08-ACL and QoS Configuration Guide

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02-QoS configuration
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Contents

QoS overview·· 1

QoS service models· 1

Best-effort service model 1

IntServ model 1

DiffServ model 1

QoS techniques in a network· 1

QoS processing flow in a device· 2

QoS configuration approaches· 3

Configuring a QoS policy· 4

About QoS policies· 4

QoS policy tasks at a glance· 4

Defining a traffic class· 4

Defining a traffic behavior 4

Defining a QoS policy· 5

Applying the QoS policy· 5

Application destinations· 5

Restrictions and guidelines for applying a QoS policy· 5

Applying the QoS policy to an interface· 5

Applying the QoS policy to VLANs· 6

Applying the QoS policy globally· 6

Applying the QoS policy to a user profile· 7

Display and maintenance commands for QoS policies· 7

Configuring priority mapping· 1

About priority mapping· 1

About priorities· 1

Priority maps· 1

Priority mapping configuration methods· 2

Priority mapping process· 2

Priority mapping tasks at a glance· 3

Configuring a priority map· 4

Configuring a port to trust packet priority for priority mapping· 4

Changing the port priority of an interface· 4

Display and maintenance commands for priority mapping· 5

Priority mapping configuration examples· 5

Example: Configuring a priority trust mode· 5

Example: Configuring priority mapping tables and priority marking· 6

Configuring traffic policing, GTS, and rate limit 10

About traffic policing, GTS, and rate limit 10

Traffic evaluation and token buckets· 10

Traffic policing· 11

GTS·· 12

Rate limit 13

Restrictions and guidelines: Traffic policing, GTS, and rate limit configuration·· 14

Configuring traffic policing· 14

Configuring GTS·· 15

Configuring the rate limit 16

Display and maintenance commands for traffic policing, GTS, and rate limit 16

Traffic policing, GTS, and rate limit configuration examples· 16

Example: Configuring traffic policing and GTS·· 16

Configuring congestion management 20

About congestion management 20

Cause, negative results, and countermeasure of congestion·· 20

Congestion management methods· 20

Congestion management tasks at a glance· 22

Configuring queuing on an interface· 22

Restrictions and guidelines for queuing configuration·· 22

Configuring SP queuing· 22

Configuring WRR queuing· 23

Configuring SP+WRR queuing· 23

Configuring a queue scheduling profile· 23

About queue scheduling profiles· 23

Restrictions and guidelines for queue scheduling profile configuration·· 24

Configuring a queue scheduling profile· 24

Applying a queue scheduling profile to an interface· 24

Example: Configuring a queue scheduling profile· 25

Display and maintenance commands for congestion management 25

Configuring traffic filtering· 27

About traffic filtering· 27

Restrictions and guidelines: Traffic filtering configuration·· 27

Procedure· 27

Traffic filtering configuration examples· 28

Example: Configuring traffic filtering· 28

Configuring priority marking· 30

About priority marking· 30

Configuring priority marking· 30

Priority marking configuration examples· 31

Example: Configuring priority marking· 31

Configuring nesting· 34

About nesting· 34

Restrictions and guidelines: Nesting configuration·· 34

Procedure· 34

Nesting configuration examples· 35

Example: Configuring nesting· 35

Configuring traffic redirecting· 37

About traffic redirecting· 37

Restrictions and guidelines: Traffic redirecting configuration·· 37

Procedure· 37

Traffic redirecting configuration examples· 38

Example: Configuring traffic redirecting· 38

Configuring global CAR·· 41

About global CAR·· 41

Aggregate CAR·· 41

Hierarchical CAR·· 41

Restrictions and guidelines: Global CAR configuration·· 42

Configuring aggregate CAR·· 42

Display and maintenance commands for global CAR·· 43

Configuring class-based accounting· 44

About class-based accounting· 44

Restrictions and guidelines: Class-based accounting configuration·· 44

Procedure· 44

Class-based accounting configuration examples· 45

Example: Configuring class-based accounting· 45

Appendixes· 47

Appendix A Acronyms· 47

Appendix B Default priority maps· 47

Appendix C Introduction to packet precedence· 49

IP precedence and DSCP values· 49

802.1p priority· 50

 


QoS overview

In data communications, Quality of Service (QoS) provides differentiated service guarantees for diversified traffic in terms of bandwidth, delay, jitter, and drop rate, all of which can affect QoS.

QoS manages network resources and prioritizes traffic to balance system resources.

The following section describes typical QoS service models and widely used QoS techniques.

QoS service models

This section describes several typical QoS service models.

Best-effort service model

The best-effort model is a single-service model. The best-effort model is not as reliable as other models and does not guarantee delay-free delivery.

The best-effort service model is the default model for the Internet and applies to most network applications. It uses the First In First Out (FIFO) queuing mechanism.

IntServ model

The integrated service (IntServ) model is a multiple-service model that can accommodate diverse QoS requirements. This service model provides the most granularly differentiated QoS by identifying and guaranteeing definite QoS for each data flow.

In the IntServ model, an application must request service from the network before it sends data. IntServ signals the service request with the RSVP. All nodes receiving the request reserve resources as requested and maintain state information for the application flow.

The IntServ model demands high storage and processing capabilities because it requires all nodes along the transmission path to maintain resource state information for each flow. This model is suitable for small-sized or edge networks. However, it is not suitable for large-sized networks, for example, the core layer of the Internet, where billions of flows are present.

DiffServ model

The differentiated service (DiffServ) model is a multiple-service model that can meet diverse QoS requirements. It is easy to implement and extend. DiffServ does not signal the network to reserve resources before sending data, as IntServ does.

QoS techniques in a network

The QoS techniques include the following features:

·          Traffic classification.

·          Traffic policing.

·          Traffic shaping.

·          Rate limit.

·          Congestion management.

·          Congestion avoidance.

The following section briefly introduces these QoS techniques.

All QoS techniques in this document are based on the DiffServ model.

Figure 1 Position of the QoS techniques in a network

 

As shown in Figure 1, traffic classification, traffic shaping, traffic policing, congestion management, and congestion avoidance mainly implement the following functions:

·          Traffic classification—Uses match criteria to assign packets with the same characteristics to a traffic class. Based on traffic classes, you can provide differentiated services.

·          Traffic policing—Polices flows and imposes penalties to prevent aggressive use of network resources. You can apply traffic policing to both incoming and outgoing traffic of a port.

·          Traffic shaping—Adapts the output rate of traffic to the network resources available on the downstream device to eliminate packet drops. Traffic shaping usually applies to the outgoing traffic of a port.

·          Congestion management—Provides a resource scheduling policy to determine the packet forwarding sequence when congestion occurs. Congestion management usually applies to the outgoing traffic of a port.

·          Congestion avoidance—Monitors the network resource usage. It is usually applied to the outgoing traffic of a port. When congestion worsens, congestion avoidance reduces the queue length by dropping packets.

QoS processing flow in a device

Figure 2 briefly describes how the QoS module processes traffic.

1.        Traffic classifier identifies and classifies traffic for subsequent QoS actions.

2.        The QoS module takes various QoS actions on classified traffic as configured, depending on the traffic processing phase and network status. For example, you can configure the QoS module to perform the following operations:

¡  Traffic policing for incoming traffic.

¡  Traffic shaping for outgoing traffic.

¡  Congestion avoidance before congestion occurs.

¡  Congestion management when congestion occurs.

Figure 2 QoS processing flow

 

QoS configuration approaches

You can configure QoS by using the MQC approach or non-MQC approach.

In the modular QoS configuration (MQC) approach, you configure QoS service parameters by using QoS policies. A QoS policy defines QoS actions to take on different classes of traffic and can be applied to an object (such as an interface) to control traffic.

In the non-MQC approach, you configure QoS service parameters without using a QoS policy. For example, you can use the rate limit feature to set a rate limit on an interface without using a QoS policy.

 


Configuring a QoS policy

About QoS policies

A QoS policy has the following components:

·          Traffic class—Defines criteria to match packets.

·          Traffic behavior—Defines QoS actions to take on matching packets.

By associating a traffic class with a traffic behavior, a QoS policy can perform the QoS actions on matching packets.

A QoS policy can have multiple class-behavior associations.

QoS policy tasks at a glance

To configure a QoS policy, perform the following tasks:

1.        Defining a traffic class

2.        Defining a traffic behavior

3.        Defining a QoS policy

4.        Applying the QoS policy

¡  Applying the QoS policy to an interface

¡  Applying the QoS policy to VLANs

¡  Applying the QoS policy globally

¡  Applying the QoS policy to a user profile

Defining a traffic class

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Create a traffic class and enter traffic class view.

traffic classifier classifier-name [ operator { and | or } ]

3.        (Optional.) Configure a description for the traffic class.

description text

By default, no description is configured for a traffic class.

4.        Configure a match criterion.

if-match match-criteria

By default, no match criterion is configured.

For more information, see the if-match command in ACL and QoS Command Reference.

Defining a traffic behavior

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Create a traffic behavior and enter traffic behavior view.

traffic behavior behavior-name

3.        Configure an action in the traffic behavior.

By default, no action is configured for a traffic behavior.

For more information about configuring an action, see the subsequent chapters for traffic policing, traffic filtering, priority marking, class-based accounting, and so on.

Defining a QoS policy

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Create a QoS policy and enter QoS policy view.

qos policy policy-name

3.        Associate a traffic class with a traffic behavior to create a class-behavior association in the QoS policy.

classifier classifier-name behavior behavior-name [ insert-before before-classifier-name ]

By default, a traffic class is not associated with a traffic behavior.

Repeat this step to create more class-behavior associations.

Applying the QoS policy

Application destinations

You can apply a QoS policy to the following destinations:

·          Interface—The QoS policy takes effect on the traffic sent or received on the interface.

·          VLAN—The QoS policy takes effect on the traffic sent or received on all ports in the VLAN.

·          Globally—The QoS policy takes effect on the traffic sent or received on all ports.

·          User profile—The QoS policy takes effect on the traffic sent or received by the online users of the user profile.

Restrictions and guidelines for applying a QoS policy

You can modify traffic classes, traffic behaviors, and class-behavior associations in a QoS policy even after it is applied (except that it is applied to a user profile). If a traffic class uses an ACL for traffic classification, you can delete or modify the ACL.

Applying the QoS policy to an interface

Restrictions and guidelines

A QoS policy can be applied to multiple interfaces. However, only one QoS policy can be applied to one direction (inbound or outbound) of an interface.

The QoS policy applied to the outgoing traffic on an interface does not regulate local packets. Local packets refer to critical protocol packets sent by the local system for operation maintenance. The most common local packets include link maintenance, RIP, LDP, and SSH packets.

The term "interface" in this section refers to Layer 2 Ethernet interfaces.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

3.        Apply the QoS policy to the interface.

qos apply policy policy-name { inbound | outbound }

By default, no QoS policy is applied to an interface.

Applying the QoS policy to VLANs

About QoS policy application to VLANs

You can apply a QoS policy to VLANs to regulate the traffic on all ports of the VLANs.

Restrictions and guidelines

QoS policies cannot be applied to dynamic VLANs.

When you apply a QoS policy to VLANs, the QoS policy is applied to the specified VLANs on all IRF member devices. If the hardware resources of an IRF member device are insufficient, applying a QoS policy to VLANs might fail on the IRF member device. The system does not automatically roll back the QoS policy configuration already applied to other IRF member devices. To ensure consistency, use the undo qos vlan-policy vlan command to manually remove the QoS policy configuration applied to them.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Apply the QoS policy to VLANs.

qos vlan-policy policy-name vlan vlan-id-list { inbound | outbound }

By default, no QoS policy is applied to a VLAN.

Applying the QoS policy globally

About global QoS policy application

You can apply a QoS policy globally to the inbound or outbound direction of all ports.

Restrictions and guidelines

If the hardware resources of an IRF member device are insufficient, applying a QoS policy globally might fail on the IRF member device. The system does not automatically roll back the QoS policy configuration already applied to other IRF member devices. To ensure consistency, you must use the undo qos apply policy global command to manually remove the QoS policy configuration applied to them.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Apply the QoS policy globally.

qos apply policy policy-name global { inbound | outbound }

By default, no QoS policy is applied globally.

Applying the QoS policy to a user profile

About QoS policy application to a user profile

When a user profile is configured, you can perform traffic policing based on users. After a user passes authentication, the authentication server sends the name of the user profile associated with the user to the device. The QoS policy configured in user profile view takes effect only when users come online.

Restrictions and guidelines

You can apply a QoS policy to multiple user profiles. In one direction of each user profile, only one policy can be applied. To modify a QoS policy already applied to a direction, first remove the applied QoS policy.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enter user profile view.

user-profile profile-name

3.        Apply the QoS policy to the user profile.

qos apply policy policy-name { inbound | outbound }

By default, no QoS policy is applied to a user profile.

 

Parameter

Description

inbound

Applies a QoS policy to the traffic received by the device from the user profile.

outbound

Applies a QoS policy to the traffic sent by the device to the user profile.

 

Display and maintenance commands for QoS policies

Execute display commands in any view and reset commands in user view.

 

Task

Command

Display QoS policy configuration.

display qos policy user-defined [ policy-name [ classifier classifier-name ] ] [ slot slot-number ]

Display information about QoS policies applied globally.

display qos policy global [ slot slot-number ] [ inbound | outbound ]

Display information about QoS policies applied to interfaces.

display qos policy interface [ interface-type interface-number ] [ inbound | outbound ]

Display information about QoS policies applied to user profiles.

display qos policy user-profile [ name profile-name ] [ user-id user-id ] [ slot slot-number ] [ inbound | outbound ]

Display information about QoS policies applied to VLANs.

display qos vlan-policy { name policy-name | vlan [ vlan-id ] } [ slot slot-number ] [ inbound | outbound ]

Display QoS and ACL resource usage.

display qos-acl resource [ slot slot-number ]

Display traffic behavior configuration.

display traffic behavior user-defined [ behavior-name ] [ slot slot-number ]

Display traffic class configuration.

display traffic classifier user-defined [ classifier-name ] [ slot slot-number ]

Clear the statistics for a QoS policy applied globally.

reset qos policy global [ inbound | outbound ]

Clear the statistics of the QoS policy applied in a certain direction of a VLAN.

reset qos vlan-policy [ vlan vlan-id ] [ inbound | outbound ]

 

 


Configuring priority mapping

About priority mapping

When a packet arrives, a device assigns a set of QoS priority parameters to the packet based on either of the following:

·          A priority field carried in the packet.

·          The port priority of the incoming port.

This process is called priority mapping. During this process, the device can modify the priority of the packet according to the priority mapping rules. The set of QoS priority parameters decides the scheduling priority and forwarding priority of the packet.

Priority mapping is implemented with priority maps and involves the following priorities:

·          802.1p priority.

·          DSCP.

·          IP precedence.

·          Local precedence.

·          Drop priority.

About priorities

Priorities include the following types: priorities carried in packets, and priorities locally assigned for scheduling only.

Packet-carried priorities include 802.1p priority, DSCP precedence, IP precedence, and EXP. These priorities have global significance and affect the forwarding priority of packets across the network. For more information about these priorities, see "Appendix C Introduction to packet precedence."

Locally assigned priorities only have local significance. They are assigned by the device only for scheduling. These priorities include the local precedence, drop priority, and user priority, as follows:

·          Local precedence—Used for queuing. A local precedence value corresponds to an output queue. A packet with higher local precedence is assigned to a higher priority output queue to be preferentially scheduled.

·          Drop priority—Used for making packet drop decisions. Packets with the highest drop priority are dropped preferentially.

·          User priority—Precedence that the device automatically extracts from a priority field of the packet according to its forwarding path. It is a parameter for determining the scheduling priority and forwarding priority of the packet. The user priority represents the 802.1p priority for Layer 2 packets and IP precedence for Layer 3 packets.

The device supports only local precedence for scheduling.

Priority maps

The device provides various types of priority maps. By looking through a priority map, the device decides which priority value to assign to a packet for subsequent packet processing.

The default priority maps (as shown in Appendix B Default priority maps) are available for priority mapping. They are adequate in most cases. If a default priority map cannot meet your requirements, you can modify the priority map as required.

Priority mapping configuration methods

You can configure priority mapping by using any of the following methods:

·          Configuring priority trust mode—In this method, you can configure a port to look up a trusted priority type (802.1p, for example) in incoming packets in the priority maps. Then, the system maps the trusted priority to the target priority types and values.

·          Changing port priority—If no packet priority is trusted, the port priority of the incoming port is used. By changing the port priority of a port, you change the priority of the incoming packets on the port.

Priority mapping process

On receiving an Ethernet packet on a port, the switch marks the scheduling priorities (local precedence and drop precedence) for the Ethernet packet. This procedure is done according to the priority trust mode of the receiving port and the 802.1Q tagging status of the packet, as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3 Priority mapping process for an Ethernet packet

If you configure both an 802.1p priority marking action and a DSCP marking action, the device uses the marked 802.1p priority as the input value for the dot1p-lp priority map to obtain the local precedence.

For information about priority marking, see "Configuring priority marking."

Priority mapping tasks at a glance

To configure priority mapping, perform the following tasks:

1.        (Optional.) Configuring a priority map

2.        Configure a priority mapping method:

¡  Configuring a port to trust packet priority for priority mapping

¡  Changing the port priority of an interface

Configuring a priority map

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enter priority map view.

qos map-table{ dot1p-lp | dscp-dot1p | dscp-dscp }

3.        Configure mappings for the priority map.

import import-value-list export export-value

By default, the default priority maps are used. For more information, see "Appendix B Default priority maps."

If you execute this command multiple times, the most recent configuration takes effect.

Configuring a port to trust packet priority for priority mapping

About configuring a port to trust packet priority

You can configure the device to trust a particular priority field carried in packets for priority mapping on ports or globally. When you configure the trusted packet priority type on an interface, use the following available keywords:

·          dot1p—Uses the 802.1p priority of received packets for mapping.

·          dscp—Uses the DSCP precedence of received IP packets for mapping.

Restrictions and guidelines

The term "interface" in this section refers to Layer 2 Ethernet interfaces.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

3.        Configure the trusted packet priority type.

qos trust { dot1p | dscp }

By default, an interface does not trust any packet priority and uses the port priority as the 802.1p priority for mapping.

Changing the port priority of an interface

About port priority

If an interface does not trust any packet priority, the device uses its port priority to look for priority parameters for the incoming packets. By changing port priority, you can prioritize traffic received on different interfaces.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

3.        Set the port priority of the interface.

qos priority priority-value

The default setting is 0.

Display and maintenance commands for priority mapping

Execute display commands in any view.

 

Task

Command

Display priority map configuration.

display qos map-table [ dot1p-lp | dscp-dot1p | dscp-dscp ]

Display the trusted packet priority type on a port.

display qos trust interface [ interface-type interface-number ]

 

Priority mapping configuration examples

Example: Configuring a priority trust mode

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 4:

·          The 802.1p priority of traffic from Device A to Device C is 3.

·          The 802.1p priority of traffic from Device B to Device C is 1.

Configure Device C to preferentially process packets from Device A to the server when GigabitEthernet 1/0/3 of Device C is congested.

Figure 4 Network diagram

Procedure

(Method 1) Configure Device C to trust packet priority

# Configure GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 and GigabitEthernet 1/0/2 to trust the 802.1p priority for priority mapping.

<DeviceC> system-view

[DeviceC] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[DeviceC-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] qos trust dot1p

[DeviceC-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit

[DeviceC] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/2

[DeviceC-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] qos trust dot1p

[DeviceC-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] quit

(Method 2) Configure Device C to trust port priority

# Assign port priority to GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 and GigabitEthernet 1/0/2. Make sure the following requirements are met:

·          The priority of GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 is higher than that of GigabitEthernet 1/0/2.

·          No trusted packet priority type is configured on GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 or GigabitEthernet 1/0/2.

<DeviceC> system-view

[DeviceC] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[DeviceC-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] qos priority 3

[DeviceC-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit

[DeviceC] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/2

[DeviceC-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] qos priority 1

[DeviceC-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] quit

Example: Configuring priority mapping tables and priority marking

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 5:

·          The Marketing department connects to GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 of Device, which sets the 802.1p priority of traffic from the Marketing department to 3.

·          The R&D department connects to GigabitEthernet 1/0/2 of Device, which sets the 802.1p priority of traffic from the R&D department to 4.

·          The Management department connects to GigabitEthernet 1/0/3 of Device, which sets the 802.1p priority of traffic from the Management department to 5.

Configure port priority, 802.1p-to-local mapping table, and priority marking to implement the plan as described in Table 1.

Table 1 Configuration plan

Traffic destination

Traffic priority order

Queuing plan

Traffic source

Output queue

Queue priority

Public servers

R&D department > Management department > Marketing department

R&D department

6

High

Management department

4

Medium

Marketing department

2

Low

Internet

Management department > Marketing department > R&D department

R&D department

2

Low

Management department

6

High

Marketing department

4

Medium

 

Figure 5 Network diagram

Procedure

1.        Configure trusting port priority:

# Set the port priority of GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 to 3.

<Device> system-view

[Device] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] qos priority 3

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit

# Set the port priority of GigabitEthernet 1/0/2 to 4.

[Device] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/2

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] qos priority 4

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] quit

# Set the port priority of GigabitEthernet 1/0/3 to 5.

[Device] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/3

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/3] qos priority 5

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/3] quit

2.        Configure the 802.1p-to-local mapping table to map 802.1p priority values 3, 4, and 5 to local precedence values 2, 6, and 4.

This guarantees the R&D department, Management department, and Marketing department decreased priorities to access the public servers.

[Device] qos map-table dot1p-lp

[Device-maptbl-dot1p-lp] import 3 export 2

[Device-maptbl-dot1p-lp] import 4 export 6

[Device-maptbl-dot1p-lp] import 5 export 4

[Device-maptbl-dot1p-lp] quit

3.        Configure priority marking to mark the packets from Management department, Marketing department, and R&D department to the Internet with 802.1p priority values 4, 5, and 3.

This guarantees the Management department, Marketing department, and R&D department decreased priorities to access the Internet.

# Create ACL 3000, and configure a rule to match HTTP packets.

[Device] acl advanced 3000

[Device-acl-adv-3000] rule permit tcp destination-port eq 80

[Device-acl-adv-3000] quit

# Create a traffic class named http, and use ACL 3000 as a match criterion.

[Device] traffic classifier http

[Device-classifier-http] if-match acl 3000

[Device-classifier-http] quit

# Create a traffic behavior named admin, and configure a marking action for the Management department.

[Device] traffic behavior admin

[Device-behavior-admin] remark dot1p 4

[Device-behavior-admin] quit

# Create a QoS policy named admin, and associate traffic class http with traffic behavior admin in QoS policy admin.

[Device] qos policy admin

[Device-qospolicy-admin] classifier http behavior admin

[Device-qospolicy-admin] quit

# Apply QoS policy admin to the inbound direction of GigabitEthernet 1/0/3.

[Device] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/3

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/3] qos apply policy admin inbound

# Create a traffic behavior named market, and configure a marking action for the Marketing department.

[Device] traffic behavior market

[Device-behavior-market] remark dot1p 5

[Device-behavior-market] quit

# Create a QoS policy named market, and associate traffic class http with traffic behavior market in QoS policy market.

[Device] qos policy market

[Device-qospolicy-market] classifier http behavior market

[Device-qospolicy-market] quit

# Apply QoS policy market to the inbound direction of GigabitEthernet 1/0/1.

[Device] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] qos apply policy market inbound

# Create a traffic behavior named rd, and configure a marking action for the R&D department.

[Device] traffic behavior rd

[Device-behavior-rd] remark dot1p 3

[Device-behavior-rd] quit

# Create a QoS policy named rd, and associate traffic class http with traffic behavior rd in QoS policy rd.

[Device] qos policy rd

[Device-qospolicy-rd] classifier http behavior rd

[Device-qospolicy-rd] quit

# Apply QoS policy rd to the inbound direction of GigabitEthernet 1/0/2.

[Device] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/2

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] qos apply policy rd inbound


Configuring traffic policing, GTS, and rate limit

About traffic policing, GTS, and rate limit

Traffic limit helps assign network resources (including bandwidth) and increase network performance. For example, you can configure a flow to use only the resources committed to it in a certain time range. This avoids network congestion caused by burst traffic.

Traffic policing, Generic Traffic Shaping (GTS), and rate limit control the traffic rate and resource usage according to traffic specifications. You can use token buckets for evaluating traffic specifications.

Traffic evaluation and token buckets

Token bucket features

A token bucket is analogous to a container that holds a certain number of tokens. Each token represents a certain forwarding capacity. The system puts tokens into the bucket at a constant rate. When the token bucket is full, the extra tokens cause the token bucket to overflow.

Evaluating traffic with the token bucket

A token bucket mechanism evaluates traffic by looking at the number of tokens in the bucket. If the number of tokens in the bucket is enough for forwarding the packets:

·          The traffic conforms to the specification (called conforming traffic).

·          The corresponding tokens are taken away from the bucket.

Otherwise, the traffic does not conform to the specification (called excess traffic).

A token bucket has the following configurable parameters:

·          Mean rate at which tokens are put into the bucket, which is the permitted average rate of traffic. It is usually set to the committed information rate (CIR).

·          Burst size or the capacity of the token bucket. It is the maximum traffic size permitted in each burst. It is usually set to the committed burst size (CBS). The set burst size must be greater than the maximum packet size.

Each arriving packet is evaluated.

Complicated evaluation

You can set two token buckets, bucket C and bucket E, to evaluate traffic in a more complicated environment and achieve more policing flexibility. For example, traffic policing uses the following mechanisms:

·          Single rate two color—Uses one token bucket and the following parameters:

¡  CIR—Rate at which tokens are put into bucket C. It sets the average packet transmission or forwarding rate allowed by bucket C.

¡  CBS—Size of bucket C, which specifies the transient burst of traffic that bucket C can forward.

When a packet arrives, the following rules apply:

¡  If bucket C has enough tokens to forward the packet, the packet is colored green.

¡  Otherwise, the packet is colored red.

·          Single rate three color—Uses two token buckets and the following parameters:

¡  CIR—Rate at which tokens are put into bucket C. It sets the average packet transmission or forwarding rate allowed by bucket C.

¡  CBS—Size of bucket C, which specifies the transient burst of traffic that bucket C can forward.

¡  EBS—Size of bucket E minus size of bucket C, which specifies the transient burst of traffic that bucket E can forward. The EBS cannot be 0. The size of E bucket is the sum of the CBS and EBS.

When a packet arrives, the following rules apply:

¡  If bucket C has enough tokens, the packet is colored green.

¡  If bucket C does not have enough tokens but bucket E has enough tokens, the packet is colored yellow.

¡  If neither bucket C nor bucket E has sufficient tokens, the packet is colored red.

·          Two rate three color—Uses two token buckets and the following parameters:

¡  CIR—Rate at which tokens are put into bucket C. It sets the average packet transmission or forwarding rate allowed by bucket C.

¡  CBS—Size of bucket C, which specifies the transient burst of traffic that bucket C can forward.

¡  PIR—Rate at which tokens are put into bucket E, which specifies the average packet transmission or forwarding rate allowed by bucket E.

¡  EBS—Size of bucket E, which specifies the transient burst of traffic that bucket E can forward.

When a packet arrives, the following rules apply:

¡  If bucket C has enough tokens, the packet is colored green.

¡  If bucket C does not have enough tokens but bucket E has enough tokens, the packet is colored yellow.

¡  If neither bucket C nor bucket E has sufficient tokens, the packet is colored red.

Traffic policing

Traffic policing supports policing the inbound traffic and the outbound traffic.

A typical application of traffic policing is to supervise the specification of traffic entering a network and limit it within a reasonable range. Another application is to "discipline" the extra traffic to prevent aggressive use of network resources by an application. For example, you can limit bandwidth for HTTP packets to less than 50% of the total. If the traffic of a session exceeds the limit, traffic policing can drop the packets or reset the IP precedence of the packets. Figure 6 shows an example of policing outbound traffic on an interface.

Figure 6 Traffic policing

 

Traffic policing is widely used in policing traffic entering the ISP networks. It can classify the policed traffic and take predefined policing actions on each packet depending on the evaluation result:

·          Forwarding the packet if the evaluation result is "conforming."

·          Dropping the packet if the evaluation result is "excess."

·          Forwarding the packet with its precedence re-marked if the evaluation result is "conforming."

GTS

GTS supports shaping the outbound traffic. GTS limits the outbound traffic rate by buffering exceeding traffic. You can use GTS to adapt the traffic output rate on a device to the input traffic rate of its connected device to avoid packet loss.

The differences between traffic policing and GTS are as follows:

·          Packets to be dropped with traffic policing are retained in a buffer or queue with GTS, as shown in Figure 7. When enough tokens are in the token bucket, the buffered packets are sent at an even rate.

·          GTS can result in additional delay and traffic policing does not.

Figure 7 GTS

 

For example, in Figure 8, Device B performs traffic policing on packets from Device A and drops packets exceeding the limit. To avoid packet loss, you can perform GTS on the outgoing interface of Device A so that packets exceeding the limit are cached in Device A. Once resources are released, GTS takes out the cached packets and sends them out.

Figure 8 GTS application

 

 

Rate limit

Rate limit controls the rate of inbound and outbound traffic. The outbound traffic is taken for example.

The rate limit of an interface specifies the maximum rate for forwarding packets (excluding critical packets).

Rate limit also uses token buckets for traffic control. When rate limit is configured on an interface, a token bucket handles all packets to be sent through the interface for rate limiting. If enough tokens are in the token bucket, packets can be forwarded. Otherwise, packets are put into QoS queues for congestion management. In this way, the traffic passing the interface is controlled.

Figure 9 Rate limit implementation

 

The token bucket mechanism limits traffic rate when accommodating bursts. It allows bursty traffic to be transmitted if enough tokens are available. If tokens are scarce, packets cannot be transmitted until efficient tokens are generated in the token bucket. It restricts the traffic rate to the rate for generating tokens.

Rate limit controls the total rate of all packets on an interface. It is easier to use than traffic policing in controlling the total traffic rate.

Restrictions and guidelines: Traffic policing, GTS, and rate limit configuration

The specified CIR does not take traffic transmitted in interframe gaps into account, and the actually allowed rate on an interface is greater than the specified CIR.

An interframe gap is a time interval for transmitting 12 bits between frames. This gap serves the following roles:

·          Allows the device to differentiate one frame from another.

·          Allows for time for the device to process the current frame and to prepare for receiving the next frame.

Configuring traffic policing

Restrictions and guidelines

The device supports the following application destinations for traffic policing:

·          Interface.

·          VLANs.

·          Globally.

·          User profile.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Define a traffic class.

a.    Create a traffic class and enter traffic class view.

traffic classifier classifier-name [ operator { and | or } ]

b.    Configure a match criterion.

if-match match-criteria

By default, no match criterion is configured.

For more information about the if-match command, see ACL and QoS Command Reference.

c.    Return to system view.

quit

3.        Define a traffic behavior.

a.    Create a traffic behavior and enter traffic behavior view.

traffic behavior behavior-name

b.    Configure a traffic policing action.

car cir committed-information-rate [ cbs committed-burst-size [ ebs excess-burst-size ] ] [ green action | red action | yellow action ] *

car cir committed-information-rate [ cbs committed-burst-size ] pir peak-information-rate [ ebs excess-burst-size ] [ green action | red action | yellow action ] *

By default, no traffic policing action is configured.

c.    Return to system view.

quit

4.        Define a QoS policy.

a.    Create a QoS policy and enter QoS policy view.

qos policy policy-name

b.    Associate the traffic class with the traffic behavior in the QoS policy.

classifier classifier-name behavior behavior-name

By default, a traffic class is not associated with a traffic behavior.

c.    Return to system view.

quit

5.        Apply the QoS policy.

For more information, see "Applying the QoS policy."

By default, no QoS policy is applied.

Configuring GTS

Restrictions and guidelines

The term "interface" in this section refers to Layer 2 Ethernet interfaces.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

3.        Configure GTS for a queue.

qos gts queue queue-id cir committed-information-rate [ cbs committed-burst-size ]

undo qos gts queue queue-id

By default, GTS is not configured on an interface.

Configuring the rate limit

Restrictions and guidelines

The term "interface" in this section refers to Layer 2 Ethernet interfaces.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

3.        Configure the rate limit for the interface.

qos lr { inbound | outbound } cir committed-information-rate [ cbs committed-burst-size ]

By default, no rate limit is configured on an interface.

Display and maintenance commands for traffic policing, GTS, and rate limit

Execute display commands in any view.

 

Task

Command

Display GTS configuration and statistics for interfaces.

display qos gts interface [ interface-type interface-number ]

Display rate limit configuration.

display qos lr  interface [ interface-type interface-number ]

Display QoS and ACL resource usage.

display qos-acl resource [ slot slot-number ]

Display traffic behavior configuration.

display traffic behavior user-defined [ behavior-name ] [ slot slot-number ]

 

Traffic policing, GTS, and rate limit configuration examples

Example: Configuring traffic policing and GTS

Network requirements

As shown in Figure 10:

·          The server, Host A, and Host B can access the Internet through Device A and Device B.

·          The server, Host A, and GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 of Device A are in the same network segment.

·          Host B and GigabitEthernet 1/0/2 of Device A are in the same network segment.

Perform traffic control for the packets that GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 of Device A receives from the server and Host A using the following guidelines:

·          Limit the rate of packets from the server to 10240 kbps. When the traffic rate is below 10240 kbps, the traffic is forwarded. When the traffic rate exceeds 10240 kbps, the excess packets are marked with DSCP value 0 and then forwarded.

·          Limit the rate of packets from Host A to 2560 kbps. When the traffic rate is below 2560 kbps, the traffic is forwarded. When the traffic rate exceeds 2560 kbps, the excess packets are dropped.

Perform traffic control on GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 and GigabitEthernet 1/0/2 of Device B using the following guidelines:

·          Limit the incoming traffic rate on GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 to 20480 kbps, and the excess packets are dropped.

·          Limit the outgoing traffic rate on GigabitEthernet 1/0/2 to 10240 kbps, and the excess packets are dropped.

Figure 10 Network diagram

Configuration procedure

1.        Configure Device A:

# Configure ACL 2001 and ACL 2002 to permit the packets from the server and Host A, respectively.

[DeviceA] acl basic 2001

[DeviceA-acl-ipv4-basic-2001] rule permit source 1.1.1.1 0

[DeviceA-acl-ipv4-basic-2001] quit

[DeviceA] acl basic 2002

[DeviceA-acl-ipv4-basic-2002] rule permit source 1.1.1.2 0

[DeviceA-acl-ipv4-basic-2002] quit

# Create a traffic class named server, and use ACL 2001 as the match criterion.

[DeviceA] traffic classifier server

[DeviceA-classifier-server] if-match acl 2001

[DeviceA-classifier-server] quit

# Create a traffic class named host, and use ACL 2002 as the match criterion.

[DeviceA] traffic classifier host

[DeviceA-classifier-host] if-match acl 2002

[DeviceA-classifier-host] quit

# Create a traffic behavior named server, and configure a traffic policing action (CIR 10240 kbps).

[DeviceA] traffic behavior server

[DeviceA-behavior-server] car cir 10240 red remark-dscp-pass 0

[DeviceA-behavior-server] quit

# Create a traffic behavior named host, and configure a traffic policing action (CIR 2560 kbps).

[DeviceA] traffic behavior host

[DeviceA-behavior-host] car cir 2560

[DeviceA-behavior-host] quit

# Create a QoS policy named car, and associate traffic classes server and host with traffic behaviors server and host in QoS policy car, respectively.

[DeviceA] qos policy car

[DeviceA-qospolicy-car] classifier server behavior server

[DeviceA-qospolicy-car] classifier host behavior host

[DeviceA-qospolicy-car] quit

# Apply QoS policy car to the inbound direction of GigabitEthernet 1/0/1.

[DeviceA] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[DeviceA-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] qos apply policy car inbound

2.        Configure Device B:

# Create ACL 3001, and configure a rule to match HTTP packets.

<DeviceB> system-view

[DeviceB] acl advanced 3001

[DeviceB-acl-adv-3001] rule permit tcp destination-port eq 80

[DeviceB-acl-adv-3001] quit

# Create a traffic class named http, and use ACL 3001 as a match criterion.

[DeviceB] traffic classifier http

[DeviceB-classifier-http] if-match acl 3001

[DeviceB-classifier-http] quit

# Create a traffic class named class, and configure the traffic class to match all packets.

[DeviceB] traffic classifier class

[DeviceB-classifier-class] if-match any

[DeviceB-classifier-class] quit

# Create a traffic behavior named car_inbound, and configure a traffic policing action (CIR 20480 kbps).

[DeviceB] traffic behavior car_inbound

[DeviceB-behavior-car_inbound] car cir 20480

[DeviceB-behavior-car_inbound] quit

# Create a traffic behavior named car_outbound, and configure a traffic policing action (CIR 10240 kbps).

[DeviceB] traffic behavior car_outbound

[DeviceB-behavior-car_outbound] car cir 10240

[DeviceB-behavior-car_outbound] quit

# Create a QoS policy named car_inbound, and associate traffic class class with traffic behavior car_inbound in QoS policy car_inbound.

[DeviceB] qos policy car_inbound

[DeviceB-qospolicy-car_inbound] classifier class behavior car_inbound

[DeviceB-qospolicy-car_inbound] quit

# Create a QoS policy named car_outbound, and associate traffic class http with traffic behavior car_outbound in QoS policy car_outbound.

[DeviceB] qos policy car_outbound

[DeviceB-qospolicy-car_outbound] classifier http behavior car_outbound

[DeviceB-qospolicy-car_outbound] quit

# Apply QoS policy car_inbound to the inbound direction of GigabitEthernet 1/0/1.

[DeviceB] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[DeviceB-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] qos apply policy car_inbound inbound

# Apply QoS policy car_outbound to the outbound direction of GigabitEthernet 1/0/2.

[DeviceB] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/2

[DeviceB-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] qos apply policy car_outbound outbound

 


Configuring congestion management

About congestion management

Cause, negative results, and countermeasure of congestion

Congestion occurs on a link or node when traffic size exceeds the processing capability of the link or node. It is typical of a statistical multiplexing network and can be caused by link failures, insufficient resources, and various other causes.

Figure 11 shows two typical congestion scenarios.

Figure 11 Traffic congestion scenarios

 

Congestion produces the following negative results:

·          Increased delay and jitter during packet transmission.

·          Decreased network throughput and resource use efficiency.

·          Network resource (memory, in particular) exhaustion and even system breakdown.

Congestion is unavoidable in switched networks and multiuser application environments. To improve the service performance of your network, take measures to manage and control it.

The key to congestion management is defining a resource dispatching policy to prioritize packets for forwarding when congestion occurs.

Congestion management methods

Congestion management uses queuing and scheduling algorithms to classify and sort traffic leaving a port.

The device supports the following queuing mechanisms:

·          SP.

·          WRR.

SP queuing

SP queuing is designed for mission-critical applications that require preferential service to reduce the response delay when congestion occurs.

Figure 12 SP queuing

 

In Figure 12, SP queuing classifies eight queues on a port into eight classes, numbered 7 to 0 in descending priority order.

SP queuing schedules the eight queues in the descending order of priority. SP queuing sends packets in the queue with the highest priority first. When the queue with the highest priority is empty, it sends packets in the queue with the second highest priority, and so on. You can assign mission-critical packets to a high priority queue to make sure they are always served first. Common service packets can be assigned to low priority queues to be transmitted when high priority queues are empty.

The disadvantage of SP queuing is that packets in the lower priority queues cannot be transmitted if packets exist in the higher priority queues. In the worst case, lower priority traffic might never get serviced.

WRR queuing

WRR queuing schedules all the queues in turn to ensure that every queue is served for a certain time, as shown in Figure 13.

Figure 13 WRR queuing

 

Assume a port provides eight output queues. WRR assigns each queue a weight value (represented by w7, w6, w5, w4, w3, w2, w1, or w0). The weight value of a queue decides the proportion of resources assigned to the queue. On a 100 Mbps port, you can set the weight values to 50, 30, 10, 10, 50, 30, 10, and 10 for w7 through w0. In this way, the queue with the lowest priority can get a minimum of 5 Mbps of bandwidth. WRR solves the problem that SP queuing might fail to serve packets in low-priority queues for a long time.

Another advantage of WRR queuing is that when the queues are scheduled in turn, the service time for each queue is not fixed. If a queue is empty, the next queue will be scheduled immediately. This improves bandwidth resource use efficiency.

WRR queuing includes the following types:

·          Basic WRR queuing—Contains multiple queues. You can set the weight for each queue, and WRR schedules these queues based on the user-defined parameters in a round robin manner.

·          Group-based WRR queuing—All the queues are scheduled by WRR. You can divide output queues to WRR priority queue group 1 and WRR priority queue group 2. Round robin queue scheduling is performed for group 1 first. If group 1 is empty, round robin queue scheduling is performed for group 2. Only WRR priority queue group 1 is supported in the current software version.

On an interface enabled with group-based WRR queuing, you can assign queues to the SP group. Queues in the SP group are scheduled with SP. The SP group has higher scheduling priority than the WRR groups.

Congestion management tasks at a glance

To configure congestion management, perform the following tasks:

·          Configuring queuing on an interface

¡  Configuring SP queuing

¡  Configuring WRR queuing

¡  Configuring SP+WRR queuing

·          Configuring a queue scheduling profile

Configuring queuing on an interface

Restrictions and guidelines for queuing configuration

The term "interface" in this section refers to Layer 2 Ethernet interfaces.

The queue ID, queue name, group, and weight in the display qos queue interface command output form a queue scheduling template. A queue scheduling template corresponds to a unique combination of queue parameter settings on an interface.

The device supports a maximum of eight queue scheduling templates, including the default queue scheduling template, the queue scheduling template for IRF physical interfaces, and predefined queue scheduling template for the CPU. If multiple interfaces use the same user-created queue scheduling template, make sure at least one other queue scheduling template has not been used on any interface.

If all queue scheduling templates are used, you can configure congestion management through a queue scheduling profile (see "Configuring a queue scheduling profile").

Configuring SP queuing

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

3.        Configure SP queuing.

qos sp

By default, an interface uses byte-count WRR queuing.

Configuring WRR queuing

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

3.        Enable WRR queuing.

qos wrr weight

By default, an interface uses packet-count WRR queuing.

4.        Assign a queue to a WRR group, and configure scheduling parameters for the queue.

qos wrr queue-id group  1 weight schedule-value

By default, all queues on a WRR-enabled interface are in WRR group 1, and queues 0 through 7 have a weight of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 13, and 15, respectively.

Configuring SP+WRR queuing

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enter interface view.

interface interface-type interface-number

3.        Enable byte-count or packet-count WRR queuing.

qos wrr  weight

By default, an interface uses packet-count WRR queuing.

4.        Assign a queue to the SP group.

qos wrr queue-id group sp

By default, all queues on a WRR-enabled interface are in WRR group 1.

5.        Assign a queue to a WRR group, and configure a scheduling weight for the queue.

qos wrr queue-id group  1 weight schedule-value

By default, all queues on a WRR-enabled interface are in WRR group 1, and queues 0 through 7 have a weight of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 13, and 15, respectively.

Configuring a queue scheduling profile

About queue scheduling profiles

In a queue scheduling profile, you can configure scheduling parameters for each queue. By applying the queue scheduling profile to an interface or session group profile, you can implement congestion management on the interface or session group profile.

Queue scheduling profiles support two queue scheduling algorithms: SP and WRR. In a queue scheduling profile, you can also configure SP+WRR. For information about each scheduling algorithm, see "About congestion management." When SP and WRR groups are configured in a queue scheduling profile, Figure 14 shows the scheduling order.

Figure 14 Queue scheduling profile configured with both SP and WRR

·          Queue 7 has the highest priority in the SP group. Its packets are sent preferentially.

·          Queue 5 has the second highest priority in the SP group. Packets in queue 5 are sent when queue 7 is empty.

·          All queues in WRR group 1 are scheduled according to their weights. When queue 7 and queue 5 are empty, WRR group 1 is scheduled.

Restrictions and guidelines for queue scheduling profile configuration

When you configure a queue scheduling profile, follow these restrictions and guidelines:

·          The term "interface" in this section refers to Layer 2 Ethernet interfaces.

·          Only one queue scheduling profile can be applied to an interface.

·          You can modify the scheduling parameters in a queue scheduling profile already applied to an interface.

Configuring a queue scheduling profile

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Create a queue scheduling profile and enter queue scheduling profile view.

qos qmprofile profile-name

3.        (Optional.) Configure queue scheduling parameters.

¡  Configure a queue to use SP.

queue queue-id sp

¡  Configure a queue to use WRR.

queue queue-id wrr group group-id { weight | byte-count } schedule-value

By default, all queues in a queue scheduling profile use SP queuing.

Applying a queue scheduling profile to an interface

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Enter queue scheduling profile view.

qos qmprofile profile-name

3.        Execute the following commands in sequence to apply the queue scheduling profile to the outbound direction of an interface:

interface interface-type interface-number

qos apply qmprofile profile-name

By default, no queue scheduling profile is applied to an interface.

Example: Configuring a queue scheduling profile

Network configuration

Configure a queue scheduling profile to meet the following requirements on GigabitEthernet 1/0/1:

·          Queue 7 has the highest priority, and its packets are sent preferentially.

·          Queue 0 through queue 6 are in the WRR group and are scheduled according to their packet-count weights, which are 2, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10, respectively. When queue 7 is empty, the WRR group is scheduled.

Procedure

# Enter system view.

<Sysname> system-view

# Create a queue scheduling profile named qm1.

[Sysname] qos qmprofile qm1

[Sysname-qmprofile-qm1]

# Configure queue 7 to use SP queuing.

[Sysname-qmprofile-qm1] queue 7 sp

# Assign queue 0 through queue 6 to WRR group 1, with their packet-count weights as 2, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10, respectively.

[Sysname-qmprofile-qm1] queue 0 wrr group 1 weight 2

[Sysname-qmprofile-qm1] queue 1 wrr group 1 weight 1

[Sysname-qmprofile-qm1] queue 2 wrr group 1 weight 2

[Sysname-qmprofile-qm1] queue 3 wrr group 1 weight 4

[Sysname-qmprofile-qm1] queue 4 wrr group 1 weight 6

[Sysname-qmprofile-qm1] queue 5 wrr group 1 weight 8

[Sysname-qmprofile-qm1] queue 6 wrr group 1 weight 10

[Sysname-qmprofile-qm1] quit

# Apply queue scheduling profile qm1 to GigabitEthernet 1/0/1.

[Sysname] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[Sysname-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] qos apply qmprofile qm1

After the configuration is completed, GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 performs queue scheduling as specified in queue scheduling profile qm1.

Display and maintenance commands for congestion management

Execute display commands in any view.

 

Task

Command

Display the configuration of queue scheduling profiles.

display qos qmprofile configuration [ profile-name ] [ slot slot-number ]

Display the queue scheduling profiles applied to interfaces.

display qos qmprofile interface [ interface-type interface-number ]

Display queue-based traffic statistics for interfaces.

display qos queue-statistics interface outbound

Display SP queuing configuration.

display qos queue sp interface [ interface-type interface-number ]

Display WRR queuing configuration.

display qos queue wrr interface [ interface-type interface-number ]

 

 


Configuring traffic filtering

About traffic filtering

You can filter in or filter out traffic of a class by associating the class with a traffic filtering action. For example, you can filter packets sourced from an IP address according to network status.

Restrictions and guidelines: Traffic filtering configuration

The device supports the following application destinations for traffic filtering:

·          Interface.

·          VLANs.

·          Globally.

·          User profile.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Define a traffic class.

a.    Create a traffic class and enter traffic class view.

traffic classifier classifier-name [ operator { and | or } ]

b.    Configure a match criterion.

if-match match-criteria

By default, no match criterion is configured.

For more information about configuring match criteria, see ACL and QoS Command Reference.

c.    Return to system view.

quit

3.        Define a traffic behavior.

a.    Create a traffic behavior and enter traffic behavior view.

traffic behavior behavior-name

b.    Configure the traffic filtering action.

filter { deny | permit }

By default, no traffic filtering action is configured.

If a traffic behavior has the filter deny action, all other actions in the traffic behavior except class-based accounting do not take effect.

c.    Return to system view.

quit

4.        Define a QoS policy.

a.    Create a QoS policy and enter QoS policy view.

qos policy policy-name

b.    Associate the traffic class with the traffic behavior in the QoS policy.

classifier classifier-name behavior behavior-name

By default, a traffic class is not associated with a traffic behavior.

c.    Return to system view.

quit

5.        Apply the QoS policy.

For more information, see "Applying the QoS policy."

By default, no QoS policy is applied.

6.        (Optional.) Display the traffic filtering configuration.

display traffic behavior user-defined [ behavior-name ]

This command is available in any view.

Traffic filtering configuration examples

Example: Configuring traffic filtering

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 15, configure traffic filtering on GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 to deny the incoming packets with a source port number other than 21.

Figure 15 Network diagram

Procedure

# Create advanced ACL 3000, and configure a rule to match packets whose source port number is not 21.

<Device> system-view

[Device] acl advanced 3000

[Device-acl-ipv4-adv-3000] rule 0 permit tcp source-port neq 21

[Device-acl-ipv4-adv-3000] quit

# Create a traffic class named classifier_1, and use ACL 3000 as the match criterion in the traffic class.

[Device] traffic classifier classifier_1

[Device-classifier-classifier_1] if-match acl 3000

[Device-classifier-classifier_1] quit

# Create a traffic behavior named behavior_1, and configure the traffic filtering action to drop packets.

[Device] traffic behavior behavior_1

[Device-behavior-behavior_1] filter deny

[Device-behavior-behavior_1] quit

# Create a QoS policy named policy, and associate traffic class classifier_1 with traffic behavior behavior_1 in the QoS policy.

[Device] qos policy policy

[Device-qospolicy-policy] classifier classifier_1 behavior behavior_1

[Device-qospolicy-policy] quit

# Apply QoS policy policy to the incoming traffic of GigabitEthernet 1/0/1.

[Device] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] qos apply policy policy inbound

 


Configuring priority marking

About priority marking

Priority marking sets the priority fields or flag bits of packets to modify the priority of packets. For example, you can use priority marking to set DSCP for a class of IP packets to control the forwarding of these packets.

To configure priority marking to set the priority fields or flag bits for a class of packets, perform the following tasks:

1.        Configure a traffic behavior with a priority marking action.

2.        Associate the traffic class with the traffic behavior.

Priority marking can be used together with priority mapping. For more information, see "Configuring priority mapping."

Configuring priority marking

Restrictions and guidelines

The device supports the following application destinations for priority marking:

·          Interface.

·          VLANs.

·          Globally.

·          User profile.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Define a traffic class.

a.    Create a traffic class and enter traffic class view.

traffic classifier classifier-name [ operator { and | or } ]

b.    Configure a match criterion.

if-match match-criteria

By default, no match criterion is configured.

For more information about the if-match command, see ACL and QoS Command Reference.

c.    Return to system view.

quit

3.        Define a traffic behavior.

a.    Create a traffic behavior and enter traffic behavior view.

traffic behavior behavior-name

b.    Configure a priority marking action.

For configurable priority marking actions, see the  remark commands in ACL and QoS Command Reference.

c.    Return to system view.

quit

4.        Define a QoS policy.

a.    Create a QoS policy and enter QoS policy view.

qos policy policy-name

b.    Associate the traffic class with the traffic behavior in the QoS policy.

classifier classifier-name behavior behavior-name

By default, a traffic class is not associated with a traffic behavior.

c.    Return to system view.

quit

5.        Apply the QoS policy.

For more information, see "Applying the QoS policy."

By default, no QoS policy is applied.

6.        (Optional.) Display the priority marking configuration.

display traffic behavior user-defined [ behavior-name ]

This command is available in any view.

Priority marking configuration examples

Example: Configuring priority marking

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 16, configure priority marking on the device to meet the following requirements:

 

Traffic source

Destination

Processing priority

Host A, B

Data server

High

Host A, B

Mail server

Medium

Host A, B

File server

Low

 

Figure 16 Network diagram

Procedure

# Create advanced ACL 3000, and configure a rule to match packets with destination IP address 192.168.0.1.

<Device> system-view

[Device] acl advanced 3000

[Device-acl-ipv4-adv-3000] rule permit ip destination 192.168.0.1 0

[Device-acl-ipv4-adv-3000] quit

# Create advanced ACL 3001, and configure a rule to match packets with destination IP address 192.168.0.2.

[Device] acl advanced 3001

[Device-acl-ipv4-adv-3001] rule permit ip destination 192.168.0.2 0

[Device-acl-ipv4-adv-3001] quit

# Create advanced ACL 3002, and configure a rule to match packets with destination IP address 192.168.0.3.

[Device] acl advanced 3002

[Device-acl-ipv4-adv-3002] rule permit ip destination 192.168.0.3 0

[Device-acl-ipv4-adv-3002] quit

# Create a traffic class named classifier_dbserver, and use ACL 3000 as the match criterion in the traffic class.

[Device] traffic classifier classifier_dbserver

[Device-classifier-classifier_dbserver] if-match acl 3000

[Device-classifier-classifier_dbserver] quit

# Create a traffic class named classifier_mserver, and use ACL 3001 as the match criterion in the traffic class.

[Device] traffic classifier classifier_mserver

[Device-classifier-classifier_mserver] if-match acl 3001

[Device-classifier-classifier_mserver] quit

# Create a traffic class named classifier_fserver, and use ACL 3002 as the match criterion in the traffic class.

[Device] traffic classifier classifier_fserver

[Device-classifier-classifier_fserver] if-match acl 3002

[Device-classifier-classifier_fserver] quit

# Create a traffic behavior named behavior_dbserver, and configure the action of setting the local precedence value to 4.

[Device] traffic behavior behavior_dbserver

[Device-behavior-behavior_dbserver] remark local-precedence 4

[Device-behavior-behavior_dbserver] quit

# Create a traffic behavior named behavior_mserver, and configure the action of setting the local precedence value to 3.

[Device] traffic behavior behavior_mserver

[Device-behavior-behavior_mserver] remark local-precedence 3

[Device-behavior-behavior_mserver] quit

# Create a traffic behavior named behavior_fserver, and configure the action of setting the local precedence value to 2.

[Device] traffic behavior behavior_fserver

[Device-behavior-behavior_fserver] remark local-precedence 2

[Device-behavior-behavior_fserver] quit

# Create a QoS policy named policy_server, and associate traffic classes with traffic behaviors in the QoS policy.

[Device] qos policy policy_server

[Device-qospolicy-policy_server] classifier classifier_dbserver behavior behavior_dbserver

[Device-qospolicy-policy_server] classifier classifier_mserver behavior behavior_mserver

[Device-qospolicy-policy_server] classifier classifier_fserver behavior behavior_fserver

[Device-qospolicy-policy_server] quit

# Apply QoS policy policy_server to the incoming traffic of GigabitEthernet 1/0/1.

[Device] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] qos apply policy policy_server inbound

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit

 


Configuring nesting

About nesting

Nesting adds a VLAN tag to the matching packets to allow the VLAN-tagged packets to pass through the corresponding VLAN. For example, you can add an outer VLAN tag to packets from a customer network to a service provider network. This allows the packets to pass through the service provider network by carrying a VLAN tag assigned by the service provider.

Restrictions and guidelines: Nesting configuration

The device supports the following application destinations in the inbound direction for nesting:

·          Interface.

·          VLANs.

·          Globally.

·          User profile.

If QinQ has been enabled on the interface and the nesting action is associated with a VLAN ID match criterion, the nesting action might not take effect. For the nesting action to take effect, the interface must allow the matching packets to pass tagged.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Define a traffic class.

a.    Create a traffic class and enter traffic class view.

traffic classifier classifier-name [ operator { and | or } ]

b.    Configure a match criterion.

if-match match-criteria

By default, no match criterion is configured for a traffic class.

For more information about the match criteria, see the if-match command in ACL and QoS Command Reference.

c.    Return to system view.

quit

3.        Define a traffic behavior.

a.    Create a traffic behavior and enter traffic behavior view.

traffic behavior behavior-name

b.    Configure an outer VLAN tag adding action.

nest top-most vlan vlan-id

By default, no outer VLAN tag adding action is configured for a traffic behavior.

c.    Return to system view.

quit

4.        Define a QoS policy.

a.    Create a QoS policy and enter QoS policy view.

qos policy policy-name

b.    Associate the traffic class with the traffic behavior in the QoS policy.

classifier classifier-name behavior behavior-name

By default, a traffic class is not associated with a traffic behavior.

c.    Return to system view.

quit

5.        Apply the QoS policy.

For more information, see "Applying the QoS policy."

By default, no QoS policy is applied.

6.        (Optional.) Display the nesting configuration.

display traffic behavior user-defined [ behavior-name ]

This command is available in any view.

Nesting configuration examples

Example: Configuring nesting

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 17:

·          Site 1 and Site 2 in VPN A are two branches of a company. They use VLAN 5 to transmit traffic.

·          Because Site 1 and Site 2 are located in different areas, the two sites use the VPN access service of a service provider. The service provider assigns VLAN 100 to the two sites.

Configure nesting, so that the two branches can communicate through the service provider network.

Figure 17 Network diagram

Procedure

1.        Configuring PE 1:

# Create a traffic class named test to match traffic with VLAN ID 5.

<PE1> system-view

[PE1] traffic classifier test

[PE1-classifier-test] if-match service-vlan-id 5

[PE1-classifier-test] quit

# Configure an action to add outer VLAN tag 100 in traffic behavior test.

[PE1] traffic behavior test

[PE1-behavior-test] nest top-most vlan 100

[PE1-behavior-test] quit

# Create a QoS policy named test, and associate class test with behavior test in the QoS policy.

[PE1] qos policy test

[PE1-qospolicy-test] classifier test behavior test

[PE1-qospolicy-test] quit

# Configure the downlink port (GigabitEthernet 1/0/1) as a hybrid port, and assign the port to VLAN 100 as an untagged member.

[PE1] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] port link-type hybrid

[PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] port hybrid vlan 100 untagged

# Apply QoS policy test to the incoming traffic of GigabitEthernet 1/0/1.

[PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] qos apply policy test inbound

[PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit

# Configure the uplink port (GigabitEthernet 1/0/2) as a trunk port, and assign it to VLAN 100.

[PE1] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/2

[PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] port link-type trunk

[PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] port trunk permit vlan 100

[PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/2] quit

2.        Configuring PE 2:

Configure PE 2 in the same way PE 1 is configured.

 


Configuring traffic redirecting

About traffic redirecting

Traffic redirecting redirects packets matching the specified match criteria to a location for processing.

You can redirect packets to the following destinations:

·          CPU.

·          Interface.

Restrictions and guidelines: Traffic redirecting configuration

·          The device supports the following application destinations in the inbound direction for traffic redirecting:

¡  Interface.

¡  VLANs.

¡  Globally.

¡  User profile.

·          If you execute the redirect command multiple times, the most recent configuration takes effect.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Define a traffic class.

a.    Create a traffic class and enter traffic class view.

traffic classifier classifier-name [ operator { and | or } ]

b.    Configure a match criterion.

if-match match-criteria

By default, no match criterion is configured for a traffic class.

For more information about the match criteria, see the if-match command in ACL and QoS Command Reference.

c.    Return to system view.

quit

3.        Define a traffic behavior.

a.    Create a traffic behavior and enter traffic behavior view.

traffic behavior behavior-name

b.    Configure a traffic redirecting action.

redirect { cpu | interface interface-type interface-number }

By default, no traffic redirecting action is configured for a traffic behavior.

c.    Return to system view.

quit

4.        Define a QoS policy.

a.    Create a QoS policy and enter QoS policy view.

qos policy policy-name

b.    Associate the traffic class with the traffic behavior in the QoS policy.

classifier classifier-name behavior behavior-name

By default, a traffic class is not associated with a traffic behavior.

c.    Return to system view.

quit

5.        Apply the QoS policy.

For more information, see "Applying the QoS policy."

By default, no QoS policy is applied.

6.        (Optional.) Display traffic redirecting configuration.

display traffic behavior user-defined [ behavior-name ]

This command is available in any view.

Traffic redirecting configuration examples

Example: Configuring traffic redirecting

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 18:

·          Device A is connected to Device B through two links. Device A and Device B are each connected to other devices.

·          GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 of Device A is a trunk port and belongs to VLAN 200 and VLAN 201.

·          GigabitEthernet 1/0/2 of Device A and GigabitEthernet 1/0/2 of Device B belong to VLAN 200.

·          GigabitEthernet 1/0/3 of Device A and GigabitEthernet 1/0/3 of Device B belong to VLAN 201.

·          On Device A, the IP address of VLAN-interface 200 is 200.1.1.1/24, and that of VLAN-interface 201 is 201.1.1.1/24.

·          On Device B, the IP address of VLAN-interface 200 is 200.1.1.2/24, and that of VLAN-interface 201 is 201.1.1.2/24.

Configure the actions of redirecting traffic to an interface to meet the following requirements:

·          Packets with source IP address 2.1.1.1 received on GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 of Device A are forwarded to GigabitEthernet 1/0/2.

·          Packets with source IP address 2.1.1.2 received on GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 of Device A are forwarded to GigabitEthernet 1/0/3.

·          Other packets received on GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 of Device A are forwarded according to the routing table.

Figure 18 Network diagram

Procedure

# Create basic ACL 2000, and configure a rule to match packets with source IP address 2.1.1.1.

<DeviceA> system-view

[DeviceA] acl basic 2000

[DeviceA-acl-ipv4-basic-2000] rule permit source 2.1.1.1 0

[DeviceA-acl-ipv4-basic-2000] quit

# Create basic ACL 2001, and configure a rule to match packets with source IP address 2.1.1.2.

[DeviceA] acl basic 2001

[DeviceA-acl-ipv4-basic-2001] rule permit source 2.1.1.2 0

[DeviceA-acl-ipv4-basic-2001] quit

# Create a traffic class named classifier_1, and use ACL 2000 as the match criterion in the traffic class.

[DeviceA] traffic classifier classifier_1

[DeviceA-classifier-classifier_1] if-match acl 2000

[DeviceA-classifier-classifier_1] quit

# Create a traffic class named classifier_2, and use ACL 2001 as the match criterion in the traffic class.

[DeviceA] traffic classifier classifier_2

[DeviceA-classifier-classifier_2] if-match acl 2001

[DeviceA-classifier-classifier_2] quit

# Create a traffic behavior named behavior_1, and configure the action of redirecting traffic to GigabitEthernet 1/0/2.

[DeviceA] traffic behavior behavior_1

[DeviceA-behavior-behavior_1] redirect interface gigabitethernet 1/0/2

[DeviceA-behavior-behavior_1] quit

# Create a traffic behavior named behavior_2, and configure the action of redirecting traffic to GigabitEthernet 1/0/3.

[DeviceA] traffic behavior behavior_2

[DeviceA-behavior-behavior_2] redirect interface gigabitethernet 1/0/3

[DeviceA-behavior-behavior_2] quit

# Create a QoS policy named policy.

[DeviceA] qos policy policy

# Associate traffic class classifier_1 with traffic behavior behavior_1 in the QoS policy.

[DeviceA-qospolicy-policy] classifier classifier_1 behavior behavior_1

# Associate traffic class classifier_2 with traffic behavior behavior_2 in the QoS policy.

[DeviceA-qospolicy-policy] classifier classifier_2 behavior behavior_2

[DeviceA-qospolicy-policy] quit

# Apply QoS policy policy to the incoming traffic of GigabitEthernet 1/0/1.

[DeviceA] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[DeviceA-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] qos apply policy policy inbound

 


Configuring global CAR

About global CAR

Global committed access rate (CAR) is an approach to policing traffic flows globally. It adds flexibility to common CAR where traffic policing is performed only on a per-traffic class or per-interface basis. In this approach, CAR actions are created in system view and each can be used to police multiple traffic flows as a whole.

Global CAR provides the following CAR actions: aggregate CAR and hierarchical CAR.

Aggregate CAR

An aggregate CAR action is created globally. It can be directly applied to interfaces or used in the traffic behaviors associated with different traffic classes to police multiple traffic flows as a whole. The total rate of the traffic flows must conform to the traffic policing specifications set in the aggregate CAR action.

Hierarchical CAR

A hierarchical CAR action is created globally. It must be used in conjunction with a common CAR or aggregate CAR action. With a hierarchical CAR action, you can limit the total traffic of multiple traffic classes.

A hierarchical CAR action can be used in the common or aggregate CAR action for a traffic class in either AND mode or OR mode.

·          In AND mode, the rate of the traffic class is strictly limited under the common or aggregate CAR. This mode applies to flows that must be strictly rate limited.

·          In OR mode, the traffic class can use idle bandwidth of other traffic classes associated with the hierarchical CAR. This mode applies to high priority, bursty traffic like video.

By using the two modes appropriately, you can improve bandwidth efficiency.

For example, suppose two flows exist: a low priority data flow and a high priority, bursty video flow. Their total traffic rate cannot exceed 4096 kbps and the video flow must be assured of at least 2048 kbps bandwidth. You can perform the following tasks:

·          Configure common CAR actions to set the traffic rate to 2048 kbps for the two flows.

·          Configure a hierarchical CAR action to limit their total traffic rate to 4096 kbps.

·          Use the action in AND mode in the common CAR action for the data flow.

·          Use the action in OR mode in the common CAR action for the video flow.

The video flow is assured of 2048 kbps bandwidth and can use idle bandwidth of the data flow.

In a bandwidth oversubscription scenario, the uplink port bandwidth is lower than the total downlink port traffic rate. You can use hierarchical CAR to meet the following requirements:

·          Limit the total rate of downlink port traffic.

·          Allow each downlink port to forward traffic at the maximum rate when the other ports are idle.

For example, you can perform the following tasks:

·          Use common CAR actions to limit the rates of Internet access flow 1 and flow 2 to both 128 kbps.

·          Use a hierarchical CAR action to limit their total traffic rate to 192 kbps.

·          Use the hierarchical CAR action for both flow 1 and flow 2 in AND mode.

When flow 1 is not present, flow 2 is transmitted at the maximum rate, 128 kbps. When both flows are present, the total rate of the two flows cannot exceed 192 kbps. As a result, the traffic rate of flow 2 might drop below 128 kbps.

Restrictions and guidelines: Global CAR configuration

·          Only aggregate CAR is supported in the current software version.

·          The device supports the following application destinations in the inbound direction for aggregate CAR:

¡  Interface.

¡  VLANs.

¡  Globally.

¡  User profile.

Configuring aggregate CAR

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Define a traffic class.

a.    Create a traffic class and enter traffic class view.

traffic classifier classifier-name [ operator { and | or } ]

b.    Configure a match criterion.

if-match match-criteria

By default, no match criterion is configured.

For configurable match criteria, see the if-match command in ACL and QoS Command Reference.

c.    Return to system view.

quit

3.        Configure an aggregate CAR action.

qos car car-name aggregative cir committed-information-rate [ cbs committed-burst-size [ ebs excess-burst-size ] ] [ green action | red action | yellow action ] *

qos car car-name aggregative cir committed-information-rate [ cbs committed-burst-size ] pir peak-information-rate [ ebs excess-burst-size ] [ green action | red action | yellow action ] *

By default, no aggregate CAR action is configured.

4.        Define a traffic behavior.

a.    Enter traffic behavior view.

traffic behavior behavior-name

b.    Use the aggregate CAR in the traffic behavior.

car name car-name

By default, no aggregate CAR action is used in a traffic behavior.

5.        Apply the QoS policy.

For more information, see "Applying the QoS policy."

By default, no QoS policy is applied.

Display and maintenance commands for global CAR

Execute display commands in any view and reset commands in user view.

 

Task

Command

Display statistics for global CAR actions.

display qos car name [ car-name ]

Clear statistics for global CAR actions.

reset qos car name [ car-name ]

 

 


Configuring class-based accounting

About class-based accounting

Class-based accounting collects statistics on a per-traffic class basis. For example, you can define the action to collect statistics for traffic sourced from a certain IP address. By analyzing the statistics, you can determine whether anomalies have occurred and what action to take.

Restrictions and guidelines: Class-based accounting configuration

The device supports the following application destinations for class-based accounting:

·          Interface.

·          VLANs.

·          Globally.

·          User profile.

Procedure

1.        Enter system view.

system-view

2.        Define a traffic class.

a.    Create a traffic class and enter traffic class view.

traffic classifier classifier-name [ operator { and | or } ]

b.    Configure a match criterion.

if-match match-criteria

By default, no match criterion is configured.

For more information about the if-match command, see ACL and QoS Command Reference.

c.    Return to system view.

quit

3.        Define a traffic behavior.

a.    Create a traffic behavior and enter traffic behavior view.

traffic behavior behavior-name

b.    Configure an accounting action.

accounting { byte | packet }

By default, no traffic accounting action is configured.

c.    Return to system view.

quit

4.        Define a QoS policy.

a.    Create a QoS policy and enter QoS policy view.

qos policy policy-name

b.    Associate the traffic class with the traffic behavior in the QoS policy.

classifier classifier-name behavior behavior-name

By default, a traffic class is not associated with a traffic behavior.

c.    Return to system view.

quit

5.        Apply the QoS policy.

For more information, see "Applying the QoS policy."

By default, no QoS policy is applied.

6.        (Optional.) Display the class-based accounting configuration.

display traffic behavior user-defined [ behavior-name ]

Class-based accounting configuration examples

Example: Configuring class-based accounting

Network configuration

As shown in Figure 19, configure class-based accounting on GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 to collect statistics for incoming traffic from 1.1.1.1/24.

Figure 19 Network diagram

Procedure

# Create basic ACL 2000, and configure a rule to match packets with source IP address 1.1.1.1.

<Device> system-view

[Device] acl basic 2000

[Device-acl-ipv4-basic-2000] rule permit source 1.1.1.1 0

[Device-acl-ipv4-basic-2000] quit

# Create a traffic class named classifier_1, and use ACL 2000 as the match criterion in the traffic class.

[Device] traffic classifier classifier_1

[Device-classifier-classifier_1] if-match acl 2000

[Device-classifier-classifier_1] quit

# Create a traffic behavior named behavior_1, and configure the class-based accounting action.

[Device] traffic behavior behavior_1

[Device-behavior-behavior_1] accounting packet

[Device-behavior-behavior_1] quit

# Create a QoS policy named policy, and associate traffic class classifier_1 with traffic behavior behavior_1 in the QoS policy.

[Device] qos policy policy

[Device-qospolicy-policy] classifier classifier_1 behavior behavior_1

[Device-qospolicy-policy] quit

# Apply QoS policy policy to the incoming traffic of GigabitEthernet 1/0/1.

[Device] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] qos apply policy policy inbound

[Device-GigabitEthernet1/0/1] quit

# Display traffic statistics to verify the configuration.

[Device] display qos policy interface gigabitethernet 1/0/1

Interface: GigabitEthernet1/0/1

  Direction: Inbound

  Policy: policy

   Classifier: classifier_1

     Operator: AND

     Rule(s) :

      If-match acl 2000

     Behavior: behavior_1

      Accounting enable:

        28529 (Packets)

 


Appendixes

Appendix A Acronyms

Table 2 Appendix A Acronyms

Acronym

Full spelling

BE

Best Effort

CAR

Committed Access Rate

CBS

Committed Burst Size

CIR

Committed Information Rate

DiffServ

Differentiated Service

DSCP

Differentiated Services Code Point

EBS

Excess Burst Size

FIFO

First in First out

GTS

Generic Traffic Shaping

IntServ

Integrated Service

ISP

Internet Service Provider

PE

Provider Edge

PIR

Peak Information Rate

QoS

Quality of Service

RSVP

Resource Reservation Protocol

ToS

Type of Service

VPN

Virtual Private Network

WRR

Weighted Round Robin

 

Appendix B Default priority maps

For the default dscp-dscp priority map, an input value yields a target value equal to it.

Table 3 Default dot1p-lp priority map

Input priority value

dot1p-lp map

dot1p

lp

0

2

1

0

2

1

3

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

7

7

 

Table 4 Default dscp-dot1p priority map

Input priority value

dscp-dot1p map

dscp

dot1p

0 to 7

0

8 to 15

1

16 to 23

2

24 to 31

3

32 to 39

4

40 to 47

5

48 to 55

6

56 to 63

7

 

Table 5 Default port priority-local priority map

Port priority

Local precedence

0

0

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

7

7

 

Appendix C Introduction to packet precedence

IP precedence and DSCP values

Figure 20 ToS and DS fields

 

As shown in Figure 20, the ToS field in the IP header contains 8 bits. The first 3 bits (0 to 2) represent IP precedence from 0 to 7. According to RFC 2474, the ToS field is redefined as the differentiated services (DS) field. A DSCP value is represented by the first 6 bits (0 to 5) of the DS field and is in the range 0 to 63. The remaining 2 bits (6 and 7) are reserved.

Table 6 IP precedence

IP precedence (decimal)

IP precedence (binary)

Description

0

000

Routine

1

001

priority

2

010

immediate

3

011

flash

4

100

flash-override

5

101

critical

6

110

internet

7

111

network

 

Table 7 DSCP values

DSCP value (decimal)

DSCP value (binary)

Description

46

101110

ef

10

001010

af11

12

001100

af12

14

001110

af13

18

010010

af21

20

010100

af22

22

010110

af23

26

011010

af31

28

011100

af32

30

011110

af33

34

100010

af41

36

100100

af42

38

100110

af43

8

001000

cs1

16

010000

cs2

24

011000

cs3

32

100000

cs4

40

101000

cs5

48

110000

cs6

56

111000

cs7

0

000000

be (default)

 

802.1p priority

802.1p priority lies in the Layer 2 header. It applies to occasions where Layer 3 header analysis is not needed and QoS must be assured at Layer 2.

Figure 21 An Ethernet frame with an 802.1Q tag header

 

As shown in Figure 21, the 4-byte 802.1Q tag header contains the 2-byte tag protocol identifier (TPID) and the 2-byte tag control information (TCI). The value of the TPID is 0x8100. Figure 22 shows the format of the 802.1Q tag header. The Priority field in the 802.1Q tag header is called 802.1p priority, because its use is defined in IEEE 802.1p. Table 8 shows the values for 802.1p priority.

Figure 22 802.1Q tag header

 

Table 8 Description on 802.1p priority

802.1p priority (decimal)

802.1p priority (binary)

Description

0

000

best-effort

1

001

background

2

010

spare

3

011

excellent-effort

4

100

controlled-load

5

101

video

6

110

voice

7

111

network-management