on Switch A again.

<SwitchA> display ipv6 routing-table protocol static

 

Summary count : 1

 

Static Routing table status : <Active>

Summary count : 1

 

Destination: 120::/64                                    Protocol  : Static

NextHop    : 10::100                                     Preference: 65

Interface  : Vlan11                                      Cost      : 0

 

Static Routing table status : <Inactive>

Summary count : 0

The output shows that Switch A communicates with Switch B through VLAN-interface 11.


Configuring an IPv6 default route

A default IPv6 route is used to forward packets that match no entry in the routing table.

A default IPv6 route can be configured in either of the following ways:

·     The network administrator can configure a default route with a destination prefix of ::/0. For more information, see "Configuring IPv6 static routing."

·     Some dynamic routing protocols (such as OSPFv3, IPv6 IS-IS, and RIPng) can generate a default IPv6 route. For example, an upstream router running OSPFv3 can generate a default IPv6 route and advertise it to other routers. These routers install the default IPv6 route with the next hop being the upstream router. For more information, see the respective chapters on those routing protocols in this configuration guide.