11-Network Management and Monitoring Configuration Guide

HomeSupportResource CenterH3C S5560S-EI&S5560S-SI&S5500V3-SI Switch Series Configuration Guides-R612x-6W10211-Network Management and Monitoring Configuration Guide
03-NTP configuration
Title Size Download
03-NTP configuration 416.80 KB

Contents

Configuring NTP·· 1

About NTP·· 1

NTP application scenarios· 1

NTP working mechanism·· 1

NTP architecture· 2

NTP association modes· 3

NTP security· 4

Protocols and standards· 5

Restrictions and guidelines: NTP configuration·· 5

NTP tasks at a glance· 6

Enabling the NTP service· 6

Configuring NTP association mode· 7

Configuring NTP in client/server mode· 7

Configuring NTP in symmetric active/passive mode· 7

Configuring NTP in broadcast mode· 8

Configuring NTP in multicast mode· 8

Configuring the local clock as the reference source· 9

Configuring access control rights· 10

Configuring NTP authentication·· 10

Configuring NTP authentication in client/server mode· 10

Configuring NTP authentication in symmetric active/passive mode· 12

Configuring NTP authentication in broadcast mode· 13

Configuring NTP authentication in multicast mode· 15

Controlling NTP packet sending and receiving· 16

Specifying the source interface for NTP messages· 16

Disabling an interface from receiving NTP messages· 17

Configuring the maximum number of dynamic associations· 17

Setting a DSCP value for NTP packets· 18

Display and maintenance commands for NTP·· 18

NTP configuration examples· 19

Example: Configuring NTP client/server association mode· 19

Example: Configuring IPv6 NTP client/server association mode· 20

Example: Configuring NTP symmetric active/passive association mode· 21

Example: Configuring IPv6  NTP symmetric active/passive association mode· 22

Example: Configuring NTP broadcast association mode· 24

Example: Configuring NTP multicast association mode· 26

Example: Configuring IPv6 NTP multicast association mode· 28

Example: Configuring NTP client/server association mode with authentication·· 31

Example: Configuring NTP broadcast association mode with authentication·· 33

Configuring SNTP·· 36

About SNTP·· 36

SNTP working mode· 36

Protocols and standards· 36

Restrictions and guidelines: SNTP configuration·· 36

SNTP tasks at a glance· 36

Enabling the SNTP service· 36

Specifying an NTP server for the device· 37

Configuring SNTP authentication·· 37

Display and maintenance commands for SNTP·· 38

SNTP configuration examples· 38

Example: Configuring SNTP·· 38

 


Configuring NTP

About NTP

NTP is used to synchronize system clocks among distributed time servers and clients on a network. NTP runs over UDP and uses UDP port 123.

NTP application scenarios

Various tasks, including network management, charging, auditing, and distributed computing depend on accurate and synchronized system time setting on the network devices. NTP is typically used in large networks to dynamically synchronize time among network devices.

NTP guarantees higher clock accuracy than manual system clock setting. In a small network that does not require high clock accuracy, you can keep time synchronized among devices by changing their system clocks one by one.

NTP working mechanism

Figure 1 shows how NTP synchronizes the system time between two devices (Device A and Device B, in this example). Assume that:

·          Prior to the time synchronization, the time is set to 10:00:00 am for Device A and 11:00:00 am for Device B.

·          Device B is used as the NTP server. Device A is to be synchronized to Device B.

·          It takes 1 second for an NTP message to travel from Device A to Device B, and from Device B to Device A.

·          It takes 1 second for Device B to process the NTP message.

Figure 1 Basic work flow

The synchronization process is as follows:

1.        Device A sends Device B an NTP message, which is timestamped when it leaves Device A. The time stamp is 10:00:00 am (T1).

2.        When this NTP message arrives at Device B, Device B adds a timestamp showing the time when the message arrived at Device B. The timestamp is 11:00:01 am (T2).

3.        When the NTP message leaves Device B, Device B adds a timestamp showing the time when the message left Device B. The timestamp is 11:00:02 am (T3).

4.        When Device A receives the NTP message, the local time of Device A is 10:00:03 am (T4).

Up to now, Device A can calculate the following parameters based on the timestamps:

·          The roundtrip delay of the NTP message: Delay = (T4 – T1) – (T3 – T2) = 2 seconds.

·          Time difference between Device A and Device B: Offset = [ (T2 – T1) + (T3 – T4) ] /2 = 1 hour.

Based on these parameters, Device A can be synchronized to Device B.

This is only a rough description of the work mechanism of NTP. For more information, see the related protocols and standards.

NTP architecture

NTP uses stratums 1 to 16 to define clock accuracy, as shown in Figure 2. A lower stratum value represents higher accuracy. Clocks at stratums 1 through 15 are in synchronized state, and clocks at stratum 16 are not synchronized.

Figure 2 NTP architecture

A stratum 1 NTP server gets its time from an authoritative time source, such as an atomic clock. It provides time for other devices as the primary NTP server. A stratum 2 time server receives its time from a stratum 1 time server, and so on.

To ensure time accuracy and availability, you can specify multiple NTP servers for a device. The device selects an optimal NTP server as the clock source based on parameters such as stratum. The clock that the device selects is called the reference source. For more information about clock selection, see the related protocols and standards.

If the devices in a network cannot synchronize to an authoritative time source, you can perform the following tasks:

·          Select a device that has a relatively accurate clock from the network.

·          Use the local clock of the device as the reference clock to synchronize other devices in the network.

NTP association modes

NTP supports the following association modes:

·          Client/server mode

·          Symmetric active/passive mode

·          Broadcast mode

·          Multicast mode

You can select one or more association modes for time synchronization. Table 1 provides detailed description for the four association modes.

In this document, an "NTP server" or a "server" refers to a device that operates as an NTP server in client/server mode. Time servers refer to all the devices that can provide time synchronization, including NTP servers, NTP symmetric peers, broadcast servers, and multicast servers.

Table 1 NTP association modes

Mode

Working process

Principle

Application scenario

Client/server

On the client, specify the IP address of the NTP server.

A client sends a clock synchronization message to the NTP servers. Upon receiving the message, the servers automatically operate in server mode and send a reply.

If the client can be synchronized to multiple time servers, it selects an optimal clock and synchronizes its local clock to the optimal reference source after receiving the replies from the servers.

A client can synchronize to a server, but a server cannot synchronize to a client.

As Figure 2 shows, this mode is intended for configurations where devices of a higher stratum synchronize to devices with a lower stratum.

Symmetric active/passive

On the symmetric active peer, specify the IP address of the symmetric passive peer.

A symmetric active peer periodically sends clock synchronization messages to a symmetric passive peer. The symmetric passive peer automatically operates in symmetric passive mode and sends a reply.

If the symmetric active peer can be synchronized to multiple time servers, it selects an optimal clock and synchronizes its local clock to the optimal reference source after receiving the replies from the servers.

A symmetric active peer and a symmetric passive peer can be synchronized to each other. If both of them are synchronized, the peer with a higher stratum is synchronized to the peer with a lower stratum.

As Figure 2 shows, this mode is most often used between servers with the same stratum to operate as a backup for one another. If a server fails to communicate with all the servers of a lower stratum, the server can still synchronize to the servers of the same stratum.

Broadcast

A server periodically sends clock synchronization messages to the broadcast address 255.255.255.255. Clients listen to the broadcast messages from the servers to synchronize to the server according to the broadcast messages.

When a client receives the first broadcast message, the client and the server start to exchange messages to calculate the network delay between them. Then, only the broadcast server sends clock synchronization messages.

A broadcast client can synchronize to a broadcast server, but a broadcast server cannot synchronize to a broadcast client.

A broadcast server sends clock synchronization messages to synchronize clients in the same subnet. As Figure 2 shows, broadcast mode is intended for configurations involving one or a few servers and a potentially large client population.

The broadcast mode has lower time accuracy than the client/server and symmetric active/passive modes because only the broadcast servers send clock synchronization messages.

Multicast

A multicast server periodically sends clock synchronization messages to the user-configured multicast address. Clients listen to the multicast messages from servers and synchronize to the server according to the received messages.

A multicast client can synchronize to a multicast server, but a multicast server cannot synchronize to a multicast client.

A multicast server can provide time synchronization for clients in the same subnet or in different subnets.

The multicast mode has lower time accuracy than the client/server and symmetric active/passive modes.

.

NTP security

To improve time synchronization security, NTP provides the access control and authentication functions.

NTP access control

You can control NTP access by using an ACL. The access rights are in the following order, from the least restrictive to the most restrictive:

·          Peer—Allows time requests and NTP control queries (such as alarms, authentication status, and time server information) and allows the local device to synchronize itself to a peer device.

·          Server—Allows time requests and NTP control queries, but does not allow the local device to synchronize itself to a peer device.

·          Synchronization—Allows only time requests from a system whose address passes the access list criteria.

·          Query—Allows only NTP control queries from a peer device to the local device.

When the device receives an NTP request, it matches the request against the access rights in order from the least restrictive to the most restrictive: peer, server, synchronization, and query.

·          If no NTP access control is configured, the peer access right applies.

·          If the IP address of the peer device matches a permit statement in an ACL, the access right is granted to the peer device. If a deny statement or no ACL is matched, no access right is granted.

·          If no ACL is specified for an access right or the ACL specified for the access right is not created, the access right is not granted.

·          If none of the ACLs specified for the access rights is created, the peer access right applies.

·          If none of the ACLs specified for the access rights contains rules, no access right is granted.

This feature provides minimal security for a system running NTP. A more secure method is NTP authentication.

NTP authentication

Use this feature to authenticate the NTP messages for security purposes. If an NTP message passes authentication, the device can receive it and get time synchronization information. If not, the device discards the message. This function makes sure the device does not synchronize to an unauthorized time server.

Figure 3 NTP authentication

As shown in Figure 3, NTP authentication is performed as follows:

1.        The sender uses the key identified by the key ID to calculate a digest for the NTP message through the MD5/HMAC authentication algorithm. Then it sends the calculated digest together with the NTP message and key ID to the receiver.

2.        Upon receiving the message, the receiver performs the following actions:

a.    Finds the key according to the key ID in the message.

b.    Uses the key and the MD5/HMAC authentication algorithm to calculate the digest for the message.

c.    Compares the digest with the digest contained in the NTP message.

-      If they are different, the receiver discards the message.

-      If they are the same and an NTP association is not required to be established, the receiver provides a response packet. For information about NTP associations, see "Configuring the maximum number of dynamic associations."

-      If they are the same and an NTP association is required to be established or has existed, the local device determines whether the sender is allowed to use the authentication ID. If the sender is allowed to use the authentication ID, the receiver accepts the message. If the sender is not allowed to use the authentication ID, the receiver discards the message.

Protocols and standards

·          RFC 1305, Network Time Protocol (Version 3) Specification, Implementation and Analysis

·          RFC 5905, Network Time Protocol Version 4: Protocol and Algorithms Specification

Restrictions and guidelines: NTP configuration

·          You cannot configure both NTP and SNTP on the same device.

·          NTP is supported only on Layer 3 interfaces.

·          Do not configure NTP on an aggregate member port.

·          The NTP service and SNTP service are mutually exclusive. You can only enable either NTP service or SNTP service at a time.

·          To avoid frequent time changes or even synchronization failures, do not specify more than one reference source on a network.

·          Make sure you use the clock protocol command to specify the time protocol as NTP. For more information about the clock protocol command, see device management commands in Fundamentals Command Reference.

NTP tasks at a glance

To configure NTP, perform the following tasks:

1.        Enabling the NTP service

2.        Configuring NTP association mode

¡  Configuring NTP in client/server mode

¡  Configuring NTP in symmetric active/passive mode

¡  Configuring NTP in broadcast mode

¡  Configuring NTP in multicast mode

3.        (Optional.) Configuring the local clock as the reference source

4.        (Optional.) Configuring access control rights

5.        (Optional.) Configuring NTP authentication

¡  Configuring NTP authentication in client/server mode

¡  Configuring NTP authentication in symmetric active/passive mode

¡  Configuring NTP authentication in broadcast mode

¡  Configuring NTP authentication in multicast mode

6.        (Optional.) Controlling NTP packet sending and receiving

¡  Specifying the source interface for NTP messages

¡  Disabling an interface from receiving NTP messages

¡  Configuring the maximum number of dynamic associations

¡  Setting a DSCP value for NTP packets

Enabling the NTP service

Restrictions and guidelines

NTP and SNTP are mutually exclusive. Before you enable NTP, make sure SNTP is disabled.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enable the NTP service.

ntp-service enable

By default, the NTP service is disabled.

Configuring NTP association mode

Configuring NTP in client/server mode

Restrictions and guidelines

To configure NTP in client/server mode, specify an NTP server for the client.

For a client to synchronize to an NTP server, make sure the server is synchronized by other devices or uses its local clock as a reference source.

If the stratum level of a server is higher than or equal to a client, the client will not synchronize to that server.

You can specify multiple servers for a client by executing the ntp-service unicast-server or ntp-service ipv6 unicast-server command multiple times.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Specify an NTP server for the device.

IPv4:

ntp-service unicast-server { server-name | ip-address } [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] [ authentication-keyid keyid | maxpoll maxpoll-interval | minpoll minpoll-interval | priority | source interface-type interface-number | version number ] *

IPv6:

ntp-service ipv6 unicast-server { server-name | ipv6-address } [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] [ authentication-keyid keyid | maxpoll maxpoll-interval | minpoll minpoll-interval | priority | source interface-type interface-number ] *

By default, no NTP server is specified.

Configuring NTP in symmetric active/passive mode

Restrictions and guidelines

To configure NTP in symmetric active/passive mode, specify a symmetric passive peer for the active peer.

For a symmetric passive peer to process NTP messages from a symmetric active peer, execute the ntp-service enable command on the symmetric passive peer to enable NTP.

For time synchronization between the symmetric active peer and the symmetric passive peer, make sure either or both of them are in synchronized state.

You can specify multiple symmetric passive peers by executing the ntp-service unicast-peer or ntp-service ipv6 unicast-peer command multiple times.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Specify a symmetric passive peer for the device.

IPv4:

ntp-service unicast-peer { peer-name | ip-address } [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] [ authentication-keyid keyid | maxpoll maxpoll-interval | minpoll minpoll-interval | priority | source interface-type interface-number | version number ] *

IPv6:

ntp-service ipv6 unicast-peer { peer-name | ipv6-address } [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] [ authentication-keyid keyid | maxpoll maxpoll-interval | minpoll minpoll-interval | priority | source interface-type interface-number ] *

By default, no symmetric passive peer is specified.

Configuring NTP in broadcast mode

Restrictions and guidelines

To configure NTP in broadcast mode, you must configure an NTP broadcast client and an NTP broadcast server.

For a broadcast client to synchronize to a broadcast server, make sure the broadcast server is synchronized by other devices or uses its local clock as a reference source.

Configuring the broadcast client

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

3.        Configure the device to operate in broadcast client mode.

ntp-service broadcast-client

By default, the device does not operate in any NTP association mode.

After you execute the command, the device receives NTP broadcast messages from the specified interface.

Configuring the broadcast server

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

3.        Configure the device to operate in NTP broadcast server mode.

ntp-service broadcast-server [ authentication-keyid keyid | version number ] *

By default, the device does not operate in any NTP association mode.

After you execute the command, the device sends NTP broadcast messages from the specified interface.

Configuring NTP in multicast mode

Restrictions and guidelines

To configure NTP in multicast mode, you must configure an NTP multicast client and an NTP multicast server.

For a multicast client to synchronize to a multicast server, make sure the multicast server is synchronized by other devices or uses its local clock as a reference source.

Configuring a multicast client

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

3.        Configure the device to operate in multicast client mode.

IPv4:

ntp-service multicast-client [ ip-address ]

IPv6:

ntp-service ipv6 multicast-client ipv6-address

By default, the device does not operate in any NTP association mode.

After you execute the command, the device receives NTP multicast messages from the specified interface.

Configuring the multicast server

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

3.        Configure the device to operate in multicast server mode.

IPv4:

ntp-service multicast-server [ ip-address ] [ authentication-keyid keyid | ttl ttl-number | version number ] *

IPv6:

ntp-service ipv6 multicast-server ipv6-address [ authentication-keyid keyid | ttl ttl-number ] *

By default, the device does not operate in any NTP association mode.

After you execute the command, the device sends NTP multicast messages from the specified interface.

Configuring the local clock as the reference source

About configuring the local clock as the reference source

This task enables the device to use the local clock as the reference so that the device is synchronized.

Restrictions and guidelines

Make sure the local clock can provide the time accuracy required for the network. After you configure the local clock as the reference source, the local clock is synchronized, and can operate as a time server to synchronize other devices in the network. If the local clock is incorrect, timing errors occur.

The system time reverts to the initial BIOS default after a cold reboot. As a best practice, do not configure the local clock as a reference source or configure the device as a time server.

Devices differ in clock precision. As a best practice to avoid network flapping and clock synchronization failure, configure only one reference clock on the same network segment and make sure the clock has high precision.

Prerequisites

Before you configure this feature, adjust the local system time to ensure that it is accurate.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Configure the local clock as the reference source.

ntp-service refclock-master [ ip-address ] [ stratum ]

By default, the device does not use the local clock as the reference source.

Configuring access control rights

Prerequisites

Before you configure the right for peer devices to access the NTP services on the local device, create and configure ACLs associated with the access right. For information about configuring an ACL, see ACL and QoS Configuration Guide.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Configure the right for peer devices to access the NTP services on the local device.

IPv4:

ntp-service access { peer | query | server | synchronization } acl ipv4-acl-number

IPv6:

ntp-service ipv6 { peer | query | server | synchronization } acl ipv6-acl-number

By default, the right for peer devices to access the NTP services on the local device is peer.

Configuring NTP authentication

Configuring NTP authentication in client/server mode

Restrictions and guidelines

To ensure a successful NTP authentication in client/server mode, configure the same authentication key ID, algorithm, and key on the server and client. Make sure the peer device is allowed to use the key ID for authentication on the local device.

NTP authentication results differ when different configurations are performed on client and server. For more information, see Table 2. (N/A in the table means that whether the configuration is performed or not does not make any difference.)

Table 2 NTP authentication results

Client

Server

Enable NTP authentication

Specify the server and key

Trusted key

Enable NTP authentication

Trusted key

Successful authentication

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Failed authentication

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

N/A

Yes

Yes

No

N/A

N/A

Authentication not performed

Yes

No

N/A

N/A

N/A

No

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

 

Configuring NTP authentication for a client

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enable NTP authentication.

ntp-service authentication enable

By default, NTP authentication is disabled.

3.        Configure an NTP authentication key.

ntp-service authentication-keyid keyid authentication-mode { hmac-sha-1 | hmac-sha-256 | hmac-sha-384 | hmac-sha-512 | md5 } { cipher | simple } string [ acl ipv4-acl-number | ipv6 acl ipv6-acl-number ] *

By default, no NTP authentication key exists.

4.        Configure the key as a trusted key.

ntp-service reliable authentication-keyid keyid

By default, no authentication key is configured as a trusted key.

5.        Associate the specified key with an NTP server.

IPv4:

ntp-service unicast-server { server-name | ip-address } [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] authentication-keyid keyid

IPv6:

ntp-service ipv6 unicast-server { server-name | ipv6-address } [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] authentication-keyid keyid

Configuring NTP authentication for a server

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enable NTP authentication.

ntp-service authentication enable

By default, NTP authentication is disabled.

3.        Configure an NTP authentication key.

ntp-service authentication-keyid keyid authentication-mode { hmac-sha-1 | hmac-sha-256 | hmac-sha-384 | hmac-sha-512 | md5 } { cipher | simple } string [ acl ipv4-acl-number | ipv6 acl ipv6-acl-number ] *

By default, no NTP authentication key exists.

4.        Configure the key as a trusted key.

ntp-service reliable authentication-keyid keyid

By default, no authentication key is configured as a trusted key.

Configuring NTP authentication in symmetric active/passive mode

Restrictions and guidelines

To ensure a successful NTP authentication in symmetric active/passive mode, configure the same authentication key ID, algorithm, and key on the active peer and passive peer. Make sure the peer device is allowed to use the key ID for authentication on the local device.

NTP authentication results differ when different configurations are performed on active peer and passive peer. For more information, see Table 3. (N/A in the table means that whether the configuration is performed or not does not make any difference.)

Table 3 NTP authentication results

Active peer

Passive peer

Enable NTP authentication

Specify the peer and key

Trusted key

Stratum level

Enable NTP authentication

Trusted key

Successful authentication

Yes

Yes

Yes

N/A

Yes

Yes

Failed authentication

Yes

Yes

Yes

N/A

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

N/A

No

N/A

Yes

No

N/A

N/A

Yes

N/A

No

N/A

N/A

N/A

Yes

N/A

Yes

Yes

No

Larger than the passive peer

N/A

N/A

Yes

Yes

No

Smaller than the passive peer

Yes

N/A

Authentication not performed

Yes

No

N/A

N/A

No

N/A

No

N/A

N/A

N/A

No

N/A

Yes

Yes

No

Smaller than the passive peer

No

N/A

Configuring NTP authentication for an active peer

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enable NTP authentication.

ntp-service authentication enable

By default, NTP authentication is disabled.

3.        Configure an NTP authentication key.

ntp-service authentication-keyid keyid authentication-mode { hmac-sha-1 | hmac-sha-256 | hmac-sha-384 | hmac-sha-512 | md5 } { cipher | simple } string [ acl ipv4-acl-number | ipv6 acl ipv6-acl-number ] *

By default, no NTP authentication key exists.

4.        Configure the key as a trusted key.

ntp-service reliable authentication-keyid keyid

By default, no authentication key is configured as a trusted key.

5.        Associate the specified key with a passive peer.

IPv4:

ntp-service unicast-peer { ip-address | peer-name } [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] authentication-keyid keyid

IPv6:

ntp-service ipv6 unicast-peer { ipv6-address | peer-name } [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] authentication-keyid keyid

Configuring NTP authentication for a passive peer

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enable NTP authentication.

ntp-service authentication enable

By default, NTP authentication is disabled.

3.        Configure an NTP authentication key.

ntp-service authentication-keyid keyid authentication-mode { hmac-sha-1 | hmac-sha-256 | hmac-sha-384 | hmac-sha-512 | md5 } { cipher | simple } string [ acl ipv4-acl-number | ipv6 acl ipv6-acl-number ] *

By default, no NTP authentication key exists.

4.        Configure the key as a trusted key.

ntp-service reliable authentication-keyid keyid

By default, no authentication key is configured as a trusted key.

Configuring NTP authentication in broadcast mode

Restrictions and guidelines

To ensure a successful NTP authentication in broadcast mode, configure the same authentication key ID, algorithm, and key on the broadcast server and client. Make sure the peer device is allowed to use the key ID for authentication on the local device.

NTP authentication results differ when different configurations are performed on broadcast client and server. For more information, see Table 4. (N/A in the table means that whether the configuration is performed or not does not make any difference.)

Table 4 NTP authentication results

Broadcast server

Broadcast client

Enable NTP authentication

Specify the server and key

Trusted key

Enable NTP authentication

Trusted key

Successful authentication

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Failed authentication

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

N/A

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

N/A

Yes

No

N/A

Yes

N/A

No

N/A

N/A

Yes

N/A

Authentication not performed

Yes

Yes

No

No

N/A

Yes

No

N/A

No

N/A

No

N/A

N/A

No

N/A

Configuring NTP authentication for a broadcast client

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enable NTP authentication.

ntp-service authentication enable

By default, NTP authentication is disabled.

3.        Configure an NTP authentication key.

ntp-service authentication-keyid keyid authentication-mode { hmac-sha-1 | hmac-sha-256 | hmac-sha-384 | hmac-sha-512 | md5 } { cipher | simple } string [ acl ipv4-acl-number | ipv6 acl ipv6-acl-number ] *

By default, no NTP authentication key exists.

4.        Configure the key as a trusted key.

ntp-service reliable authentication-keyid keyid

By default, no authentication key is configured as a trusted key.

Configuring NTP authentication for a broadcast server

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enable NTP authentication.

ntp-service authentication enable

By default, NTP authentication is disabled.

3.        Configure an NTP authentication key.

ntp-service authentication-keyid keyid authentication-mode { hmac-sha-1 | hmac-sha-256 | hmac-sha-384 | hmac-sha-512 | md5 } { cipher | simple } string [ acl ipv4-acl-number | ipv6 acl ipv6-acl-number ] *

By default, no NTP authentication key exists.

4.        Configure the key as a trusted key.

ntp-service reliable authentication-keyid keyid

By default, no authentication key is configured as a trusted key.

5.        Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

6.        Associate the specified key with the broadcast server.

ntp-service broadcast-server authentication-keyid keyid

By default, the broadcast server is not associated with a key.

Configuring NTP authentication in multicast mode

Restrictions and guidelines

To ensure a successful NTP authentication in multicast mode, configure the same authentication key ID, algorithm, and key on the multicast server and client. Make sure the peer device is allowed to use the key ID for authentication on the local device.

NTP authentication results differ when different configurations are performed on broadcast client and server. For more information, see Table 5. (N/A in the table means that whether the configuration is performed or not does not make any difference.)

Table 5 NTP authentication results

Multicast server

Multicast client

Enable NTP authentication

Specify the server and key

Trusted key

Enable NTP authentication

Trusted key

Successful authentication

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Failed authentication

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

N/A

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

N/A

Yes

No

N/A

Yes

N/A

No

N/A

N/A

Yes

N/A

Authentication not performed

Yes

Yes

No

No

N/A

Yes

No

N/A

No

N/A

No

N/A

N/A

No

N/A

Configuring NTP authentication for a multicast client

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enable NTP authentication.

ntp-service authentication enable

By default, NTP authentication is disabled.

3.        Configure an NTP authentication key.

ntp-service authentication-keyid keyid authentication-mode { hmac-sha-1 | hmac-sha-256 | hmac-sha-384 | hmac-sha-512 | md5 } { cipher | simple } string [ acl ipv4-acl-number | ipv6 acl ipv6-acl-number ] *

By default, no NTP authentication key exists.

4.        Configure the key as a trusted key.

ntp-service reliable authentication-keyid keyid

By default, no authentication key is configured as a trusted key.

Configuring NTP authentication for a multicast server

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enable NTP authentication.

ntp-service authentication enable

By default, NTP authentication is disabled.

3.        Configure an NTP authentication key.

ntp-service authentication-keyid keyid authentication-mode { hmac-sha-1 | hmac-sha-256 | hmac-sha-384 | hmac-sha-512 | md5 } { cipher | simple } string [ acl ipv4-acl-number | ipv6 acl ipv6-acl-number ] *

By default, no NTP authentication key exists.

4.        Configure the key as a trusted key.

ntp-service reliable authentication-keyid keyid

By default, no authentication key is configured as a trusted key.

5.        Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

6.        Associate the specified key with a multicast server.

IPv4:

ntp-service multicast-server [ ip-address ] authentication-keyid keyid

IPv6:

ntp-service ipv6 multicast-server ipv6-multicast-address authentication-keyid keyid

By default, no multicast server is associated with the specified key.

Controlling NTP packet sending and receiving

Specifying the source interface for NTP messages

Restrictions and guidelines

To prevent interface status changes from causing NTP communication failures, configure the device to use the IP address of an interface that is always up. For example, you can configure the device to use a loopback interface as the source IP address for the NTP messages to be sent.

When the device responds to an NTP request, the source IP address of the NTP response is always the IP address of the interface that has received the NTP request.

If you have specified the source interface for NTP messages in the ntp-service unicast-server/ntp-service ipv6 unicast-server or ntp-service unicast-peer/ntp-service ipv6 unicast-peer command, the specified interface acts as the source interface for NTP messages.

If you have configured the ntp-service broadcast-server or ntp-service multicast-server/ntp-service ipv6 multicast-server command in an interface view, this interface acts as the source interface for broadcast or multicast NTP messages.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Specify the source interface for NTP packets.

IPv4:

ntp-service source interface-type interface-number

IPv6:

ntp-service ipv6 source interface-type interface-number

By default, no source interface is specified for NTP messages.

Disabling an interface from receiving NTP messages

About disabling an interface from receiving NTP messages

When NTP is enabled, all interfaces by default can receive NTP messages. For security purposes, you can disable some of the interfaces from receiving NTP messages.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

3.        Disable the interface from receiving NTP packets.

IPv4:

undo ntp-service inbound enable

IPv6:

undo ntp-service ipv6 inbound enable

By default, an interface receives NTP messages.

Configuring the maximum number of dynamic associations

About configuring the maximum number of dynamic associations

Perform this task to restrict the number of dynamic associations to prevent dynamic associations from occupying too many system resources.

NTP has the following types of associations:

·          Static association—A manually created association.

·          Dynamic association—Temporary association created by the system during NTP operation. A dynamic association is removed if no messages are exchanged within about 12 minutes.

The following describes how an association is established in different association modes:

·          Client/server mode—After you specify an NTP server, the system creates a static association on the client. The server simply responds passively upon the receipt of a message, rather than creating an association (static or dynamic).

·          Symmetric active/passive mode—After you specify a symmetric passive peer on a symmetric active peer, static associations are created on the symmetric active peer, and dynamic associations are created on the symmetric passive peer.

·          Broadcast or multicast mode—Static associations are created on the server, and dynamic associations are created on the client.

Restrictions and guidelines

A single device can have a maximum of 128 concurrent associations, including static associations and dynamic associations.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Configure the maximum number of dynamic sessions.

ntp-service max-dynamic-sessions number

By default, the maximum number of dynamic sessions is 100.

Setting a DSCP value for NTP packets

About DSCP values for NTP packets

The DSCP value determines the sending precedence of an NTP packet.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Set a DSCP value for NTP packets.

IPv4:

ntp-service dscp dscp-value

IPv6:

ntp-service ipv6 dscp dscp-value

The default DSCP value is 48 for IPv4 packets and 56 for IPv6 packets.

Display and maintenance commands for NTP

Execute display commands in any view.

 

Task

Command

Display information about IPv6 NTP associations.

display ntp-service ipv6 sessions [ verbose ]

Display information about IPv4 NTP associations.

display ntp-service sessions [ verbose ]

Display information about NTP service status.

display ntp-service status

Display brief information about the NTP servers from the local device back to the primary reference source.

display ntp-service trace [ source interface-type interface-number ]

NTP configuration examples

Example: Configuring NTP client/server association mode

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 4, perform the following tasks:

·          Configure the local clock of Device A as a reference source, with stratum level 2.

·          Configure Device B to operate in client mode and Device A to be used as the NTP server for Device B.

Figure 4 Network diagram

Procedure

 

1.        Assign an IP address to each interface, and make sure Device A and Device B can reach each other, as shown in Figure 4. (Details not shown.)

2.        Configure Device A:

# Enable the NTP service.

<DeviceA> system-view

[DeviceA] ntp-service enable

# Specify the local clock as the reference source, with stratum level 2.

[DeviceA] ntp-service refclock-master 2

3.        Configure Device B:

# Enable the NTP service.

<DeviceB> system-view

[DeviceB] ntp-service enable

# Specify the time protocol as NTP.

[DeviceB] clock protocol ntp

# Specify Device A as the NTP server of Device B so that Device B is synchronized to Device A.

[DeviceB] ntp-service unicast-server 1.0.1.11

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that Device B has synchronized to Device A, and the clock stratum level is 3 on Device B and 2 on Device A.

[DeviceB] display ntp-service status

 Clock status: synchronized

 Clock stratum: 3

 System peer: 1.0.1.11

 Local mode: client

 Reference clock ID: 1.0.1.11

 Leap indicator: 00

 Clock jitter: 0.000977 s

 Stability: 0.000 pps

 Clock precision: 2^-19

 Root delay: 0.00383 ms

 Root dispersion: 16.26572 ms

 Reference time: d0c6033f.b9923965  Wed, Dec 29 2010 18:58:07.724

# Verify that an IPv4 NTP association has been established between Device B and Device A.

[DeviceB] display ntp-service sessions

       source          reference       stra reach poll  now offset  delay disper

********************************************************************************

[12345]1.0.1.11        127.127.1.0        2     1   64   15   -4.0 0.0038 16.262

Notes: 1 source(master), 2 source(peer), 3 selected, 4 candidate, 5 configured.

 Total sessions: 1

Example: Configuring IPv6 NTP client/server association mode

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 5, perform the following tasks:

·          Configure the local clock of Device A as a reference source, with stratum level 2.

·          Configure Device B to operate in client mode and Device A to be used as the IPv6 NTP server for Device B.

Figure 5 Network diagram

Procedure

 

 

1.        Assign an IP address to each interface, and make sure Device A and Device B can reach each other, as shown in Figure 5. (Details not shown.)

2.        Configure Device A:

# Enable the NTP service.

<DeviceA> system-view

[DeviceA] ntp-service enable

# Specify the local clock as the reference source, with stratum level 2.

[DeviceA] ntp-service refclock-master 2

3.        Configure Device B:

# Enable the NTP service.

<DeviceB> system-view

[DeviceB] ntp-service enable

# Specify the time protocol as NTP.

[DeviceB] clock protocol ntp

# Specify Device A as the IPv6 NTP server of Device B so that Device B is synchronized to Device A.

[DeviceB] ntp-service ipv6 unicast-server 3000::34

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that Device B has synchronized to Device A, and the clock stratum level is 3 on Device B and 2 on Device A.

[DeviceB] display ntp-service status

 Clock status: synchronized

 Clock stratum: 3

 System peer: 3000::34

 Local mode: client

 Reference clock ID: 163.29.247.19

 Leap indicator: 00

 Clock jitter: 0.000977 s

 Stability: 0.000 pps

 Clock precision: 2^-19

 Root delay: 0.02649 ms

 Root dispersion: 12.24641 ms

 Reference time: d0c60419.9952fb3e  Wed, Dec 29 2010 19:01:45.598

# Verify that an IPv6 NTP association has been established between Device B and Device A.

[DeviceB] display ntp-service ipv6 sessions

Notes: 1 source(master), 2 source(peer), 3 selected, 4 candidate, 5 configured.

 

 Source: [12345]3000::34

 Reference: 127.127.1.0          Clock stratum: 2

 Reachabilities: 15              Poll interval: 64

 Last receive time: 19           Offset: 0.0

 Roundtrip delay: 0.0            Dispersion: 0.0

 

 Total sessions: 1

Example: Configuring NTP symmetric active/passive association mode

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 6, perform the following tasks:

·          Configure the local clock of Device A as a reference source, with stratum level 2.

·          Configure Device A to operate in symmetric active mode and specify Device B as the passive peer of Device A.

Figure 6 Network diagram

Procedure

 

1.        Assign an IP address to each interface, and make sure Device A and Device B can reach each other, as shown in Figure 6. (Details not shown.)

2.        Configure Device B:

# Enable the NTP service.

<DeviceB> system-view

[DeviceB] ntp-service enable

# Specify the time protocol as NTP.

[DeviceB] clock protocol ntp

3.        Configure Device A:

# Enable the NTP service.

<DeviceA> system-view

[DeviceA] ntp-service enable

# Specify the time protocol as NTP.

[DeviceA] clock protocol ntp

# Specify the local clock as the reference source, with stratum level 2.

[DeviceA] ntp-service refclock-master 2

# Configure Device B as a symmetric passive peer.

[DeviceA] ntp-service unicast-peer 3.0.1.32

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that Device B has synchronized to Device A.

[DeviceB] display ntp-service status

 Clock status: synchronized

 Clock stratum: 3

 System peer: 3.0.1.31

 Local mode: sym_passive

 Reference clock ID: 3.0.1.31

 Leap indicator: 00

 Clock jitter: 0.000916 s

 Stability: 0.000 pps

 Clock precision: 2^-19

 Root delay: 0.00609 ms

 Root dispersion: 1.95859 ms

 Reference time: 83aec681.deb6d3e5  Wed, Jan  8 2014 14:33:11.081

# Verify that an IPv4 NTP association has been established between Device B and Device A.

[DeviceB] display ntp-service sessions

       source          reference       stra reach poll  now offset  delay disper

********************************************************************************

   [12]3.0.1.31        127.127.1.0        2    62   64   34 0.4251 6.0882 1392.1

Notes: 1 source(master), 2 source(peer), 3 selected, 4 candidate, 5 configured.

 Total sessions: 1

Example: Configuring IPv6  NTP symmetric active/passive association mode

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 7, perform the following tasks:

·          Configure the local clock of Device A as a reference source, with stratum level 2.

·          Configure Device A to operate in symmetric active mode and specify Device B as the IPv6 passive peer of Device A.

Figure 7 Network diagram

Procedure

 

1.        Assign an IP address to each interface, and make sure Device A and Device B can reach each other, as shown in Figure 7. (Details not shown.)

2.        Configure Device B:

# Enable the NTP service.

<DeviceB> system-view

[DeviceB] ntp-service enable

# Specify the time protocol as NTP.

[DeviceB] clock protocol ntp

3.        Configure Device A:

# Enable the NTP service.

<DeviceA> system-view

[DeviceA] ntp-service enable

# Specify the time protocol as NTP.

[DeviceA] clock protocol ntp

# Specify the local clock as the reference source, with stratum level 2.

[DeviceA] ntp-service refclock-master 2

# Configure Device B as an IPv6 symmetric passive peer.

[DeviceA] ntp-service ipv6 unicast-peer 3000::36

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that Device B has synchronized to Device A.

[DeviceB] display ntp-service status

 Clock status: synchronized

 Clock stratum: 3

 System peer: 3000::35

 Local mode: sym_passive

 Reference clock ID: 251.73.79.32

 Leap indicator: 11

 Clock jitter: 0.000977 s

 Stability: 0.000 pps

 Clock precision: 2^-19

 Root delay: 0.01855 ms

 Root dispersion: 9.23483 ms

 Reference time: d0c6047c.97199f9f  Wed, Dec 29 2010 19:03:24.590

# Verify that an IPv6 NTP association has been established between Device B and Device A.

[DeviceB] display ntp-service ipv6 sessions

Notes: 1 source(master), 2 source(peer), 3 selected, 4 candidate, 5 configured.

 

 Source:  [1234]3000::35

 Reference: 127.127.1.0          Clock stratum: 2

 Reachabilities: 15              Poll interval: 64

 Last receive time: 19           Offset: 0.0

 Roundtrip delay: 0.0            Dispersion: 0.0

 

 Total sessions: 1

Example: Configuring NTP broadcast association mode

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 8, Switch C functions as the NTP server for multiple devices on a network segment and synchronizes the time among multiple devices.

·          Configure Switch C's local clock as a reference source, with stratum level 2.

·          Configure Switch C to operate in broadcast server mode and send broadcast messages from VLAN-interface 2.

·          Configure Switch A and Switch B to operate in broadcast client mode, and listen to broadcast messages through VLAN-interface 2.

Figure 8 Network diagram

Procedure

 

1.        Assign an IP address to each interface, and make sure Switch A, Switch B, and Switch C can reach each other, as shown in Figure 8. (Details not shown.)

2.        Configure Switch C:

# Enable the NTP service.

<SwitchC> system-view

[SwitchC] ntp-service enable

# Specify the time protocol as NTP.

[SwitchC] clock protocol ntp

# Specify the local clock as the reference source, with stratum level 2.

[SwitchC] ntp-service refclock-master 2

# Configure Switch C to operate in broadcast server mode and send broadcast messages through VLAN-interface 2.

[SwitchC] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchC-Vlan-interface2] ntp-service broadcast-server

3.        Configure Switch A:

# Enable the NTP service.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] ntp-service enable

# Specify the time protocol as NTP.

[SwitchA] clock protocol ntp

# Configure Switch A to operate in broadcast client mode and receive broadcast messages on VLAN-interface 2.

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] ntp-service broadcast-client

4.        Configure Switch B:

# Enable the NTP service.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] ntp-service enable

# Specify the time protocol as NTP.

[SwitchB] clock protocol ntp

# Configure Switch B to operate in broadcast client mode and receive broadcast messages on VLAN-interface 2.

[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] ntp-service broadcast-client

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that Switch A has synchronized to Switch C, and the clock stratum level is 3 on Switch A and 2 on Switch C.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] display ntp-service status

 Clock status: synchronized

 Clock stratum: 3

 System peer: 3.0.1.31

 Local mode: bclient

 Reference clock ID: 3.0.1.31

 Leap indicator: 00

 Clock jitter: 0.044281 s

 Stability: 0.000 pps

 Clock precision: 2^-19

 Root delay: 0.00229 ms

 Root dispersion: 4.12572 ms

 Reference time: d0d289fe.ec43c720  Sat, Jan  8 2011  7:00:14.922

# Verify that an IPv4 NTP association has been established between Switch A and Switch C.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] display ntp-service sessions

       source          reference       stra reach poll  now offset  delay disper

********************************************************************************

 [1245]3.0.1.31        127.127.1.0        2     1   64  519   -0.0 0.0022 4.1257

Notes: 1 source(master),2 source(peer),3 selected,4 candidate,5 configured.

 Total sessions: 1

Example: Configuring NTP multicast association mode

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 9, Switch C functions as the NTP server for multiple devices on different network segments and synchronizes the time among multiple devices.

·          Configure Switch C's local clock as a reference source, with stratum level 2.

·          Configure Switch C to operate in multicast server mode and send multicast messages from VLAN-interface 2.

·          Configure Switch A and Switch D to operate in multicast client mode and receive multicast messages through VLAN-interface 3 and VLAN-interface 2, respectively.

Figure 9 Network diagram

Procedure

 

 

1.        Assign an IP address to each interface, and make sure the switches can reach each other, as shown in Figure 9. (Details not shown.)

2.        Configure Switch C:

# Enable the NTP service.

<SwitchC> system-view

[SwitchC] ntp-service enable

# Specify the time protocol as NTP.

[SwitchC] clock protocol ntp

# Specify the local clock as the reference source, with stratum level 2.

[SwitchC] ntp-service refclock-master 2

# Configure Switch C to operate in multicast server mode and send multicast messages through VLAN-interface 2.

[SwitchC] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchC-Vlan-interface2] ntp-service multicast-server

3.        Configure Switch D:

# Enable the NTP service.

<SwitchD> system-view

[SwitchD] ntp-service enable

# Specify the time protocol as NTP.

[SwitchD] clock protocol ntp

# Configure Switch D to operate in multicast client mode and receive multicast messages on VLAN-interface 2.

[SwitchD] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchD-Vlan-interface2] ntp-service multicast-client

4.        Verify the configuration:

Switch D and Switch C are on the same subnet, so Switch D can do the following:

¡  Receive the multicast messages from Switch C without being enabled with the multicast functions.

¡  Synchronize to Switch C.

# Verify that Switch D has synchronized to Switch C, and the clock stratum level is 3 on Switch D and 2 on Switch C.

[SwitchD-Vlan-interface2] display ntp-service status

 Clock status: synchronized

 Clock stratum: 3

 System peer: 3.0.1.31

 Local mode: bclient

 Reference clock ID: 3.0.1.31

 Leap indicator: 00

 Clock jitter: 0.044281 s

 Stability: 0.000 pps

 Clock precision: 2^-19

 Root delay: 0.00229 ms

 Root dispersion: 4.12572 ms

 Reference time: d0d289fe.ec43c720  Sat, Jan  8 2011  7:00:14.922

# Verify that an IPv4 NTP association has been established between Switch D and Switch C.

[SwitchD-Vlan-interface2] display ntp-service sessions

       source          reference       stra reach poll  now offset  delay disper

********************************************************************************

 [1245]3.0.1.31        127.127.1.0        2     1   64  519   -0.0 0.0022 4.1257

Notes: 1 source(master),2 source(peer),3 selected,4 candidate,5 configured.

 Total sessions: 1

5.        Configure Switch B:

Because Switch A and Switch C are on different subnets, you must enable the multicast functions on Switch B before Switch A can receive multicast messages from Switch C.

# Enable IP multicast routing and IGMP.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] multicast routing

[SwitchB-mrib] quit

[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] pim dm

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] quit

[SwitchB] vlan 3

[SwitchB-vlan3] port gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[SwitchB-vlan3] quit

[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 3

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface3] igmp enable

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface3] igmp static-group 224.0.1.1

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface3] quit

[SwitchB] igmp-snooping

[SwitchB-igmp-snooping] quit

[SwitchB] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[SwitchB-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] igmp-snooping static-group 224.0.1.1 vlan 3

6.        Configure Switch A:

# Enable the NTP service.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] ntp-service enable

# Specify the time protocol as NTP.

[SwitchA] clock protocol ntp

# Configure Switch A to operate in multicast client mode and receive multicast messages on VLAN-interface 3.

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 3

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface3] ntp-service multicast-client

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that Switch A has synchronized to Switch C, and the clock stratum level is 3 on Switch A and 2 on Switch C.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface3] display ntp-service status

 Clock status: synchronized

 Clock stratum: 3

 System peer: 3.0.1.31

 Local mode: bclient

 Reference clock ID: 3.0.1.31

 Leap indicator: 00

 Clock jitter: 0.165741 s

 Stability: 0.000 pps

 Clock precision: 2^-19

 Root delay: 0.00534 ms

 Root dispersion: 4.51282 ms

 Reference time: d0c61289.10b1193f  Wed, Dec 29 2010 20:03:21.065

# Verify that an IPv4 NTP association has been established between Switch A and Switch C.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface3] display ntp-service sessions

       source          reference       stra reach poll  now offset  delay disper

********************************************************************************

 [1234]3.0.1.31        127.127.1.0        2   247   64  381   -0.0 0.0053 4.5128

Notes: 1 source(master),2 source(peer),3 selected,4 candidate,5 configured.

 Total sessions: 1

Example: Configuring IPv6 NTP multicast association mode

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 10, Switch C functions as the NTP server for multiple devices on different network segments and synchronizes the time among multiple devices.

·          Configure Switch C's local clock as a reference source, with stratum level 2.

·          Configure Switch C to operate in IPv6 multicast server mode and send IPv6 multicast messages from VLAN-interface 2.

·          Configure Switch A and Switch D to operate in IPv6 multicast client mode and receive IPv6 multicast messages through VLAN-interface 3 and VLAN-interface 2, respectively.

Figure 10 Network diagram

Procedure

 

 

1.        Assign an IP address to each interface, and make sure the switches can reach each other, as shown in Figure 10. (Details not shown.)

2.        Configure Switch C:

# Enable the NTP service.

<SwitchC> system-view

[SwitchC] ntp-service enable

# Specify the time protocol as NTP.

[SwitchC] clock protocol ntp

# Specify the local clock as the reference source, with stratum level 2.

[SwitchC] ntp-service refclock-master 2

# Configure Switch C to operate in IPv6 multicast server mode and send multicast messages through VLAN-interface 2.

[SwitchC] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchC-Vlan-interface2] ntp-service ipv6 multicast-server ff24::1

3.        Configure Switch D:

# Enable the NTP service.

<SwitchD> system-view

[SwitchD] ntp-service enable

# Specify the time protocol as NTP.

[SwitchD] clock protocol ntp

# Configure Switch D to operate in IPv6 multicast client mode and receive multicast messages on VLAN-interface 2.

[SwitchD] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchD-Vlan-interface2] ntp-service ipv6 multicast-client ff24::1

4.        Verify the configuration:

Switch D and Switch C are on the same subnet, so Switch D can do the following:

¡  Receive the IPv6 multicast messages from Switch C without being enabled with the IPv6 multicast functions.

¡  Synchronize to Switch C.

# Verify that Switch D has synchronized to Switch C, and the clock stratum level is 3 on Switch D and 2 on Switch C.

[SwitchD-Vlan-interface2] display ntp-service status

 Clock status: synchronized

 Clock stratum: 3

 System peer: 3000::2

 Local mode: bclient

 Reference clock ID: 165.84.121.65

 Leap indicator: 00

 Clock jitter: 0.000977 s

 Stability: 0.000 pps

 Clock precision: 2^-19

 Root delay: 0.00000 ms

 Root dispersion: 8.00578 ms

 Reference time: d0c60680.9754fb17  Wed, Dec 29 2010 19:12:00.591

# Verify that an IPv6 NTP association has been established between Switch D and Switch C.

[SwitchD-Vlan-interface2] display ntp-service ipv6 sessions

Notes: 1 source(master), 2 source(peer), 3 selected, 4 candidate, 5 configured.

 

 Source:  [1234]3000::2

 Reference: 127.127.1.0           Clock stratum: 2

 Reachabilities: 111              Poll interval: 64

 Last receive time: 23            Offset: -0.0

 Roundtrip delay: 0.0             Dispersion: 0.0

 

 Total sessions: 1

5.        Configure Switch B:

Because Switch A and Switch C are on different subnets, you must enable the IPv6 multicast functions on Switch B before Switch A can receive IPv6 multicast messages from Switch C.

# Enable IPv6 multicast functions.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] ipv6 multicast routing

[SwitchB-mrib6] quit

[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] ipv6 pim dm

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] quit

[SwitchB] vlan 3

[SwitchB-vlan3] port gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[SwitchB-vlan3] quit

[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 3

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface3] mld enable

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface3] mld static-group ff24::1

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface3] quit

[SwitchB] mld-snooping

[SwitchB-mld-snooping] quit

[SwitchB] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[SwitchB-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] mld-snooping static-group ff24::1 vlan 3

6.        Configure Switch A:

# Enable the NTP service.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] ntp-service enable

# Specify the time protocol as NTP.

[SwitchA] clock protocol ntp

# Configure Switch A to operate in IPv6 multicast client mode and receive IPv6 multicast messages on VLAN-interface 3.

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 3

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface3] ntp-service ipv6 multicast-client ff24::1

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that Switch A has synchronized to Switch C, and the clock stratum level is 3 on Switch A and 2 on Switch C.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface3] display ntp-service status

 Clock status: synchronized

 Clock stratum: 3

 System peer: 3000::2

 Local mode: bclient

 Reference clock ID: 165.84.121.65

 Leap indicator: 00

 Clock jitter: 0.165741 s

 Stability: 0.000 pps

 Clock precision: 2^-19

 Root delay: 0.00534 ms

 Root dispersion: 4.51282 ms

 Reference time: d0c61289.10b1193f  Wed, Dec 29 2010 20:03:21.065

# Verify that an IPv6 NTP association has been established between Switch A and Switch C.

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface3] display ntp-service ipv6 sessions

Notes: 1 source(master), 2 source(peer), 3 selected, 4 candidate, 5 configured.

 

 Source:   [124]3000::2

 Reference: 127.127.1.0           Clock stratum: 2

 Reachabilities: 2                Poll interval: 64

 Last receive time: 71            Offset: -0.0

 Roundtrip delay: 0.0             Dispersion: 0.0

 

 Total sessions: 1

Example: Configuring NTP client/server association mode with authentication

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 11, perform the following tasks:

·          Configure the local clock of Device A as a reference source, with stratum level 2.

·          Configure Device B to operate in client mode and specify Device A as the NTP server of Device B.

·          Configure NTP authentication on both Device A and Device B.

Figure 11 Network diagram

Procedure

 

 

1.        Assign an IP address to each interface, and make sure Device A and Device B can reach each other, as shown in Figure 11. (Details not shown.)

2.        Configure Device A:

# Enable the NTP service.

<DeviceA> system-view

[DeviceA] ntp-service enable

# Specify the local clock as the reference source, with stratum level 2.

[DeviceA] ntp-service refclock-master 2

3.        Configure Device B:

# Enable the NTP service.

<DeviceB> system-view

[DeviceB] ntp-service enable

# Specify the time protocol as NTP.

[DeviceB] clock protocol ntp

# Enable NTP authentication on Device B.

[DeviceB] ntp-service authentication enable

# Set an authentication key, and input the key in plain text.

[DeviceB] ntp-service authentication-keyid 42 authentication-mode md5 simple aNiceKey

# Specify the key as a trusted key.

[DeviceB] ntp-service reliable authentication-keyid 42

# Specify Device A as the NTP server of Device B, and associate the server with key 42.

[DeviceB] ntp-service unicast-server 1.0.1.11 authentication-keyid 42

Before Device B can synchronize its clock to that of Device A, enable NTP authentication for Device A.

4.        Configure NTP authentication on Device A:

# Enable NTP authentication.

[DeviceA] ntp-service authentication enable

# Set an authentication key, and input the key in plain text.

[DeviceA] ntp-service authentication-keyid 42 authentication-mode md5 simple aNiceKey

# Specify the key as a trusted key.

[DeviceA] ntp-service reliable authentication-keyid 42

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that Device B has synchronized to Device A, and the clock stratum level is 3 on Device B and 2 on Device A.

[DeviceB] display ntp-service status

 Clock status: synchronized

 Clock stratum: 3

 System peer: 1.0.1.11

 Local mode: client

 Reference clock ID: 1.0.1.11

 Leap indicator: 00

 Clock jitter: 0.005096 s

 Stability: 0.000 pps

 Clock precision: 2^-19

 Root delay: 0.00655 ms

 Root dispersion: 1.15869 ms

 Reference time: d0c62687.ab1bba7d  Wed, Dec 29 2010 21:28:39.668

# Verify that an IPv4 NTP association has been established between Device B and Device A.

[DeviceB] display ntp-service sessions

       source          reference       stra reach poll  now offset  delay disper

********************************************************************************

 [1245]1.0.1.11        127.127.1.0        2     1   64  519   -0.0 0.0065    0.0

Notes: 1 source(master),2 source(peer),3 selected,4 candidate,5 configured.

 Total sessions: 1

Example: Configuring NTP broadcast association mode with authentication

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 12, Switch C functions as the NTP server for multiple devices on different network segments and synchronizes the time among multiple devices. Switch A and Switch B authenticate the reference source.

·          Configure Switch C's local clock as a reference source, with stratum level 3.

·          Configure Switch C to operate in broadcast server mode and send broadcast messages from VLAN-interface 2.

·          Configure Switch A and Switch B to operate in broadcast client mode and receive broadcast messages through VLAN-interface 2.

·          Enable NTP authentication on Switch A, Switch B, and Switch C.

Figure 12 Network diagram

Procedure

 

 

1.        Assign an IP address to each interface, and make sure Switch A, Switch B, and Switch C can reach each other, as shown in Figure 12. (Details not shown.)

2.        Configure Switch A:

# Enable the NTP service.

<SwitchA> system-view

[SwitchA] ntp-service enable

# Specify the time protocol as NTP.

[SwitchA] clock protocol ntp

# Enable NTP authentication on Switch A. Configure an NTP authentication key, with the key ID of 88 and key value of 123456. Input the key in plain text, and specify it as a trusted key.

[SwitchA] ntp-service authentication enable

[SwitchA] ntp-service authentication-keyid 88 authentication-mode md5 simple 123456

[SwitchA] ntp-service reliable authentication-keyid 88

# Configure Switch A to operate in NTP broadcast client mode and receive NTP broadcast messages on VLAN-interface 2.

[SwitchA] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchA-Vlan-interface2] ntp-service broadcast-client

3.        Configure Switch B:

# Enable the NTP service.

<SwitchB> system-view

[SwitchB] ntp-service enable

# Specify the time protocol as NTP.

[SwitchB] clock protocol ntp

# Enable NTP authentication on Switch B. Configure an NTP authentication key, with the key ID of 88 and key value of 123456. Input the key in plain text and specify it as a trusted key.

[SwitchB] ntp-service authentication enable

[SwitchB] ntp-service authentication-keyid 88 authentication-mode md5 simple 123456

[SwitchB] ntp-service reliable authentication-keyid 88

# Configure Switch B to operate in broadcast client mode and receive NTP broadcast messages on VLAN-interface 2.

[SwitchB] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] ntp-service broadcast-client

4.        Configure Switch C:

# Enable the NTP service.

<SwitchC> system-view

[SwitchC] ntp-service enable

# Specify the time protocol as NTP.

[SwitchC] clock protocol ntp

# Specify the local clock as the reference source, with stratum level 3.

[SwitchC] ntp-service refclock-master 3

# Configure Switch C to operate in NTP broadcast server mode and use VLAN-interface 2 to send NTP broadcast packets.

[SwitchC] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchC-Vlan-interface2] ntp-service broadcast-server

[SwitchC-Vlan-interface2] quit

5.        Verify the configuration:

NTP authentication is enabled on Switch A and Switch B, but not on Switch C, so Switch A and Switch B cannot synchronize their local clocks to Switch C.

# Verify that Switch B has not synchronized to Switch C.

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] display ntp-service status

 Clock status: unsynchronized

 Clock stratum: 16

 Reference clock ID: none

6.        Enable NTP authentication on Switch C:

# Enable NTP authentication on Switch C. Configure an NTP authentication key, with the key ID of 88 and key value of 123456. Input the key in plain text, and specify it as a trusted key.

[SwitchC] ntp-service authentication enable

[SwitchC] ntp-service authentication-keyid 88 authentication-mode md5 simple 123456

[SwitchC] ntp-service reliable authentication-keyid 88

# Specify Switch C as an NTP broadcast server, and associate the key 88 with Switch C.

[SwitchC] interface vlan-interface 2

[SwitchC-Vlan-interface2] ntp-service broadcast-server authentication-keyid 88

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that Switch B has synchronized to Switch C, and the clock stratum level is 4 on Switch B and 3 on Switch C.

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] display ntp-service status

 Clock status: synchronized

 Clock stratum: 4

 System peer: 3.0.1.31

 Local mode: bclient

 Reference clock ID: 3.0.1.31

 Leap indicator: 00

 Clock jitter: 0.006683 s

 Stability: 0.000 pps

 Clock precision: 2^-19

 Root delay: 0.00127 ms

 Root dispersion: 2.89877 ms

 Reference time: d0d287a7.3119666f  Sat, Jan  8 2011  6:50:15.191

# Verify that an IPv4 NTP association has been established between Switch B and Switch C.

[SwitchB-Vlan-interface2] display ntp-service sessions

       source          reference       stra reach poll  now offset  delay disper

********************************************************************************

 [1245]3.0.1.31        127.127.1.0        3     3   64   68   -0.0 0.0000    0.0

Notes: 1 source(master),2 source(peer),3 selected,4 candidate,5 configured.

 Total sessions: 1


Configuring SNTP

About SNTP

SNTP is a simplified, client-only version of NTP specified in RFC 4330. It uses the same packet format and packet exchange procedure as NTP, but provides faster synchronization at the price of time accuracy.

SNTP working mode

SNTP supports only the client/server mode. An SNTP-enabled device can receive time from NTP servers, but cannot provide time services to other devices.

If you specify multiple NTP servers for an SNTP client, the server with the best stratum is selected. If multiple servers are at the same stratum, the NTP server whose time packet is first received is selected.

Protocols and standards

RFC 4330, Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) Version 4 for IPv4, IPv6 and OSI

Restrictions and guidelines: SNTP configuration

When you configure SNTP, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·          You cannot configure both NTP and SNTP on the same device.

·          Make sure you use the clock protocol command to specify the time protocol as NTP. For more information about the clock protocol command, see device management commands in Fundamentals Configuration Guide.

SNTP tasks at a glance

To configure SNTP, perform the following tasks:

1.        Enabling the SNTP service

2.        Specifying an NTP server for the device

3.        (Optional.) Configuring SNTP authentication

Enabling the SNTP service

Restrictions and guidelines

The NTP service and SNTP service are mutually exclusive. Before you enable SNTP, make sure NTP is disabled.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enable the SNTP service.

sntp enable

By default, the SNTP service is disabled.

Specifying an NTP server for the device

Restrictions and guidelines

To use an NTP server as the time source, make sure its clock has been synchronized. If the stratum level of the NTP server is greater than or equal to that of the client, the client does not synchronize with the NTP server.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Specify an NTP server for the device.

IPv4:

sntp unicast-server { server-name | ip-address } [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] [ authentication-keyid keyid | source interface-type interface-number | version number ] *

IPv6:

sntp ipv6 unicast-server { server-name | ipv6-address } [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] [ authentication-keyid keyid | source interface-type interface-number ] *

By default, no NTP server is specified for the device.

You can specify multiple NTP servers for the client by repeating this step.

To perform authentication, you need to specify the authentication-keyid keyid option.

Configuring SNTP authentication

About SNTP authentication

SNTP authentication ensures that an SNTP client is synchronized only to an authenticated trustworthy NTP server.

Restrictions and guidelines

Enable authentication on both the NTP server and the SNTP client.

Use the same authentication key ID, algorithm, and key on the NTP server and SNTP client. Specify the key as a trusted key on both the NTP server and the SNTP client. For information about configuring NTP authentication on an NTP server, see "Configuring NTP."

On the SNTP client, associate the specified key with the NTP server. Make sure the server is allowed to use the key ID for authentication on the client.

With authentication disabled, the SNTP client can synchronize with the NTP server regardless of whether the NTP server is enabled with authentication.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enable SNTP authentication.

sntp authentication enable

By default, SNTP authentication is disabled.

3.        Configure an SNTP authentication key.

sntp authentication-keyid keyid authentication-mode { hmac-sha-1 | hmac-sha-256 | hmac-sha-384 | hmac-sha-512 | md5 } { cipher | simple } string [ acl ipv4-acl-number | ipv6 acl ipv6-acl-number ] *

By default, no SNTP authentication key exists.

4.        Specify the key as a trusted key.

sntp reliable authentication-keyid keyid

By default, no trusted key is specified.

5.        Associate the SNTP authentication key with an NTP server.

IPv4:

sntp unicast-server { server-name | ip-address } [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] authentication-keyid keyid

IPv6:

sntp ipv6 unicast-server { server-name | ipv6-address } [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] authentication-keyid keyid

By default, no NTP server is specified.

Display and maintenance commands for SNTP

Execute display commands in any view.

 

Task

Command

Display information about all IPv6 SNTP associations.

display sntp ipv6 sessions

Display information about all IPv4 SNTP associations.

display sntp sessions

SNTP configuration examples

Example: Configuring SNTP

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 13, perform the following tasks:

·          Configure the local clock of Device A as a reference source, with stratum level 2.

·          Configure Device B to operate in SNTP client mode, and specify Device A as the NTP server.

·          Configure NTP authentication on Device A and SNTP authentication on Device B.

Figure 13 Network diagram

Procedure

 

 

1.        Assign an IP address to each interface, and make sure Device A and Device B can reach each other, as shown in Figure 13. (Details not shown.)

2.        Configure Device A:

# Enable the NTP service.

<DeviceA> system-view

[DeviceA] ntp-service enable

# Specify the time protocol as NTP.

[DeviceA] clock protocol ntp

# Configure the local clock of Device A as a reference source, with stratum level 2.

[DeviceA] ntp-service refclock-master 2

# Enable NTP authentication on Device A.

[DeviceA] ntp-service authentication enable

# Configure an NTP authentication key, with the key ID of 10 and key value of aNiceKey. Input the key in plain text.

[DeviceA] ntp-service authentication-keyid 10 authentication-mode md5 simple aNiceKey

# Specify the key as a trusted key.

[DeviceA] ntp-service reliable authentication-keyid 10

3.        Configure Device B:

# Enable the SNTP service.

<DeviceB> system-view

[DeviceB] sntp enable

# Specify the time protocol as NTP.

[DeviceB] clock protocol ntp

# Enable SNTP authentication on Device B.

[DeviceB] sntp authentication enable

# Configure an SNTP authentication key, with the key ID of 10 and key value of aNiceKey. Input the key in plain text.

[DeviceB] sntp authentication-keyid 10 authentication-mode md5 simple aNiceKey

# Specify the key as a trusted key.

[DeviceB] sntp reliable authentication-keyid 10

# Specify Device A as the NTP server of Device B, and associate the server with key 10.

[DeviceB] sntp unicast-server 1.0.1.11 authentication-keyid 10

Verifying the configuration

# Verify that an SNTP association has been established between Device B and Device A, and Device B has synchronized to Device A.

[DeviceB] display sntp sessions

NTP server     Stratum   Version    Last receive time

1.0.1.11        2         4          Tue, May 17 2011  9:11:20.833 (Synced)